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Understanding Individuals Within Environments

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1 Understanding Individuals Within Environments
Several ways of understanding ecology, we take an in depth look at three. Chapter 5

2 Activity? Write down 2 classes you’ve taken that are very different.
What skills did you need in order to be successful in that class? How did the different environments help you learn? Not help you learn?

3 6 Models of Ecological Environment
(1) Behavior Setting Analysis (Roger Barker) (2) Activity Settings (O’Donnel, et al.) (3) Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) (4) Social Climate Perspective (Rudolph Moos) (5) Social Regularities (Edward Seidman) (6) Environmntal Psychology SO COMMUNITIES ARE STUDIED IN VARIOUS WAYS - WE LOOK AT HOW THEY EFFECT FAMILIES AND CHILDREN DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY AND HOW FAMILIES ADOPT ACTIVE COPING STRATEGIES TO DEAL WITH LIVING IN THE NEIGHBORHOODS We now turn to three specific perspectives, or theories, on communities that community psychologists use to research and intervene in communities: Kelly’s Ecological Metaphor, Barker’s Behavior Setting Analysis, and Moos’ Social Climate Perspective.

4 3 Models of Ecological Environment
(1) Behavior Setting Analysis (Roger Barker) Discrete places (2) Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) Field Biology as Metaphor (3) Social Climate Perspective (Rudolph Moos) Personality of the Environment SO COMMUNITIES ARE STUDIED IN VARIOUS WAYS - WE LOOK AT HOW THEY EFFECT FAMILIES AND CHILDREN DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY AND HOW FAMILIES ADOPT ACTIVE COPING STRATEGIES TO DEAL WITH LIVING IN THE NEIGHBORHOODS We now turn to three specific perspectives, or theories, on communities that community psychologists use to research and intervene in communities: Kelly’s Ecological Metaphor, Barker’s Behavior Setting Analysis, and Moos’ Social Climate Perspective.

5 Model 1: Behavior Setting Theory (Roger Barker)
Fundamental Question: “How do we understand stream of behavior that characterizes our everyday life?” Eco-behavioral science independent of individuals Discovery of rules that are minimally variable by context Barker argued that essentially, it doesn’t matter who you are as much as it depends on where you are. BARKER--LONE VOICE FOR MANY YEARS FOR STUDYING THE ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH BEHAVIOR OCCURS--HE CONSIDERED IT INCOMMENSURATE WITH THE STUDY OF INDIVIDUALS; THAT IS, YOU CAN'T LEARN ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE ENVIRONMENT BY STUDYING INDIVIDUALS, YOU NEED TO STUDY THE ENVIRONMENT ON ITS OWN TERMS FOR BARKER, THIS WAS CALLED 'ECO-BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE". HIS IDEA WAS THAT ECOLOGICAL PHENOMENON OCCUR WITHOUT INPUT FROM THE INVESTIGATOR; THEY DEAL WITH THE QUESTION "WHAT GOES ON HERE?". EXPERIMENTAL PHENOMENA, ON THE OTHER HAND, DEAL WITH THE QUESTION WHAT GOES ON HERE UNDER CONDITIONS THAT I IMPOSE?" SO THE STUDY OF NATURALLY OCCURRING BEHAVIOR WAS THE PHENOMENON OF INTEREST TO BARKER. BARKER CRITICIZED PSYCHOLOGY FOR STUDYING THE ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT ONLY SO FAR AS ITS PROPERTIES RELATED TO SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES--E.G. WITH RESPECT TO THE SAMPSON STUDY ON NEIGHBORHOODS, FOCUSING ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN TERMS OF SOCIAL CONTROL MECHANISMS AND SOCIAL COHESION, BECAUSE THEORETICALLY THEY RELATED TO COLLECTIVE EFFICACY AND THE OUTCOME VARIABLES OF VIOLENCE IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. FOR BARKER ECO-BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE WAS TO BE A SCIENCE INDEPENDENT OF INDIVIDUALS, BECAUSE, REGARDLESS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVES, COGNITIONS, AND PERSONALITY, THE BEHAVIOR OF PEOPLE IS REMARKABLY SIMILAR,WHEN THE SETTING IN WHICH IT OCCURS IS THE FOCUS OF ATTENTION FOR EXAMPLE, WITHOUT KNOWING ANYTHING ABOUT YOU AS INDIVIDUALS,I HAVE A PRETTY GOOD IDEA OF HOW YOU COLLECTIVELY ARE GOING TO BEHAVE IN THIS CLASS. IF I GO INTO A BAR, I HAVE A PRETTY GOOD IDEA OF HOW PEOPLE WILL BEHAVE AND HOW THAT BEHAVIOR WILL BE DIFFERENT FROM BEHAVIOR IN CLASS. TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF HOW THIS KIND OF PREDICTABILITY HAPPENED, BARKER BEGAN WITH THE FOLLOWING QUESTION: "HOW DO WE UNDERSTAND THE STREAM OF BEHAVIOR THAT CHARACTERIZES EVERYYDAY LIFE? " THAT IS, OUR LIVES, AS LIVED FROM THE INSIDE, ARE CONTINUOUS STREAMS OF HAPPENINGS, WE EXPERIENCE OURSELVES AS HAVING CONTINUITY OVER TIME. BARKER'S QUESTION WAS "CAN WE BREAK DOWN LIFE INTO SMALLER UNITS OR CHUNKS THAT CAN BE STUDIED MORE SYSTEMATICALLY"? WHAT MAKES LIFE DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS? WHAT, IN SHORT, HELPS US CONCEPTUALIZE THE ECOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE, LIFE AS WE LEAD IT? ONE OF HIS FIRST INVESTIGATIONS INTO THIS ISSUE WAS REPORTED IN A VERY BORING THOUGH INSTRUCTIVE BOOK CALLED ONE BOY'S DAY. PUBLISHED ALMOST 50 YEARS AGO, IT DESCRIBES THE STREAM OF BEHAVIOR OF ONE DAY IN THE LIFE OF ONE BOY IN KANSAS. THIS BOY IS FOLLOWED THROUGHOUT THE DAY AS HE GOES FROM ENVIRONMENT TO ENVIRONMENT, FROM HOME TO SCHOOL TO A CLASSROOM TO THE PLAYGROUND BACK TO THE CLASSROOM, ETC. IN EACH OF THESE DIFFERENT SETTINGS HIS BEHAVIOR WAS RECORDED IN TERMS OF HOW HE ACTED AND WHO HE INTERACTED WITH. IT RECORDED THE WHOLE DAY.

6 One Boy’s Day: The Evolution of a Theory
Behavior setting as central concept Behavior-environment synomorphy -- Most boring book! -- Chronicles a boy’s behavior across different settings during 1 day -- Barker wanted to understand why the boy acted differently across a day in different contexts -- synomorphy: settings are configured to support the type of behavior that is suppose to go on there. Example: Classrooms are created to promote a certain type of behavior. BARKER developed THE IDEA OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FORCE UNIT, THAT THE BOYS BEHAVIOR IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS WAS A RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES OR PULLS THAT CALLED FOR CERTAIN TYPES OF BEHAVIOR. THE ALLURE OF THE SWINGS ON THE PLAYGROUND PULL FOR ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT, THE PULL OF THE CLASSROOM FOR MORE SEDATE AND MANAGED BEHAVIOR. THUS ENVIRONMENTS HAD THEIR OWN DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS OR PULLS THAT INSTIGATED BEHAVIOR, AND THESE PULLS WERE GENERAL ACROSS KIDS AND NOT SPECIFIC TO THE ONE BOY IN QUESTION. TO BREAK DOWN THE ENVIRONMENT INTO DISCRETE PARTS, TO GET A HANDLE ON THE STREAM OF BEHAVIOR WHICH CHARACTERIZES EVERYDAY LIFE, BARKER DEVELOPED THE CONCEPT OF BEHAVIOR SETTINGS AS THE BASIC UNIT OF ANALYSIS OF WHAT THE ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT WAS LIKE. THE BEHAVIOR SETTING IS A NATURALLY OCCURRING UNIT, HAVING PHYSICAL, BEHAVIORAL AND TEMPORAL QUALITIES; THAT IS, IT INVOLVES THE PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT OR DESIGN OF A PLACE, IT IS A PLACE INTENDED TO PROMOTE CERTAIN KINDS OF BEHAVIORS, AND IT OCCURS AT A PARTICULAR TIME. FURTHER, IT REVEALS A COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP AMONG ITS PARTS. (A) TIME-SPACE LOCUS: OCCURS AT A PARTICULAR TIME IN A PARTICULAR PLACE--THIS CLASS, FOR EXAMPLE (B) THERE IS WHAT BARKER CALLS BEHAVIOR-ENVIRONMENT SYNOMORPHY, WHERE THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE STANDING PATTERNS OF BEHAV!DR, THE GENERAL PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR IN WHICH PEOPLE EN MASSE ENGAGE IN, ARE INTERDEPENDENT. THINK OF THREE CONTRASTING BEHAVIOR SETTINGS--A CLASSROOM, A BASEBALL GAME, AND BAR. THINK ABOUT THE WAY IN WHICH CHAIRS, SEATS, BOOTHS ARE ARRANGED IN THESE DIFFERENT BEHAVIOR SETTINGS AND HOW THAT ARRANGEMENT PROMOTES THE PROMOTES THE KINDS OF BEHAVIORS CHARACTERISTIC OF THESE DIFFERENT SETTINGS. THIS IS WHAT BARKER MEANS BY BEHAVIOR-ENVIRONMENT SYNOMORPHY. THE PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTS IS INTENDED TO COINCIDE WITH THE BEHAVIOR RELEVANT TO THOSE ENVIRONMENTS (C) BEHAVIOR SETTINGS HAVE A PRIMARY PHENOMENON FOR WHICH THEY ARE CREATED--THOUGH IT MAY VARY IN COMPLEXITY, BEHAVIOR SETTINGS HAVE ONLY ONE MAIN GOAL OR PURPOSE WHICH IS ENACTED THROUGH THE PROGRAM OF THAT SETTING--CLASSES HAVE EDUCATION AS A MAIN GOAL; THUS, THE PROGRAM, WHILE VARYING ACROSS CLASSES, IS STILL GEARED TOWARD THE FULFILLMENT OF THAT GOAL..

7 When in church, we behave….

8 When at a sporting event, we behave…

9 Circuits Circuits: mechanisms that guide adaptive behavior in settings, connect people to settings 4 types of circuits Program circuits Goal circuits Deviation-countering circuits Vetoing circuits Circuits help people predict behavior in a given setting. Program Circuits: syllabus, play program, schedule Goal Circuits: People in a setting have goals, so they behave in a particular way to achieve that goal. Students who want to get an A or graduate must behave in a particular way Deviation-countering circuits: These are things that people or settings do to achieve the setting goals. Consequences or punishments that allows setting to achieve it’s goals. Vetoing circuits: occur when people are excluded from the behavior setting

10 Uses of Behavior Setting Analysis
Providing portraits of what aspects of communities are important locally # churches # schools # athletic facilities Diagnosing community needs What is missing? Needed programs/organizations -- Allows people to start a conversation by looking at data of how many settings are there and what settings are missing. THE FINAL ISSUE INVOLVES HOW BEHAVIOR SETTING THEORY CAN HELP INTERVENE IN THE ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT. THE WICKER PAPER MENTIONS A VARIETY, INCLUDING: (1) DOCUMENTING COMMUNITY LIFE--PROVIDING A PORTRAIT OF WHAT A COMMUNITY IS LIKE IN TERMS OF ITS BEHAVIOR SETTINGS SO IT CAN REFLECT ON ITSELF, USING THESE DATA AS A MEANS OF UNDERSTANDING WHAT IT EMPHASIZES, WHAT POTENTIALLY IMPORTANT SETTINGS ARE NOT THERE, ETC. THUS IT CAN SERVE AS A STIMULUS FOR COMMUNITY DISCUSSION ABOUT WHERE TO GO, GIVEN THE BEHAVIOR SETTING DATA ON WHERE IT CURRENTLY IS. (2) DIAGNOSING COMMUNITY NEEDS-- THIS FLOWS DIRECTLY FROM DOCUMENTING COMMUNITY LIFE, IN THAT BY DOCUMENTING COMMUNITY LIFE ONE GETS A CLEAR PICTURE OF WHAT IS MISSING, BEHAVIOR SETTINGWISE, IN THE COMMUNITY. ARE THERE SUFFICIENT PLAYGROUNDS FOR YOUTH, ARE THERE IMPORTANT SERVICES SUCH AS GROCERIES, ETC. WHOSE ABSENCE TAKES RESOURCES OUT OF THE COMMUNITY AND INCONVENIENCE RESIDENTS WHO HAVE TO TRAVEL LONGER DISTANCES FOR BASICS, ETC. 3) ASCERTAINING WHICH BEHAVIOR SETTINGS IN THE COMMUNITY HAVE THE GREATEST IMPACT ON COMMUNITY LIFE: WHAT SETTINGS ARE POWERFUL? ONE WAY OF ASSESSING THIS INVOLVES HOW MANY OTHER SETTINGS, OR RELATED SETTINGS, A PARTICULAR ORGANIZATION HAS DEVELOPED AS PART OF ITS MISSION. A CHURCH, FOR EXAMPLE, MAY HAVE A DAY CARE CENTER, AN OUTREACH AIDS PROJECT, A PROGRAM FOR THOSE CONTEMPLATING DIVORCE, A RELATIONSHIP WITH A CITY IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY WHERE GROUPS GO PERIODICALLY TO DO COMMUNITY SERVICE, ETC. THE EXTENT OF THESE BEHAVIOR SETTINGS DEVELOPED OUT OF THE CHURCH IS ONE MEASURE OF THE CHURCH'S COMMUNITY IMPACT. (4) ANALYZING WHERE IN THE COMMUNITY IMPORTANT SOCIAL ENCOUNTERS OCCUR- WHERE IN THE COMMUNITY, FOR EXAMPLE, DO SUPPORTIVE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NEIGHBORS OCCUR, WHERE DO RESIDENTS FEAR CRIME THE MOST, WHERE TDO THEY EXPERIENCE DISCRIMINATORY INTERACTIONS? HAVING A TAXONOMY OF BEHAVIOR SETTINGS PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK FOR LOOKING SYSTEMATICALLY AT THE BEHAVIOR SETTINGS THAT FOSTER OR INHIBIT IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF COMMUNITY INTERACTION.

11

12 Available behavior settings
Staffing Theory # people Available behavior settings Under-populated settings – Greater claims on people Fewer people per setting Over-populated settings – Less claim on people Example: Compare a big & small school. A small school has fewer people per setting. Creating a basketball team is more difficult at a small school than at a large school. WHAT HAS THIS PERSPECTIVE YIELDED? BOTH THEORY AND APPLICATIONS THEORY--BEHAVIOR SETTING THEORY--STAFFING THEORY THE PRIMARY THEORETICAL ASPECT OF BARKER'S WORK IS FOUND IN STAFFING THEORY. THIS THEORY RESTS ON THE RATIO OF PEOPLE IN A PLACE SUCH AS A SCHOOL OR COMMUNITY TO THE NUMBER OF AVAILABLE BEHAVIOR SETTINGS IN THAT PLACE. THE EMPHASIS IS ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF TWO CONDITIONS OR THE EXPERIENCE OF PEOPLE IN THE PLACE: UNDERSTAFFED AND OVERSTAFFED. UNDERSTAFFED BEHAVIOR SETTING ARE THOSE WITH A SMALL RATIO OF PEOPLE PER SETTING; THAT IS, THERE ARE RELATIVELY FEW PEOPLE PER BEHAVIOR SETTING. A BASKETBALL GAME WHERE ONLY 6 PEOPLE WERE AVAILABLE AS PLAYERS WOULD BE SUCH A SETTING, AS MIGHT A SMALL COLLEGE WITH A LOW FACULTY-STUDENT RATIO. OVERSTAFFED IS THE OPPOSITE, WHERE THERE ARE A RELATIVELY LARGER NUMBER OF PEOPLE PER SETTING. A BASKETBALL GAME WHERE THERE ARE 25 AVAILABLE PEOPLE TO PLAY WOULD REPRESENT AN OVERSTAFFED SETTING THE BASIC NOTION IS THAT UNDERSTAFFED SETTINGS EXERT GREATER CLAIMS ON THOSE WHO PARTICIPATE IN THEM THAN OVERSTAFFED SETTINGS. THEY DO SO BECAUSE UNDERSTAFFED SETTINGS REQUIRE GREATER EFFORT, (E.G. 3 VERSUS 5 PEOPLE PER SIDE IN BASKETBALL) AND BECAUSE IN UNDERSTAFFED SETTINGS PEOPLE HAVE TO BE PREPARED TO FULFILL A WIDER VARIETY OF ACTIVITIES SO THAT THE BEHAVIOR SETTING CAN CONTINUE TO EXIST (E.G., THE PRODUCER OF THE SCHOOL PLAY MAY ALSO BE NEEDED FOR A BIT PART BECAUSE THERE ARE NOT ENOUGH STUDENTS WHO WERE INTERESTED OR AVAILABLE.)

13 Size Matters: Big School/Small School
Study of 20 high schools in Kansas that differed in student population (range: students) Begins with behavior setting survey Classes Extracurricular activities Sports # of behavior settings # of students MOST RESEARCHED AREA WHERE THIS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS, PARTICULARLY IN A BOOK BY BARKER AND PAUL GUM CALLED BIG SCHOOL/SMALL SCHOOL: CLASS EXAMPLES OF WHAT IT IS LIKE IN BOTH SCHOOLS BARKER AND GUMPS' STUDY INVOLVED 22 SCHOOLS, AGAIN IN KANSAS, WHOSE SIZE RANGED FROM AROUND 100 TO ALMOST FIRST, THEY DID A BEHAVIOR SETTING ASSESSMENT, IDENTIFYING EVERY BEHAVIOR SETTING IN THE SCHOOL DURING THE COURSE OF A SCHOOL YEAR--CLASSES, EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES, EVENTS, BACK-TO-SCHOOL NIGHTS, THE ENTIRE DEAL. THEY DID THIS THROUGH OBSERVATIONS, LOOKING AT YEARBOOKS, TALKING TO PEOPLE WITH SPECIAL ROLES SUCH AS COACHES, DRAMA CLUB, ETC. THEY THEN DETERMINED THE RATIO OF STUDENTS TO BEHAVIOR SETTINGS BY SIMPLE DIVISION--NUMBER OF STUDENTS OVER THE NUMBER OF SETTINGS. THE MOST IMMEDIATE FINDING WAS THAT THE LARGER THE SCHOOL, THE GREATER THE RATIO OF STUDENTS PER BEHAVIOR SETTING; THAT IS, AS SCHOOL GOT LARGER THEY DID NOT INCREASE IN NUMBER OF BEHAVIOR SETTINGS PROPORTIONAL TO THEIR INCREASED SIZE. sO THE LARGER SCHOOL HOD THE MOST PEOPLE PER SETTING, THE SMALLEST SCHOOLS HAD THE LEAST.

14 Smaller Schools more involved in school activities
worked longer hours at school-related activities worked at greater diversity of tasks became more generalists than specialists Student Question: Why would you be more of a generalist than a specialist at a smaller school?

15 Findings Smaller schools: fewer students per behavior (i.e., more claim on students) Student Council Soccer Team Choir Band

16 Smaller Schools Felt less marginal to ongoing life of school
More a part of the school/investment in it More roles of responsibility Assessed value of others more in task-related than socio-emotional characteristics Lower standards for admission into behavior settings -- Assessed value ofothers more in task-related than socio-emotional char. -- When there are a lot of people you can give them leeway in some settings if you need them to be a star at a different setting. -- Ex. Star football player may get away with not doing work in classroom (3) SMALLER SCHOOL STUDENTS WOULD FEEL LESS MARGINALITY AND WOULD BE INVOLVED IN MORE IMPORTANT (IN TERMS OF ROLES OF RESPONSIBILITY) TASKS AND MORE ROLES INVOLVING RESPONSIBILITY, SUCH AS HEAD OF THIS, PRESIDENT OF THAT, ETC. THIS SUGGESTS THAT THERE WOULD BE FEWER DROPOUTS IN SMALLER SCHOOLS BECAUSE THE SCHOOL WOULD PULL THEM IN TO A GREATER DEGREE. (4) STUDENTS IN SMALLER SCHOOLS WOULD TEND TO VIEW OTHERS MORE IN TERMS OF TASK-RELATED THAN SOCIOEMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS. WHY? BECAUSE WHEN YOU NEED PEOPLE TO HAVE THE BASKETBALL GAME OR THE SCHOOL PLAY YOU ARE LESS FUSSY ABOUT THEIR PERSONAL QUALITIES AND MORE GRATEFUL THAT THEY ARE INVOLVED SO THE SETTING CAN CONTINUE. (5) IN A RELATED AREA, IN SMALLER SCHOOLS THERE ARE LOWER STANDARDS OF ADMISSION INTO THE SETTING--YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE AS GOOD BECAUSE THERE ARE FEWER OF YOU AND YOU ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE GENERALISTS RATHER THAN SPECIALISTS, THUS LOWERING THE LEVEL OF ACHIEVED EXCELLENCE. YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE AS GOOD TO BUBBLE TO THE TOP IN A SMALL POND AS IN A BIG POND, OTHER THINGS BEING EQUAL.

17 Larger Schools Higher specialized skill development
More diversity of opportunities in classes & extracurricular activities More ability to hide when you want to BARKER TALKS AS IF SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL, AND CERTAINLY IN SOME WAYS IT IS. BUT IT ALSO HAS ITS OWN COSTS, WHICH MAY BE THE REVERSE OF THE BENEFITS.(CLASS?) IN LARGER SCHOOLS YOU HAVE GREATER INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENT, MORE DIVERSITY OF OPPORTUNITIES IN TERMS OF CLASSES, ABILITY TO HIDE WHEN YOU WANT TO, THOUGH IT MEANS AN INCREASED LIKELIHOOD THAT YOU CAN SLIP THROUGH THE CRACKS.

18 Findings Larger schools: more students per behavior (i.e., less claim on students) Student Council Soccer Team Choir Band

19 3 Models of Ecological Environment
(1) Behavior Setting Analysis (Roger Barker) Discrete places (2) Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) Field Biology as Metaphor (3) Social Climate Perspective (Rudolph Moos) Personality of the Environment SO COMMUNITIES ARE STUDIED IN VARIOUS WAYS - WE LOOK AT HOW THEY EFFECT FAMILIES AND CHILDREN DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY AND HOW FAMILIES ADOPT ACTIVE COPING STRATEGIES TO DEAL WITH LIVING IN THE NEIGHBORHOODS We now turn to three specific perspectives, or theories, on communities that community psychologists use to research and intervene in communities: Kelly’s Ecological Metaphor, Barker’s Behavior Setting Analysis, and Moos’ Social Climate Perspective.

20 Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly)
4 principles from field biology Adaptation Cycling of resources Interdependence Succession ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT THE FIRST STEP IN THE PROCESS, ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT, FOCUSES ON THE SCHOOL AS AN ECOLOGICAL NICHE OR "THE HABITAT WITHIN WHICH A GIVEN CREATURE MAY SURVIVE" BROADER THE RANGE OF HABITATS WITHIN WHICH THE CREATURE OF THE SAME TYPE ARE FOUND, THE GREATER THE NICHE BREADTH. 4 ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES ARE USED TO ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT. EACH DRAWS ATTENTION TO SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND EACH ADDS TO THE OTHER.

21 Ecological Metaphor: (1) Adaptation
Every community has both opportunities for development & demands for survival Expectations / Demands Formal vs. Informal Opportunities What are the adaptive requirements of UML as a college environment? ADAPTATION PRINCIPLE: EVERY ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT INCLUDES EXPECTATIONS/DEMANDS- EOR THE SURVIVAL OF PEOPLE IN IT. THESE INCLUDE FORMAL OR INSTITUTIONAL DEMANDS AS WELL AS INFORMAL ONES. FORMAL IN TERMS OF GRADES, CODES OF CONDUCT, INFORMAL IN TERMS OF PEER PRESSURES/PARENTAL EXPECTATIONS, NOT HAVING ENOUGH $$, ETC. (PUBLISH OR PERISH AS FACULTY EXAMPLE) TAKEN TOGETHER, THESE CONSTITUTE THE ADAPTIVE REQUIREMENTS OF THE COLLEGE ENVIRONMENT. THIS ENVIRONMENT INCLUDES BOTH DEMANDS AND OPPORTUNITIES. In any of these settings, the adaptation requirements are different

22 Adaptation & Coping The Adaptation Question: “How do I have to behave to survive/thrive here?” Behavior Treat others The Coping Question: “What skills, qualities, & coping styles does the community support & tolerate, & what does it not?” Interpersonal Academic

23 Where do these adaptive requirements occur at UML?
Social Settings Classrooms Organizations Studying Abroad Athletics Social Norms Peers Faculty Policies Tuition Requirements

24 Ecological Metaphor: (2) Cycling of Resources
Focus: Search for positive aspects of community How resources that nurture growth of development of community are distributed, managed, & conserved Question: “What resources are available in this community for making it a better place?” Think: What have been resources in your life generally? At UML? (2) CYCLING OF RESOURCES PRINCIPLE: FIELD BIOLOGY, THIS REFERS TO HOW NUTRIENTS, THINGS THAT NURTURE THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERING ASPECTS OF THE COMMUNITY, ARE USED AND TRANSFORMED AS THEY BECOME USEFUL (THE EFFECTS OF RAIN ON PLANTS, SOIL, CREATURES, FOR EXAMPLE), RESOURCES ARE WHAT SUSTAIN THE CONTINUITY AND EVOLUTION OR DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNITY. APPLIED TO SCHOOLS AND HUMAN COMMUNITIES MORE GENERALLY, THE EMPHASIS IS ON WHAT KINDS OF RESOURCES EXIST IN THE COMMUNITY AND HOW THEY CAN BE EXPLOITED TO MAKE THE COMMUNITY A BETTER PLACE IN TERMS OF SOLVING SCHOOL-RELATED PROBLEMS, CREATING A HOPEFUL VISION OF THE FUTURE, DEALING WITH INTERGROUP CONFLICT, WHAT'S AT STAKE IN THE PARTICULAR SCHOOL.

25 Types of Resources Formal: Role responsibilities
Informal: Non-role related qualities of people within setting, Not required Manifest: On the surface, easy to recognize Latent: Not expressed in the ongoing daily environment Manifest & Latent: -- We’re only allowed to express certain parts of ourselves in certain contexts. -- Latent resources: involve characteristics or competencies that aren’t always expressed in a particular environment. A crisis often allow us to express latent competencies. THERE ARE TWO DISTINCTIONS IN TERMS OF RESOURCES THAT ARE USEFUL. THE FIRST IS BETWEEN FORMAL AND INFORMAL RESOURCES--THE FORMER ARE USUALLY IDENTIFIABLE THROUGH ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS, LISTS OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONS, INDIVIDUALS WHO HOLD PARTICULARLY POWERFUL ROLES SUCH AS PRINCIPAL. THE LATTER OFTEN INVOLVE THE NON ROLE-RELATED QUALITIES OF PEOPLE IN THE SCHOOL - INDIVIDUALS WHO HOLD OF PEOPLE IN THE SCHOOL--THE TEACHER WHO GOES OUT OF HER WAY TO TUTOR KIDS ON HER OWN TIME, THE CUSTODIAN WHO KNOWS HOW TO LISTEN TO THE WOES OF STUDENT ATHLETES;-THE KID WHO IS A FANTASTIC MECHANIC WHEN YOUR CAR DIES. KNOWING THE INFORMAL RESOURCE VALUE OF PEOPLE IN THE SETTING REQUIRES SPENDING TIME GETTING TO KNOW THEM AS PEOPLE. THE SECOND DISTINCTION IS BETWEEN MANIFEST AND LATENT RESOURCES MANIFEST RESOURCES ARE THOSE YOU CAN SEE, THAT EVERYBODY KNOWS, THAT ARE EVIDENT IN THE EVERYDAY WORKINGS OF THE SETTING--THE STUDENT LEADERS, THE REALLY GOOD TEACHERS, THE DETENTION OFFICER WITH A SOUL. BUT THE MORE INTERESTING KINDS OF RESOURCES IN ANY SETTING ARE THE LATENT ONES, THOSE THAT DO NOT GET EXPRESSED IN THE ENVIRONMENT EITHER BECAUSE THE ENVIRONMENT DOES NOT ALLOW THEM TO BE OR BECAUSE UNTIL THE SITUATION ARISES WHEN THEY ARE RELEVANT THEY REMAIN IRRELEVANT TO THE ONGOING FUNCTIONING OF THE SETTING (ELAB ON IDEA THAT ANY PARTICULAR ENVIRONMENT ONLY PUSHES US TO EXPRESS A SMALL PART OF WHO WE ARE) ONE EXAMPLE FROM HIGH POINT SUGGESTS THAT YOU CAN'T ALWAYS TELL THE RESOURCE BY THE LABEL. AT ONE POINT WHEN WE WERE WORKING ON THE ISSUE OF MULTICULTURALISM AT THE SCHOOL WE TALKED WITH A PSYCHOLOGY TEACHER THERE. WE FIGURED THAT, IN TERMS OF SUBSTANTIVE CONTENT, THE PSYCHOLOGY TEACHER WOULD HAVE SOME INTEREST IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ISSUES OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY. NOT TO BE. NO INTEREST, IN FACT, DISINTEREST. HOWEVER, BY CHANCE WE FOUND OUT THAT THE LIBRARIAN, WHOSE JOB IN SCHOOLS IS OFTEN REALLY UNDERESTIMATED, HAD GONE OUT OF HER WAY ON HER OWN TIME TO CREATE AN "INTRODUCTION TO THE LIBRARY" FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS WHICH ATTENDED TO THEIR LIMITED ENGLISH SKILLS AND THEIR LACK OF ASSERTIVE QUESTIONING OF HER BECAUSE OF A VARIETY OF FACTORS INVOLVING ENGLISH FLUENCY. SHE WAS A RESOURCE,LATENT EXCEPT TO THE INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS--THE PRINCIPAL, FOR EXAMPLE, DID NOT KNOW OF HER EFFORTS.

26 4 Main Types of Resources
People Settings Events Technology CLEARLY THE KINDS OF RESOURCES FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS SHIFTS DEPENDING ON THE PROBLEM --ISSUES OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG A SUBSET OF STUDENTS AND RAISING MONEY TO BUILD A NEW TRACK REQUIRE DIFFERENT KINDS OF RESOURCES. BUT IN GENERAL WE FIND THAT THREE TYPES OF RESOURCES ARE USEFUL IN OUR ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF THE SCHOOL: PERSONS, SETTINGS, AND EVENTS. A) PERSONS: PEOPLE ARE PERHAPS THE MOST OBVIOUS RESOURCE WHEN WE THINK ABOUT THE WORLD IN A RESOURCE WAY: PEOPLE HAVE TALENTS, SKILLS, RELEVANT KNOWLEDGE, COMMITMENT TO A PLACE OR A CAUSE, THEY HAVE SOCIAL NETWORKS WHICH LINK THEM TO ADDITIONAL RESOURCES OUTSIDE, IN THIS CASE, THE SCHOOL. (B) SETTINGS: IN ADDITION TO PEOPLE, HOWEVER, AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE FOCUSES ON SETTINGS AS POTENTIAL RESOURCES,ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT, PLACES WHICH HAVE DECISIONMAKING POWER SUCH AS TEACHER'S UNION OR THE STUDENT COUNCIL WHERE IMPORTANT DECISIONS ARE MADE.THERE ARE THREE ASPECTS TO SETTINGS AS RESOURCES: DETERMINING THOSE ALREADY WORKING WELL, DOING THEIR JOB, READY TO PITCH IN AND BE HELPFUL, FUNCTIONAL SETTINGS DETERMINING DYSFUNCTIONAL SETTINGS, SUCH AS SOME OF THE PTAS I'VE SEEN, WHERE PEOPLE ROLE PLAY AT DOING THINGS BUT NOTHING REALLY HAPPENS, SOME UNIVERSITY COMMITTEES AS WELL, AND DETERMINING SETTINGS THAT NEED TO BE CREATED BUT ARE NOT CURRENTLY PRESENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT--A PLAYGROUND IN THE COMMUNITY, A SCHOOL STRUCTURE FOR DISENCHANTED STUDENTS TO DEVELOP PROPOSALS FOR THE SCHOOL, ETC. (C) EVENTS: A 3rd KIND OF RESOURCE IS EVENTS THAT BRING TOGETHER INDIVIDUALS IN THE SETTING, PROVIDE A SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND IDENTITY AND PROMOTE INVOLVEMENT ON THE PART OF COMMUNITY MEMBERS. A PUBLIC SCHOOL HOSTING A SPECIAL OLYMPICS, THE ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL DINNER AT A MULTICULTURAL HIGH SCHOOL, THESE KIND OF HAPPENINGS PROVIDE -- Consider how students in high school plan a school dance (prom) and attend it. (D) TECHNOLOGY: Access to technology, knowledge in and of technology

27 Ecological Model: (3) Interdependence
Parts of a community are related Research Question: “How are people, agencies, & institutions linked to each other in the community?” Setting off chains of events in individual lives If only I hadn’t…… (you fill it in) SO RESOURCES, FORMAL AND INFORMAL, MANIFEST AND LATENT, REPRESENT POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRENGTH TO BE DRAWN ON IN PROBLEM-SOLVING. (3) INTERDEPENDENCE: THIS PRINCIPLE SAYS THAT IN AN ECOSYSTEM, OR IN A HUMAN COMMUNITY, THE COMPONENT PARTS OF THE SYSTEM ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER SUCH THAT CHANGE IN ONE PART OF THE SYSTEM WILL RIPPLE OR HAVE SPILLOVER EFFECTS IN OTHER PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. THIS PRINCIPLE HELPS FOCUS ON THE SYSTEM AS A WHOLE BECAUSE YOU CAN'T UNDERSTAND ONE PART OF THE SYSTEM WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING HOW IT RELATES TO AND IS INFLUENCE BY OTHER PARTS. FOR EXAMPLE, YOU CAN'T UNDERSTAND THIS CLASS WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING THAT IT'S PART OF UIC, DEPT. OF PSYCH, ETC. TAKE ANOTHER EXAMPLE, THIS TIME INVOLVING PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND IMMIGRATION. DURING THE LAST 25 YEARS, HIGH POINT HIGH SCHOOL HAS GONE FROM A COLLEGE PREPARATORY, PREDOMINANTLY WHITE, MIDDLECLASS PUBLIC SCHOOL TO ONE FAR MORE DIVERSE IN STUDENT BODY, COLLEGE ATTENDANCE, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS. THINK ABOUT HOW THE CHANGING STUDENT BODY, PARTICULARLY THE INFLUX OF IMMIGRANTS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES, HAS RIPPLED THROUGH THE SCHOOL. WHAT MIGHT SOME OF THE CHANGES INVOLVE, ALL BECAUSE OF THE CHANGING COMPOSITION OF THE STUDENT BODY? -- CURRICULUM, GUIDANCE IN TERMS OF VARIED FUTURES, INTERGROUP RELATIONS, A/A-CARIBBEAN CONFLICT OVER DRUGS, TEACHER DEMANDS IN THE CLASSROOM IN TERMS OF LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY OF STUDENTS, TEACHER TRAINING, ESL IMPORTANCE, PARENT-SCHOOL RELATIONSHIPS, LANGUAGE FLUENCY OF TEACHERS--THESE INCLUDE JUST ABOUT ALL ASPECTS OF THE SCHOOL. WITH RESPECT TO INTERVENTION, THE INTERDEPENDENCE PRINCIPLE FOCUSES ATTENTION ON THE UNANTICIPATED OR UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF INTERVENTION. WHEN YOU INTRODUCE A DRUG PREVENTION PROGRAM IN THE SCHOOL, FOR EXAMPLE, YOU SET IN MOTION A NEW DYNAMIC ABOUT WHO'S IN IT, WHO ISN'T IN IT, WHAT IT'S TELLING KIDS ABOUT DRUGS THAT CONFIRMS OR CONTRADICTS THEIR EXPERIENCE, WHAT KIDS TALK TO PARENTS ABOUT, HOW PARENTS VIEW THEIR SCHOOL, AS A PLACE WHICH NOW DEFINES ITSELF AS HAVING A DRUG PROBLEM, ETC. WHEN EDUCATORS RAISE THE EXPECTATION THEY HAVE FOR STUDENTS, A PRIMARY ASPECT OF THE EDUCATIONAL REFORM MOVEMENT, THEY MAY INADVERTENTLY HARM MARGINAL STUDENTS UNLESS THEY PROVIDE ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR THEM TO SUCCEED. HAVING HIGH EXPECTATIONS WITH NO RESOURCES TO MEET THEM IS A CRUEL EDUCATIONAL JOKE, AN UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCE OF A WELL-MEANING IDEA. SO THE INTERDEPENDENCE PRINCIPLE FOCUSES ON HOW THINGS FIT TOGETHER, WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT YOU CAN'T SIMPLY CHANGE ONE PART OF A SYSTEM WITHOUT AFFECTING OTHER PARTS.

28

29 Ecological Metaphor: (4) Succession
Communities change over time in response to internal & external forces Community Question: “How did that community come to be the way it currently is & what are its hopes for the future?” 4) SUCCESSION: ENVIRONMENTS, LIKE PEOPLE, CHANGE OVER TIME, AND THESE CHANGES USUALLY MEAN THAT WHO THE ENVIRONMENT IS FAVORABLE TO CHANGES OVER TIME AS WELL. FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE 1960S AND 1970 FEDERAL FUNDING AGENCIES WERE INTERESTED IN FUNDING PROJECTS DEALING WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES OF BEHAVIOR--POVERTY, SOCIAL CLASS, ETC. NOW THE AGENCIES ARE MORE INTERESTED IN GENETIC AND NEUROSCIENCE KINDS OF WORK. SINCE EACH OF THESE AREAS OF WORK INVOLVED DIFFERENT PEOPLE, PEOPLE IN FAVOR IN THE EARLIER TIME ARE LESS IN FAVOR NOW AND ARE HENCE LESS REWARDED. AS THE ENVIRONMENT CHANGES ITS ADAPTIVE DEMANDS THOSE MOST SUITED TO IT CHANGE AS WELL.

30 Ecological Metaphor: (4) Succession Principle
Focus on History Hopes Trajectory Provides an empathy for current issues even if you hate what you see WITH RESPECT TO ASSESSING THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENT, THE SUCCESSION PRINCIPLE LEADS US TO ASK "HOW DID IT GET TO BE THE WAY IT IS?" PRINCIPLE SUGGESTS THAT EVEN THOUGH SOMETHING MAY NOT SEEM ADAPTIVE AT THE PRESENT TIME, AT SOME POINT IT PROBABLY WAS AND, TO CHANGE IT, IT IS USEFUL TO KNOW ITS HISTORY. IF YOU APPROACH LIFE FROM THIS PERSPECTIVE, IT ALLOWS YOU TO HAVE A LITTLE EMPATHY EVEN FOR THINGS THAT YOU VEHEMENTLY DISAGREE WITH BECAUSE IT SAYS, IN ESSENCE, AT SOME TIME FOR SOME REASON, BASED ON HOW PEOPLE SAW THE WORLD THEN, THIS MADE SENSE FROM THEIR POINT OF VIEW. FURTHER, LOOKING AT HOW SOMETHING CAME TO BE ALLOWS A BETTER IDEA ABOUT HOW TO CHANGE IT, AS WELL AS LETTING YOU DISCOVER WHAT OTHERS HAVE TRIED THAT HAS PREVIOUSLY FAILED. BUT THE SUCCESSION PRINCIPLE, BY REFERRING TO THE TIME DIMENSION (CHRONOSYSTEM IDEA) DOES NOT FOCUS ONLY ON THE PAST BUT ON THE FUTURE AS WELL. HERE THE CONCERN IS WITH THE HOPES THAT SETTINGS, COMMUNITIES HAVE FOR THEIR COLLECTIVE FUTURE. WHAT KIND OF SCHOOL OR UNIVERSITY DO WE WISH TO BECOME? HOW CAN WE BEST SOLVE THIS PROBLEM SO THAT IT DOES NOT HAPPEN IN THE FUTURE? AGAIN, LIKE EACH OTHER PRINCIPLE, THIS ONE IS RELEVANT TO BOTH UNDERSTANDING AND INTERVENTION. WITH RESPECT TO UNDERSTANDING IT MEANS LOOKING INTO LOCAL HISTORY; WITH RESPECT TO A SPECIFICP ROBLEM, FOR EXAMPLE, IT MIGHT INVOLVE FINDING OUT HOW PEOPLE HAVER TRIED TO SOLVE SIMILAR PROBLEMS IN THE PAST, WHAT THEY HAVE TRIED AND HOW IT HAS WORKED. WHEN SOMEONE SAYS "WE'VE ALREADY TRIED THAT, IT MEANS DIGGING DEEPLY INTO WHAT THEY ACTUALLY MEAN AND SEEING IF PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES ARE DIFFERENT ENOUGH FROM PAST ONES SO THAT IT MIGHT WORK NOW. WITH RESPECT TO INTERVENTION, IT MEANS TRYING TO DESIGN PROGRAMS OR PROJECTS THAT INCREASE HOPE FOR FUTURE DESIRED GOALS AS WELL AS RESPONDING TO IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS. AIDING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNITY SO THAT IT CAN DEAL MORE EFFECTIVELY WITH ITS FUTURE IS THUS A PRIME INTERVENTION GOAL. CAPACITY BUILDING, AS HEALTH EDUCATORS LIKE TO SAY.

31 Southwick Hall Lowell Techology Institute 1903 Coburn Hall Lowell State College 1899

32 Ecological Metaphor: (4) Succession
Goals & values of helping agent must be generally consistent with setting Other goals may be pursued, but conflict should be expected. Sustainability should be a goal (4) THE GOALS AND VALUES OF THE HELPING AGENT OR SERVICE MUST BE CONSISTENT WITH THE GOALS AND VALUES OF THE SETTING. OTHER GOALS MAY BE PURSUED, THOUGH CONFLICT IS EXPECTED AND SHOULD BE ANTICIPATED (GOLDENBERG AND THE KKK) -- If this is true, how can the helping agent see something the people in the setting can’t see (5) THE FORM OF HELP SHOULD HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR BEING ESTABLISHED ON A SYSTEMATIC BASIS, USING THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE SETTING OR THROUGH INTRODUCING RESOURCES THAT CAN BECOME INSTITUTIONALIZED AS PART OF THE SETTING (RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE) .

33 Ecological Model: Summary
Adaptation: What are the adaptive requirements? Cycling of Resources: What are the available resources? Interdependence: How are its different parts connected? Succession: How did it come to be as it is and what are its hopes for the future?

34 3 Models of Ecological Environment
(1) Behavior Setting Analysis (Roger Barker) Discrete places (2) Ecological Metaphor (James Kelly) Field Biology as Metaphor (3) Social Climate Perspective (Rudolph Moos) Personality of the Environment SO COMMUNITIES ARE STUDIED IN VARIOUS WAYS - WE LOOK AT HOW THEY EFFECT FAMILIES AND CHILDREN DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY AND HOW FAMILIES ADOPT ACTIVE COPING STRATEGIES TO DEAL WITH LIVING IN THE NEIGHBORHOODS We now turn to three specific perspectives, or theories, on communities that community psychologists use to research and intervene in communities: Kelly’s Ecological Metaphor, Barker’s Behavior Setting Analysis, and Moos’ Social Climate Perspective.

35 Model 3: Social Climate Approach (Rudolph Moos)
Focus: high impact environments Question: Can environment be described in terms of perceptions of people in it? 3 Environmental Domains Relationships Quality Authority Structure Rules & regulations Personal Development/Goal orientation Reasons for being in the setting MOOS--SOCIAL CLIMATE APPROACH THUS FAR PERSPECTIVES ON THE ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT HAVE FOCUSED ON DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR INTERACTIONS (BRONFENBRENNER), ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES DRAWN FROM FIELD BIOLOGY AND APPLIED TO HUMAN COMMUNITIES (KELLY), AND THE ENVIRONMENT AS CONSISTING OF A SERIES OF BEHAVIOR SETTINGS (BARKER). WHAT IS MISSING THUS FAR? THE PERCEPTIONS OF PEOPLE IN THE ENVIRONMENT, ONE OF THE 4 WAYS OF LOOKING AT NEIGHBORHOODS MENTIONED BY LINDA BURTON. EARLIER JOHN BUCKNER'S NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT SCALE WAS USED AS AN EXAMPLE OF THIS, BUT IT COMES FROM THE EARLIER WORK OF RUDOLF MOOS AT STANFORD. THE QUESTION DRIVING MOOS' WORK IS THIS: CAN THE ENVIRONMENT BE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF THE PERCEPTIONS OF PEOPLE IN IT? CLEARLY HOW WE PERCEIVE OUR ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES HOW WE RESPOND TO IT. BUT CAN MEASURES OF THESE PERCEPTIONS BE DEVELOPED? MOOS SET OUT TO SOLVE THIS PROBLEM OF MEASURING WHAT HE CALLED THE SOCIAL CLIMATE OF IMPORTANT, HIGH IMPACT SETTINGS SUCH AS THE CLASSROOM FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND JUNIOR HIGH STUDENTS, THE UNIVERSITY DORMITORY, THE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT. THE QUESTION WAS "HOW DO PEOPLE EXPERIENCE THESE ENVIRONMENTS AND WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES IT MAKE IN TERMS OF THEIR EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR?

36 -- This study involved looking at classroom environment of coed classes and all women classes
Measures Involvement Affiliation: student-student relationship Teacher support: student-teacher relationship Task orientation: Competition: found that classes high in competition had more learning, but students tended to cut these classes more as well GO OVER HANDOUT COMPARING SINGLE SEX AND COED CLASSROOMS—(EXPLAIN THE CONTEXT OF THE STUDY)--EXPLAIN HOW TO INTERPRET STANDARD SCORES AND ASK CLASS TO INTERPRET THE DIFFERENT PROFILES, DIMENSION BY DIMENSION). THE QUESTION IS "WHAT IS IT LIKE TO GO TO THESE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SCHOOLS? GIVE OUT HSC/TRAD SCHOOLS AS ANOTHER EXAMPLE AND INTERPRET THIS AS WELL)

37 Where Does Social Climate Come From?
School & context factors Physical/architectural features Organizational factors Teacher characteristics Aggregate students characteristics Classrooms that are more controlling are most influenced by Aggregate student characteristics mainly % of boys/men in class (3) WHERE DOES SOCIAL CLIMATE COME FROM? WHAT FACTORS CONTRIBUTE TO MAKING THE CLASSROOM THE KIND OF PLACE IT IS? A THIRD KIND OF QUESTION IS DISCUSSED IN THE READINGS DIRECTLY. IT INVOLVES FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE PERCEIVED ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASSROOM. THE COMMON SENSE ASSUMPTION IS THAT THE TEACHER IS THE MAIN INFLUENCE OVER WHAT THE CLASSROOM IS LIKE, BUT IT SEEMS MORE COMPLEX THAN THAT.

38 A Model of Determinants of Classroom Climate
Organizational Factors School and Classroom Context Physical and Architectural Features Aggregate Student Characteristics THE MODEL FLOWS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WITH ARROWS POINTING TO THE MAIN DIRECTION OF THE INFLUENCE. IT INCLUDES THE SEVERAL KINDS OF INFLUENCES: (1) SCHOOL AND CLASSROOM CONTEXT FACTORS--HERE WE ARE REFERRING TO SUCH INFLUENCES AS WHETHER OR NOT THE SCHOOL IS RURAL OR-URBAN (SCHOOL FACTOR) AND CLASS FACTORS SUCH AS SUBJECT MATTER(IS IT MATH OR SOCIAL STUDIES?) AND LOCATION (IS IT IN THE SPECIAL ED.WING OR VOCATIONAL AREA OR IN THE MAIN PART OF THE SCHOOL) (2)PHYSICAL/ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES--PHYSICAL/ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES OF THE CLASSROOM FOCUS ON HOW IT IS ORGANIZED PHYSICALLY AS A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. IS IT AN OPEN CLASSROOM WITH FEW IF ANY DISCRETE SPACES IN IT? DOES IT HAVE WINDOWS? (LEE HIGH SCHOOL) HOW ARE THE CHAIRS ARRANGED? AROUND TABLES? IN ROWS? ETC. (3) ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS--THESE INCLUDE SUCH THINGS AS GRADE LEVEL CLASS SIZE, WHETHER OR NOR KIDS GO THROUGH IN A COHORT, AS IN ISRAEL AND RUSSIA, OR SPLIT UP ACROSS CLASSES, SUCH AS IN THE U.S. DOES A SMALLER CLASS SIZE, FOR EXAMPLE PROMOTE A DIFFERENT KIND OF CLIMATE? THIS IS THE KIND OF POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS. DOES HAVING THE SAME KIDS IN CLASS AFTER CLASS AFFECT THE KIND OF CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT WHICH IS CREATED? THESE KINDS OF QUESTIONS. (4) TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS--TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS INCLUDE A BROAD RANGE OF POTENTIAL FACTORS, INCLUDING GENDER, YEARS OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE, EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY, PERSONAL QUALITIES, TEACHING GOALS, AND TEACHING STYLE (AUTHORITARIAN VS. DEMOCRATIC, ETC.) (5) AGGREGATE STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS--AGGREGATE STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS REFER TO THE STUDENT AVERAGE OR AGGREGATE ON CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS. AVERAGE IQ OF STUDENTS IN THE CLASS, AVERAGE ACTIVITY LEVEL OF THE STUDENTS, RATIO OF MALE TO FEMALE STUDENTS, OR OR RACIAL MIX OF THE CLASSROOM. GIVEN ALL THIS, THE QUESTION THEN IS "HOW DO THESE DIFFERENT KINDS OF FACTORS INFLUENCE DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLASSROOMS?" DO THEY ALL INFLUENCE DIFFERENT CLASSROOMS IN THE SAME WAY--THAT IS, ARE THEY EQUALLY IMPORTANT REGARDLESS OF THE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT? OR DO DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF THESE FACTORS AFFECT DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLASSROOMS DIFFERENTLY? WHEN YOU PUT ALL THESE TOGETHER TO SEE WHAT KINDS OF FACTORS INFLUENCE WHAT KIND OF CLASSROOMS, YOU GET A SIMPLE AND A COMPLEX ANSWER. THE SIMPLE ANSWER IS THAT IT'S NOT SIMPLE. THERE IS NO GENERAL PATTERN OF INFLUENCES ACROSS THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLASSROOMS. RATHER, DIFFERENT KINDS OF INFLUENCES ARE MORE IMPORTANT IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF CLASSROOMS. FOR EXAMPLE, IN SUPPORTIVE, COMPETITION-ORIENTED CLASSROOMS, SUBJECT MATTER AND TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS MAKE THE BIGGEST CONTRIBUTION TO CLASSROOM CLIMATE. IN CONTROL-ORIENTED CLASSROOMS AGGREGATE STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS MAKE A GREAT DEAL OF DIFFERENCE, PARTICULARLY THE RATIO OF MALES TO FEMALES IN THE DIRECTION YOU WOULD PREDICT, KNOWING ADOLESCENT MALES AND FEMALES. THE OVERALL CONCLUSIONS ARE THESE: (1) IN GENERAL, TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN ALL KINDS OF CLASSROOMS, BUT (2) THEY MAKE LESS OF A DIFFERENCE IN SOME KINDS OF CLASSROOMS THAN IN OTHERS AND IN SOME KINDS OF CLASSROOMS OTHER INFLUENCES ARE GREATER (E.G. CONTROL-ORIENTED CLASSROOMS, WHERE KID CHARACTERISTICS PREDOMINATE). (3) BRONFENBRENNER IS RIGHT WHEN IT COMES TO CLASSROOMS--THEY ARE NOT SELF-CONTAINED MICROSYSTEMS BUT REFLECT INFLUENCES AT HIGHER LEVELS OF ANALYSIS. Classroom Climate Teacher Characteristics

39 4 Ways of Defining Neighborhoods
Site (geographical location) census tracts Perception of neighboring practices, of crime level, of housing Social network interpersonal connections Culture historical/cultural quest COMMUNITY AS SITE: GEOGRAPHICAL BOUNDARIES, USUALLY DESIGNATED BY THE RESEARCHER, NOT THOSE LIVING IN THE COMMUNITY; RELIES HEAVILY ON SOCIAL INDICATORS AND CENSUS DATA ELAB) SUCH AS PHYSICAL QUALITY OF HOUSING, etc.; DRIVE-THROUGH APPROACHES TO ASSESS PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS HIGHLY RELIABLE; COMMUNITY AS SITE USUALLY GOOD FOR BASELINE, DESCRIPTIVE DATA ON CONTEXT; THERE IS ALSO BLOCK LEVEL DATA WHICH MAKE THIS A MORE REFINED APPROACH, SINCE CENSUS TRACTS USUALLY FOCUS ON AREAS LARGER THAN THE DEVELOPMENTAL NICHES OF CHILDREN. PART OF THIS APPROACH INVOLVES WHAT IS CALLED THE SOCIAL ADDRESS APPROACH WHICH CONTRASTS COMMUNITYS IN-TERMS OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES SUCH AS RACIAL ETHNIC COMPOSITION, PERCENTAGE OF FAMILIES IN POVERTY, ETC., AGAIN, DESCRIPTIVELY USEFUL BUT WITH NO CONSIDERATION TO THE INTERVENING STRUCTURES, I.E., CHURCHES, SCHOOLS, COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS, THROUGH WHICH THE ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS THE COURSE OF DEVELOPMENT; LIMITATION OF THIS APPROACH IS THAT THERE IS NO CONSIDERATION OF WHAT THE COMMUNITY IS LIKE FOR RESIDENTS, WHAT THEY DO, OR HOW THE ACTIVITIES TAKING PLACE IN THE COMMUNITY AFFECT THE PEOPLE LIVING THERE, ANOTHER LIMITATION IS THAT IT NEGLECTS THE FACTOR OF MOBILITY, PARTICULARLY FOR ADOLESCENTS WHO SPEND A LOT OF TIME OUT OF THEIR HOME COMMUNITY. (2) COMMUNITY AS PERCEPTION: PERSONAL EVALUATION, PERCEIVED ENVIRONMENT APPROACH TO WAHT CITIZENS THINK OF THE SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL MILIEU OF THE COMMUNITY; BUCKNER' SCALE AS EXAMPLE - HAND OUT ITEMS (COMMUNITY SENSE OF COMMUNITY/COHESION, EXPRESSED IN THREE DIFFERENT AREAS OF COMMUNITY LIFE: RESIDENT'S SENSE OF COMMUNITY WITHIN THE COMMUNITY CONTEXT, RESIDENTS DEGREE OF ATTRACTION TO LIVE AND REMAIN IN THE COMMUNITY, RESIDENTS DEGREE OF INTERACTION IN THE COMMUNITY. DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES ARE IMPORTANT HERE. IN THAT CHILDREN, ADULTS, AND ELDERLY EXPERIENCE THE SAME COMMUNITY DIFFERENTLY BECAUSE THEY HAVE DIFFERENT NEEDS, COGNITIVE STRUCTURES, AND RELATIONSHIPS TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COMMUNITY. (ELAB OR ASK CLASS) (3) COMMUNITIES AS NETWORKS: FOCUSING THE PREVIOUS DISCUSSION OF NETWORKS IN TERMS OF COMMUNITY CONNECTIONS, WHERE THE COMMUNITY IS DEFINED IN TERMS OF THE DEGREE OF DENSITY OF NETWORKS AMONG NEIGHBORS, FOR EXAMPLE, OR THE SUPPORTIVENES OF NEIGHBORS - THE COMPONENT LINKAGES AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITY NETWORKS. NOT AS A GEOGRAPHICAL UNIT OR AS PERCEIVED IN GENERAL. (4) COMMUNITIES AS CULTURE: THIS REFERS TO THE HISTORICALLY DEVELOPED SOCIAL PROCESSES WHICH CHARACTERIZE COMMUNITY CULTURE; BELIEFS, LANGUAGE, GOSSIP AS MEDIATORS OF CHILD EXPERIENCE. THERE IS AN OVERLAP BETWEEN SOCIAL NETWORKS AND CULTURAL CONTEXT (e.g. INFORMAL SYSTEMS) in COMMUNITIES; HOWEVER, THE COMMUNITY AS CULTURE CONCEPT FOCUSES ON THE CULTURE CONCEPT APPLIED LOCALLY, THE TRADITIONS, NORMS, WAYS OF GETTING THINGS DONE, VALUES WHICH MAKE SOME LOCAL CITIZENS MORE INFLUENTIAL THAN OTHERS, ETC.

40 Neighborhood Risk & Protective Processes
Risk processes correlated with problematic individual outcomes (personal distress/behavior problems) Low income neighborhoods Risky physical environments Exposure to violence Protective processes are strengths or resources correlated with positive outcomes (offset or buffer risk processes) Sense of community among residents Good school -- Poverty is by far the most pervasive risk factor and influences a lot of different outcomes -- All neighborhoods have both risk & protective factors, but some are more balanced than others

41 What Difference Does the Neighborhood Make?
Chicago neighborhoods & violent behaviors (Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls) What affected the ability of communities to prevent violence? Premise – social & organizational characteristics of communities explain variation in crime rates What neighborhood characteristics affect the level of violence there? To summarize, SITE--GEOGRAPHY, POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS PERCEPTION--EXPERIENCE OF NEIGHBORHOOD NETWORKS--INTERPERSONAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD CULTURE--HISTORY, KEY EVENTS IN PAST, KEY FIGURES Let’s look at a local example of how ecology can be studied. Sampson, Raudenbush, and Earls – NEIGHBORHOODS AND VIOLENCE CRIME: A MULTI-LEVEL STUDY OF COLLECTIVE EFFICACY. BASIC PREMISE IS THAT THE SOCIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NEIGHBORHOODS EXPLAIN VARIATION IN CRIME RATES THAT ARE NOT ATTRIBUTABLE SOLELY TO THE AGGREGATED DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUALS (ELAB). THEY PROPOSE THAT THE DIFFERENTIAL ABILITY OF NEIGHBORHOODS TO REALIZE COMMON VALUES AND MAINTAIN EFFECTIVE SOCIAL CONTROL IS A MAJOR SOURCE OF NEIGHBORHOOD VARIATION IN VIOLENCE.

42 Hypothesis Ability of neighborhoods to maintain social control in the community related to level of violent behavior Social Control Ability of a group to regulate its members, to realize collective goals (group control) Collective efficacy Social cohesion combined with a willingness to intervene for the common good Reflected in Monitoring children’s play Intervening to prevent street corner society Confronting public nuisances Collective Efficacy Monitoring kid play Neighbors watching after your kid when you’re not there, reporting on bad behavior Intervening to prevention street corner society People actively telling kids to go home when they start to congregate on street corners These things are done on behalf of the neighborhood. They indicated collective efficacy. SOCIAL CONTROL REFERS TO THE CAPACITY OF A GROUP TO REGULATE ITS MEMBERS, TO REALIZE COLLECTIVE, AS OPPOSED TO FORCED, GOALS.INDICATIONS OF SOCIAL CONTROL INCLUDE (A) MONITORING CHILDREN'S PLAY, B) INTERVENING TO PREVENT STREET-CORNER "HANGING" BY TEENAGERS, C) CONFRONTING PERSONS CREATING A DISTURBANCE IN PUBLIC SPACES. AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL, THE WILLINGNESS TO ENGAGE IN SUCH ACTIVITIES IMPLIES CONDITIONS OF MUTUAL TRUST AND SOLIDARITY AMONG NEIGHBORS; THUS, NEIGHBORHOOD EFFICACY IS MANIFESTED IN SUPERVISING CHILDREN AND SUPPORTING PUBLIC ORDER.

43 343 Chicago Neighborhoods
Over 8,000 African-American, Latino, & White people interviewed 3 Types of Neighborhoods “Concentrated Disadvantage” below poverty line on public assistance female-headed families unemployed Immigrant concentration (Latino/foreign born) Residential stability THEY USED CENSUS TRACT DATA IN CHICAGO TO CREATE 343 ECOLOGICALLY MEANINGFUL NEIGHBORHOODS (INTERNALLY HOMOGENOUS). THEY THEN INTERVIEWED ABOUT 8000 PEOPLE IN THOSE NEIGHBORHOODS (WHITE, A/A,LATINO). THERE WERE NO LOW SES WHITE NEIGHBORHOODS, NO HIGH SES LATINO NEIGHBORHOODS, A/A REPRESENTED IN EACH SES GROUP)

44 3 Measures of Violence in Community
Perceived community violence Personal victimization Incidents of homicide How was control & efficacy affected by these measures of violence? THEY ADMINISTERED MEASURE OF "INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL" AND "SOCIAL COHESION AND TRUST" (LIKE BUCKNER'S MEASURE) AS WELL AS THREE MEASURES OF VIOLENCE; PERCEIVED NEIGHBORHOOD VIOLENCE, PERSONAL VICTIMIZATION, AND INCIDENTS OF HOMICIDE (ELAB ON EACH AND ALL TOGETHER IN TERMS OF VARIOUS SUBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE MEASURES.

45 Results Collective Efficacy –
Positively related to residential stability Negatively related to concentrated disadvantage and immigrant/foreign-born [Create a Correlation graph] THEY ANALYZED DATA AT BOTH THE PERSONAL AND NEIGHBORHOOD LEVEL (ELAB ON AGGREGATION OF DATA)AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD LEVEL, COLLECTIVE EFFICACY WAS POSITIVELY RELATED TO RESIDENTIAL STABILITY AND NEGATIVELY RELATED TO CONCENTRATED DISADVANTAGE AND IMMIGRANT/FOREIGN BORN (ELAB)

46 Results Neighborhoods high on collective efficacy
Less perceived violence Less personal victimization Fewer homicides -- Every type of neighborhood was equally represented in high and low collective efficacy. FURTHER, LEVEL OF COLLECTIVE EFFICACY WAS NEGATIVELY RELATED TO PERCEIVED VIOLENCE AND PERSONAL VICTIMIZATION AND HOMICIDE RATE. THUS, THE NEIGHBORHOOD FACTOR OF COLLECTIVE EFFICACY, A NEIGHBORHOOD-LEVEL CONCEPT, IS IMPORTANT IN AFFECTING LEVEL OF VIOLENCE IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD

47 Problem Assessment Assignment
UML Resources Hawk Talk (http://www.uml.edu/admissions/hawktalk/) Press Releases UML Factbook US News & World Report colleges/national-universities-rankings/


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