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2 Session Agenda Military-connected children and families 2011- Strengthening Our Military Families Interstate Compact on Educational Opportunity for Military Children 2012-Education of the Military Family in the 21st Century White House Initiative - Operation Educate the Educators Supporting gifted military-connected children and adolescents Recommendations for gifted education research National University School of Education 2

3 Military-Connected Children and Families In 2011, 1.9 million children had at least one parent serving in the military. 220,000 children had a parent who was deployed. In 2009, 30% of service members were deployed more than once. Average deployment lasts 12 to 15 months. Increased involvement and deployment of National Guard and Reserve forces. (Aronson et al., 2011; Military Child Education Coaltion, 2012) 3

4 Family Experiences Frequent relocations, school transitions, and long separations. Child in military family moves an average of 6 to 9 times over K-12 school career. Only 7% of children of active-duty service members are served by military base schools. (Esqueda, et al., 2012; Interagency Policy Committee, 2011; Military K-12 Partners, 2013) 4

5 Problems Encountered During School Transitions School calendars inconsistent. Loss of credit due to move from traditional to block schedule. Differences in curricula, scope and sequence. Different requirements for high school graduation. Challenges due to high-stakes testing. Limited ability to accommodate students for extracurricular activities. Variation in quality of partnerships between schools and military installations. (Military Child Education Coalition, 2012) 5

6 Issues For Gifted Military-Connected Students Inconsistency in programs and services from state to state and district to district. Delays in transferring records, which could mean delay in providing services. Differing requirements, so would have to re-qualify for inclusion in a program. States where gifted program is part of special education might require IEP. (Military Child Education Coalition, 2012) 6

7 Social-Emotional Issues For All Students Connecting with peers  Leaving old friends, sustaining relationships  Making new friends  Breaking into existing social networks Adjusting to new community Dealing with deployment  Pre-deployment  Deployment  Return from deployment 7

8 Transitional Issues for Gifted Students Some high-achieving students may experience loss of achievement or failure moving from middle school to high school (Smith, 2006). Academically promising low-income minority youth more vulnerable to decline in academic motivation when moving to ninth grade (Newman, et al., 2000). African American students are less likely to have support from African American peers for academic excellence (Newman, et al., 2000). 8

9 Additional Issues for Gifted Students Intensity and sensitivity may affect responses to major stressors, such as family relocating (Lovecky, 1992). Adults may not provide emotional support when needed because gifted children perceived as more able (Peterson, 2003). Students with high ability experiencing high distress do not often reveal that distress to parents or adults (Peterson, et al., 2009). Gifted students tend to have more social than academic concerns (feelings of social deficiency, problems with peers) during and after transitions (Peterson, et al., 2009). 9

10 Resilience in Gifted Children Stressful events can lead to resilience. High-achieving students often maintain high levels of achievement that help them maintain achievement during high-stress life events (Peterson et al., 2009). Some gifted students may be more likely to have heightened self- concept and be more mature than age-peers (Plucker, 1999). 10

11 Resilience in Military-Connected Children With multiple moves,  More able to deal with transitions.  More able to blend in with new social context.  More adaptable to new cultures.  More accepting of diversity. Children often take on more responsibility in family when parent deployed.  Positive, if child developmentally ready. (Bradshaw et al., 2010). Resilience in military families dependent on  Successful formal and informal networks.  Military  Community – family, school, mental health professionals, organizations, etc. (Aronson et al., 2011) 11

12 2011 – Strengthening Our Military Families 12 Priority #1 – Enhance the overall well-being and psychological health of the military family. Priority #2 – Ensure excellence in military children’s education and their development. Priority #3 – Developing career and educational opportunities for military spouses. Priority #4 – Increasing child care availability and quality within the Armed Forces. (Interagency Policy Committee, 2011)

13 #2 - Ensure excellence in military children’s education and their development. Need 2.1 – Improve the quality of the educational experience.  Commitment - Include grant programs to meet the needs of military-connected students.  DOE/DODEA offers grants specific to military programs -  Commitment - Support math and science achievement.  Commitment - Make DoDEA schools leaders in using advanced learning technologies. 13

14 Priority #2 Need 2.2 – Reduce negative impacts of frequent relocations and absences.  Commitment - Develop Interstate Compact on Educational Opportunity for Military Children.  Commitment - Accelerate professional development for school staff regarding academic needs, including special education. Need 2.3 – Encourage the healthy development of military children.  Commitment – Partner with 4H clubs, youth programs, educational, recreational, and cultural programs. (Interagency Policy Committee, 2011) 14

15 Interstate Compact on Educational Opportunity for Military Children Created to “reduce or eliminate barriers to educational success for children in military families as they transition between schools and across state lines” (Esqueda et al., p. 67, 2012). In 2009, only 43% of DoDEA parents gave positive ratings to their children’s civilian schools (Tunac de Pedro et al., 2011). 46 states now have compacts, most recently Idaho and Montana (MIC3, 2013). 97% of active duty military children are now covered by a compact (MIC3, 2013). 15

16 Who Is Eligible for Assistance Under the Compact? 16 Children of  Active duty members of the uniformed services.  National Guard and Reserve on active duty orders.  Members or veterans who are medically discharged or retired for (1) year.  Members who die on active duty.

17 Highlights for Gifted Students Article IV - Educational and Enrollment Records  Receiving state shall allow student to continue enrollment at grade level from sending state.  Gifted students accelerated by grade should be enrolled in that grade. Article VII - Graduation Specific required courses waived if similar course completed. Exit or end-of-course exams accepted. 17

18 Highlights for Gifted Students Article V - Placement and Attendance  Gifted students should receive appropriate placement for honors and AP courses.  Gifted students should receive appropriate placement in gifted programs.  Gifted students should receive excused absences related to family member’s deployment. Article VI - Eligibility for Enrollment  Gifted students should be able to participate in extracurricular activities, regardless of deadlines. 18

19 Education of the Military Child in the 21 st Century Identified transitional issues. Many schools offered support programs and services, but teachers not aware of or knowledgeable about them. Students still required to re-test to qualify for gifted and special needs programs. Many school districts not aware that their states have signed the Compact or what the provisions are. (Military Child Education Coalition, 2012) 19

20 White House Initiative “Operation Educate the Educators” Dr. Jill Biden urges teacher-preparation universities to prepare educators to serve military-connected students. The emphasis of the program is to inform and train military- connected teachers on how to best support over 1.3 million military-students who are found across America in every school district. The vast majority of students are public school students, not in DoDEA schools 20

21 Supporting Gifted Military-Connected Children and Adolescents Don’t assume, because they’re gifted, that gifted children don’t need support. Listen to their concerns and discuss their worries. Show your appreciation of their family’s service. Educate yourself about military life. Help them get involved in organizations that will help them find their interests and talents. Military and gifted kids understand the value of service. Encourage them to lead a community service project. 21

22 More Ways to Support Involve your school in the MCEC Student 2 Student program. Celebrate the Month of the Military Child in April. Connect with the non-deployed parent. Be aware of the dates of the parent’s departure and return from deployment. Create a photo album, scrapbook, video, or other memento for a child who is moving. Ask a local Wounded Warrior program representative to conduct a workshop about the needs of combat-injured families. Find more ideas with the National Military Family Association’s Toolkits (see Additional Resources). 22

23 Advice for GT Parents From a Military Spouse and Former Military Child Continue family traditions. Explore new community together. Join an organization as a family. Help your child obtain “portable achievements” – help them find a niche in the community. Remember that some gifted children like the change that a move brings – new challenges, tests of self. Remind them that it’s OK to be alone and solitude can be positive and creative. Summer camps and programs can provide consistency over moves. There will be change with every move, so develop family goals for each one. (O’Beirne, 1981) 23

24 Recommendations for Gifted Education Research Examine the unique needs of gifted military- connected children in public schools. Determine the efficacy of districts and schools in addressing the academic, emotional, psychological, and social needs of gifted military-connected children. Identify practices that are successful in supporting gifted military-connected children in transition. Examine performance outcomes of gifted military- connected students, due to the changes schools make according to the state compacts. 24

25 Research Recommendations Examine elements of a supportive school climate and their effect on the performance of gifted military- connected students. Examine effects of academic and family experiences of gifted military-connected students on college and postsecondary plans. Examine the use of homeschooling and online-learning by families of gifted military-connected students. Consider military children as a cultural group in future research. Explore implications for gifted migrant students, who are also highly mobile. (Esqueda et al., 2012; Tunac de Pedro et al., 2011) 25

26 National University NU-P20 NB Leadership Center The National University National Board Leadership Center serves educators in all 50 states and internationally. The center is proud to have been selected by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards(NBPTS) to serve in this capacity and to inspire teachers through a range of options, resources, and events. 26

27 National University’s fit?  Partner with PK-12 schools  Develop networks  Offer Support-training and tools 27

28 Military-Connected Educators: Teachers, School Counselors, Administrators --Join Our DoDEA or Military Cohort! Join this cohort that is being developed exclusively for teachers working with military –connected students! Class discussions will allow opportunity to talk to other teachers from across the nation about how to best support the unique challenges faced by military- connected students.

29 FREE On-Line Professional Development Thursday, September 5, 2013 6 PM PDT (9 PM EDT) Supporting Military-Connected Students and Families Topics Discussed: Military Interstate Compact Common Core State Standards National Board Certification Teacher Preparation with NBCTs Relocation and Deployment Challenges 29

30 References Arnold, P., Garner, J., Neale-McFall, C., & Nunnery, J. (2011). Needs of military- connected students in southeast Virginia. Report for the Center for Educational Partnerships at Old Dominion University. Retrieved from http://education.odu. edu/tcep/docs/NeedsofMilitaryConnectedSchoolDivisionsinSEVirgina.pdf Aronson, K. R., Caldwell, L. L., & Perkins, D. F. (2011). Assisting children and families with military-related disruptions: The United States Marine Corps School Liaison Program. Psychology in the Schools, 48(10), 998-1015. doi: 10.1002/pits.20608 Bradshaw, C. P., Sudhinaraset, M., Mmari, K., & Blum, R. W. (2010). School transitions among military adolescents: A qualitative study of stress and coping. School Psychology Review, 39(1), 84-105. Esqueda, M. C., Astor, R. A., & Tunac de Pedro, K. M. (2012). A call to duty: Educational policy and school reform addressing the needs of children from military families. Educational Researcher, 41(2), 65-70. doi: 10.3102/0013189X11432139 30

31 References Interagency Policy Committee. (2011). Strengthening our military families: Meeting America’s commitment. Retrieved from 2011/011_initiative/Strengthening_our_Military_January_2011.pdf Military Child Education Coalition. (2012). Education of the military child in the 21 st century: Current dimensions of educational experiences for Army children. Retrieved from Military K-12 Partners. (2013). All about military K-12 partners. Retrieved from Newman, B. M., Myers, M. C., Newman, P. R., Lohman, B. J., & Smith, V. L. (2000). The transition to high school for academically promising, urban, low-income African American youth. Adolescence, 35(137), 45-66. O’Beirne, K. P. (1981). Portable taproots for gifted, creative, and talented children. Gifted Child Today, 4(52), 52-54. doi: 10.1177/107621758100400120 31

32 References Peterson, J. S. (2003). An argument for proactive attention to affective concerns of gifted adolescents. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 14(2)., 62-70. Peterson, J., Duncan, N., & Canady, K. (2009). A longitudinal study of negative life events, stress, and school experiences of gifted youth. Gifted Child Quarterly, 53(1), 34-49. doi: 10.1177/0016986208326553 Plucker, J. A. (1999). The effect of relocation on gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 43(2), 95-106. doi: 10.1177/001698629904300206 Smith, J. S. (2006). Examining the long-term impact of achievement loss during the transition to high school. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 17(4), 211-221. Tunac de Pedro, K. M., Astor, R. A., Benbenishty, R., & Estrada, J. (2011). The children of military service members: Challenges, supports, and future educational research. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 566-618. Doi: 10.3102/0034654311423537 32

33 References U.S. Department of Defense. (2011). Educational options & performance of military- connected school districts. (DoD Report 1055 ReflD: 8-19E210C). Retrieved from options.pdf 33

34 Additional Resources Military Child Education Coalition, Student 2 Student Program Military Interstate Children’s Compact Commission (2013). Guide for parents, school officials and public administrators: Interstate Commission on Educational Opportunity for Military Children. Retrieved from resources/documents/ParentGuideApr2013_000.pdf National Military Family Association. (2011). Finding common ground: A toolkit for communities supporting military families. Retrieved from PDF.pdf National Military Family Association. (2010). We serve, too. A toolkit about military kids. Retrieved from toolkit/ 34

35 Additional Resources National Military Family Association. (2010). We serve, too. A toolkit about military teens. Retrieved from toolkit/ U. S. Department of Defense. (n.d.). Educator’s guide to the military child during deployment. Retrieved from homefront.pdf More links to websites available at 35

36 Contact Information Susan E. Jackson, PhD    Twitter – @gtsp1 Amanda Trimillos, NBCT  o 36


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