Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Understanding Individuals Within Environments Chapter 5.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Understanding Individuals Within Environments Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Individuals Within Environments Chapter 5

2 Activity?  Write down 2 classes you’ve taken that are very different.  What skills did you need in order to be successful in that class?  How did the different environments help you learn? Not help you learn? 2

3 6 Models of Ecological Environment 3 (1) Behavior Setting Analysis (Roger Barker) (2) Activity Settings (O’Donnel, et al.) (3) Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) (4) Social Climate Perspective (Rudolph Moos) (5) Social Regularities (Edward Seidman) (6) Environmntal Psychology

4 3 Models of Ecological Environment 4 (1) Behavior Setting Analysis (Roger Barker) – Discrete places (2) Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) – Field Biology as Metaphor (3) Social Climate Perspective (Rudolph Moos) – Personality of the Environment

5 Model 1: Behavior Setting Theory (Roger Barker) 5 Fundamental Question: “How do we understand stream of behavior that characterizes our everyday life?” Eco-behavioral science independent of individuals – Discovery of rules that are minimally variable by context

6 One Boy’s Day: The Evolution of a Theory 6  Behavior setting as central concept  Behavior-environment synomorphy

7 7 When in church, we behave….

8 8 When at a sporting event, we behave…

9 Circuits 9  Circuits: mechanisms that guide adaptive behavior in settings, connect people to settings  4 types of circuits 1. Program circuits 2. Goal circuits 3. Deviation-countering circuits 4. Vetoing circuits

10 Uses of Behavior Setting Analysis 10  Providing portraits of what aspects of communities are important locally # churches # schools # athletic facilities  Diagnosing community needs What is missing?  Needed programs/organizations

11 11

12 Staffing Theory 12 # people Available behavior settings  Under-populated settings – Greater claims on people  Fewer people per setting  Over-populated settings – Less claim on people

13 Size Matters: Big School/Small School 13 Study of 20 high schools in Kansas that differed in student population (range: students) Begins with behavior setting survey – Classes – Extracurricular activities – Sports # of behavior settings # of students

14 Smaller Schools 14  more involved in school activities  worked longer hours at school-related activities  worked at greater diversity of tasks  became more generalists than specialists

15 Findings 15  Smaller schools: fewer students per behavior (i.e., more claim on students) Student Council Soccer Team Choir Band

16 Smaller Schools 16  Felt less marginal to ongoing life of school  More a part of the school/investment in it  More roles of responsibility  Assessed value of others more in task-related than socio-emotional characteristics  Lower standards for admission into behavior settings

17 Larger Schools 17  Higher specialized skill development  More diversity of opportunities in classes & extracurricular activities  More ability to hide when you want to

18 Findings 18  Larger schools: more students per behavior (i.e., less claim on students) Student Council Soccer Team Choir Band

19 3 Models of Ecological Environment 19 (1) Behavior Setting Analysis (Roger Barker) – Discrete places (2) Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) – Field Biology as Metaphor (3) Social Climate Perspective (Rudolph Moos) – Personality of the Environment

20 Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) 20  4 principles from field biology Adaptation Cycling of resources Interdependence Succession

21 Ecological Metaphor: (1) Adaptation 21  Every community has both opportunities for development & demands for survival  Expectations / Demands  Formal vs. Informal  Opportunities  What are the adaptive requirements of UML as a college environment?

22 Adaptation & Coping 22  The Adaptation Question: “How do I have to behave to survive/thrive here?”  Behavior  Treat others  The Coping Question: “What skills, qualities, & coping styles does the community support & tolerate, & what does it not?”  Interpersonal  Academic

23 Where do these adaptive requirements occur at UML? 23  Social Settings  Classrooms  Organizations  Studying Abroad  Athletics  Social Norms  Peers  Faculty  Policies  Tuition  Requirements

24 Ecological Metaphor: (2) Cycling of Resources 24 Focus: Search for positive aspects of community How resources that nurture growth of development of community are distributed, managed, & conserved Question: “What resources are available in this community for making it a better place?” Think: What have been resources in your life generally? At UML?

25 Types of Resources 25  Formal: Role responsibilities  Informal: Non-role related qualities of people within setting, Not required Manifest: On the surface, easy to recognize Latent: Not expressed in the ongoing daily environment

26 4 Main Types of Resources 26  People  Settings  Events  Technology

27 Ecological Model: (3) Interdependence 27  Parts of a community are related  Research Question: “How are people, agencies, & institutions linked to each other in the community?”  Setting off chains of events in individual lives  If only I hadn’t……  (you fill it in)

28 28

29 Ecological Metaphor: (4) Succession 29  Communities change over time in response to internal & external forces  Community Question: “How did that community come to be the way it currently is & what are its hopes for the future?”

30 Ecological Metaphor: (4) Succession Principle 30 Focus on – History – Hopes – Trajectory Provides an empathy for current issues even if you hate what you see

31 31 Southwick Hall Lowell Techology Institute 1903 Coburn Hall Lowell State College 1899

32 Ecological Metaphor: (4) Succession 32  Goals & values of helping agent must be generally consistent with setting  Other goals may be pursued, but conflict should be expected.  Sustainability should be a goal

33 Ecological Model: Summary 33  Adaptation: What are the adaptive requirements?  Cycling of Resources: What are the available resources?  Interdependence: How are its different parts connected?  Succession: How did it come to be as it is and what are its hopes for the future?

34 3 Models of Ecological Environment 34 (1) Behavior Setting Analysis (Roger Barker) – Discrete places (2) Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) – Field Biology as Metaphor (3) Social Climate Perspective (Rudolph Moos) – Personality of the Environment

35 Model 3: Social Climate Approach (Rudolph Moos) 35  Focus: high impact environments  Question: Can environment be described in terms of perceptions of people in it?  3 Environmental Domains 1) Relationships  Quality 2) Authority Structure  Rules & regulations 3) Personal Development/Goal orientation  Reasons for being in the setting

36 36

37 Where Does Social Climate Come From? 37  School & context factors  Physical/architectural features  Organizational factors  Teacher characteristics  Aggregate students characteristics

38 A Model of Determinants of Classroom Climate 38 School and Classroom Context Physical and Architectural Features Aggregate Student Characteristics Teacher Characteristics Organizational Factors Classroom Climate

39 4 Ways of Defining Neighborhoods Site (geographical location)  census tracts 2. Perception  of neighboring practices, of crime level, of housing 3. Social network  interpersonal connections 4. Culture  historical/cultural quest

40 Neighborhood Risk & Protective Processes 40  Risk processes correlated with problematic individual outcomes (personal distress/behavior problems)  Low income neighborhoods  Risky physical environments  Exposure to violence  Protective processes are strengths or resources correlated with positive outcomes (offset or buffer risk processes)  Sense of community among residents  Good school

41 What Difference Does the Neighborhood Make? 41  Chicago neighborhoods & violent behaviors (Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls)  What affected the ability of communities to prevent violence?  Premise – social & organizational characteristics of communities explain variation in crime rates

42 Hypothesis 42  Ability of neighborhoods to maintain social control in the community related to level of violent behavior  Social Control  Ability of a group to regulate its members, to realize collective goals (group control)  Collective efficacy  Social cohesion combined with a willingness to intervene for the common good  Reflected in  Monitoring children’s play  Intervening to prevent street corner society  Confronting public nuisances

43 343 Chicago Neighborhoods 43  Over 8,000 African-American, Latino, & White people interviewed  3 Types of Neighborhoods  “Concentrated Disadvantage”  below poverty line  on public assistance  female-headed families  unemployed  Immigrant concentration (Latino/foreign born)  Residential stability

44 3 Measures of Violence in Community 44  Perceived community violence  Personal victimization  Incidents of homicide

45 Results 45  Collective Efficacy –  Positively related to residential stability  Negatively related to concentrated disadvantage and immigrant/foreign-born

46 Results 46  Neighborhoods high on collective efficacy  Less perceived violence  Less personal victimization  Fewer homicides

47 Problem Assessment Assignment 47  UML Resources  Hawk Talk (  Press Releases   UML Factbook   US News & World Report  colleges/national-universities-rankings/ colleges/national-universities-rankings/


Download ppt "Understanding Individuals Within Environments Chapter 5."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google