Presentation on theme: "Overview of the U.S. Educational System"— Presentation transcript:
1 Overview of the U.S. Educational System Education in AmericaWarm-up: 10 min.In groups of 4 think of two things you know about the American educational system, two things you think you know but are not sure about and two things you would like to know. Debrief as whole class.Overview of the U.S. Educational System
2 Overview Topics Overview of the U.S. Educational System: o The roles of federal, state and local government:o Financing of education (who is responsible for what)o Numbers (students, teachers in the school system)o school calendaro Types of school (public, private, charter, religious, other)o Grades/ageso Community involvement in educationo Certification for administrators, teacherso Training opportunitieso Student Assessment
3 Federal, State and Local Government U.S. Department of Education - federal regulations related to Title Mandates – tied to funding (3 – 5% of school budgets):Equal rights for women – Title IXSupport for at-risk children and families – Title IIDEA – 504 and Special EducationState Education Agency– Constitutional right for states to regulate education – funding coordination to school districts (95% of budget to dist)State Commissioner appointed by governorElected state board of education oversees state curriculum, testing requirements, personnel regulations (retirement)Local District – Elected school boards of 7 – 9 membersHire/evaluate the superintendentBudget oversight – distribution of funds to schools, salary schedules for employees, etc.
4 The politics and economics of education in the U.S. Political debate“No Child Left Behind” – data driven environmentSchool choicePrivate school vouchersSources of fundingFederalStateLocal school districtPrivate fundsSchools receive a combination of fundsFunding may be de-centralized
5 Presentation - overview of american education system: 10 min Talk about my educational history as students refer to graphGED
7 School Choice in America Public vs. Private Education Do you know how these education options differ?Public schoolsCharter schools (state or district)Magnet schools (district schools of choice)Private schools (religious, for profit, non-profit)Compulsory education (Kinder or 1st to graduation)High school diploma vs. G.E.D.Home school49.5 million public school students and 3.1 million teachersApproximately 6 million students in private (ies)1. Matching exercise - sts complete with partner. Brief explanation of “School Choice” in America.2. Brainstorming exercise - “”From what you have learned so far, how do you think public and private education might differ in the US?
8 Alternative forms of Education Virtual School – popular in rural areas, high school credit recovery and students who need more flexible schedulesHome schoolingIn 2007, approximately 1.5 million children were home schooled: 2.9% of all children.Often associated with religious groups.Private Schools/Private AcademiesFunded solely by student tuition.May offer more specialized courses or special needs.Parochial SchoolRun by church organizations.Funded by student tuition and petitioner contributions.Charter SchoolFunded by both private funds and public funds.Stricter control over enrollment (entry and continued)
9 Educator Credentialing and hiring TeachersBachelor’s Degree (4 yr) plus state exam for grade level or content level. Additional certifications may be added by coursework and exam in Special Education, English as a Second Language, Gifted and Talented, Bilingual, etc.Depending on the state, may be unionized to advocate for benefits and salariesUsually hired by principal and/or committee of school stakeholdersAppraisals of performance based on student achievementUsually one year contractsSome states offer tenure to highly effective teachersRetirement benefits vary by stateNot paid during summer
10 AdministratorsPrincipals require teacher credential PLUS minimum 3 years experience as a teacher, master’s degree, state examDepending on the state, may be unionized to advocate for benefits and salariesUsually hired by superintendent and/or committee of school stakeholdersAppraisals of performance based on student achievement, surveys, discipline referralsUsually one year contractsSuperintendents may require teacher credential PLUS principal credentials PLUS superintendent examNot unionizedUsually hired by local school board of trusteesAppraisals of performance based on district data, budget and community satisfactionUsually 1 to 3 year contracts – characteristically high turnover rates
11 Professional Development Training opportunities provided by the school district during the day or afterschoolMany offered on-line to be completed during teacher planning time or afterschoolEarly dismissal days throughout the year for PD and/or parent conferencesGraduate degrees pursued and paid for by teacher – not subsidizedNational teacher certification -National principal certification – pilot discontinued
12 American Primary/Elementary Schools Public Elementary School teachers instruct between students of diverse learning needs.A typical classroom will include children with a range of learning needs or abilities, from those identified as having special needs (special education) to students non-native English speakers (ESL students).Each local school district provides textbooks to give to the students for each subject, and brief overviews of what the teacher are expected to teach.Learning standards are identified for all areas of a curriculum by individual States, including those for mathematics, social studies, science, physical development, the fine arts, and reading.Elementary School teachers are trained with emphases on human cognitive and psychological development and the principles of curriculum development and instruction.Teachers typically earn either a Bachelors or Masters Degree in Early Childhood and Elementary Education.Certification standards for teachers are determined by individual states.
14 Typical Day of an American Elementary School Teacher A typical teacher works 8 hours, 5 days a week, at the same school. [August/September-June]Federal Holidays and summer vacations off from work.Primary school teachers may teach the same group of students (20-30 students) for the full day or the campus may be departmentalized – usually at testing grades (3rd and up)Courses include: Reading, Writing, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies.Teachers have one (40-45 minute) planning period during the day.Students receive classes from a different teacher—Music, Art, Gym (sports), Drama, Chorus, etc. during the teacher’s planning periodTeachers meet weekly during the day to discuss students and curriculum called Professional Learning Communities (PLCs)Teachers must have one lunch break (30 minute) during the day.Many teachers stay after school to participate in extracurricular activities for students or provide additional teaching time.
15 American Secondary Schools: Middle School Middle School include the 6th – 8th grades between elementary school and senior high school.At this time, students are given more independence:Having different teachers for each subjects.Taking on more independent homework assignments and projects.Moving to different classrooms for different subjectsbeing allowed to choose some of their class subjects (electives).
16 American Secondary Schools: High School High school - 9th through 12th grade.The students in these grades are classified as:Freshmen (grade 9)Sophomores (grade 10)Juniors (grade 11)Seniors (grade 12)Students are encouraged to pursue a concentration in a specific area of study in preparation for collegeEarly college options allow students to earn college credits simultaneouslyVocational programs provide certifications for graduation
17 High School Curriculum Students take a broad variety of classesCurricula vary widely in quality and rigiditySome states consider 65 (on a 100-point scale) a passing grade, while others consider it to be as low as 60 or as high as 75.Varied tracks to graduation include Advanced Placement (AP) courses which result in graduation plans with higher GPAsEnd of Course exams required to earn credit toward graduationMandatory subjects are required in nearly all U.S. high schools:Science (3 years of biology, chemistry and physics)Mathematics (4 years of algebra, geometry, pre-calculus, statistics, and calculus)English (4 years of literature, humanities, composition, etc.)Social sciences (3 years world and U.S. history, gov./economics)Physical education (4 years)Many states require a "health" course (anatomy, first aid, sexuality, birth control)
18 Extracurricular Activities in American Schools A major characteristic of American schools is the high priority given to sports, clubs and activitiesExtracurricular activities are educational activities not falling within the scope of the regular curriculum but under the supervision of the school.These activities can extend to large amounts of time outside the normal school day and include:Sports Programs—Football, Basketball, Soccer, Swimming, Wrestling, Cheerleading, Rowing, Dance, etc.Performing Arts—orchestra bands, jazz bands, marching bands, choirs, school plays/drama clubs/musicalsDebate teams, Student Government, Public Awareness Organizations, Various Clubs (Poetry Club, Photography Club, etc.)Language clubs (primarily Spanish and French clubs)Cultural activitiesMany parents pay for lessons and activities to supplement their children’s edcuation.
19 Social Issues in American Education English AcquisitionDebate on how to best accommodate for non-English speaking students and parent interest in foreign language instruction.ESL programs vs. Bilingual programsDual Language ProgramsCommon Core - Nationwide Education Content and Education QualityDifferent content, grade systems and qualityTextbook Review and AdoptionOther IssuesEducation regarding violence, sex and drug abuseGLBTQ – Social issues and integrationSupport students who are working
21 Post-secondary Education Options Public/private universities and collegesCommunity colleges and vocational schoolsRising Cost of Tuition for higher education/school loans
22 Cost of Higher Education CNN/Money reported tuition hikes in 2004/05
23 Student AssessmentCost to taxpayers – Big business as states out-source testing administration/scoring to private companiesPreparation for the test diminishes students and teachers as peopleNeed for accountability and equityTremendous stress in children contributing to mental health issuesEducators leaving the profession
24 Community Involvement in Education Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) or Parent-Teacher Organization (PTO)Site-based Decision-Making Committee (SDMC)Booster ClubsFundraising – festivals, raffles, salesSchool Boards elected to oversee district schools
26 Garden Oaks Montessori Pre-Kindergarten (3 yr olds to 8th grade)780 students7:45am – 3:00pm (extended day 7:15am to 6pm)Free breakfast and dinnerSliding scale lunchWelcoming Schools campus of ExcellenceNational Magnet School of DistinctionRobotics, library, music, physical education, computer lab, science lab, gardensVideo of MSAP grant work
27 Garden Oaks Montessori, Houston Independent School District Thank you!Lindsey Pollock, Ed. D.Garden Oaks Montessori, Houston Independent School District(713)