Dropout Effects Every school day, nearly 7,000 students become dropouts. Annually, that adds up to about 1.2 million students who will not graduate from high school with their peers as scheduled. Lacking a high school diploma, these individuals will be far more likely than graduates to spend their lives periodically unemployed, on government assistance, or cycling in and out of the prison system.
Average Income by Education
Positive Effects of Earning a High School Diploma 1.Earn higher wages 2.Live longer 3.Less likely to be a teen parents 4.More likely to raise healthy, educated children 5.Less likely to commit crime 6.Less likely to rely on government health care, financial and housing assistance 7.More likely to engage in civic activities: volunteering, voting
Why Dropout? Dropping out is often described as a process, not an event, with factors building and compounding over time. Dropping out of school is often the result of a long process of disengagement that may begin before a child enters school.
The Three Rs There are almost as many reasons or combinations of reasons why students report that they drop out as there are programs to address them. The majority of the reasons fall into the 3 Rs: Relevancy, Relationships, and Resiliency.
Relevance, Relationships, & Resiliency In a recent survey, students indicated these top three reasons for dropping out of school: 1.They felt alienated at school and no one noticed if they failed to show up for class. 2.School did not reflect real-world challenges. 3.Classes were uninteresting and irrelevant.
Most Common Reasons for Dropping Out Poor relationships with teachers (Institute of Education Sciences, 2005) Lack of social and academic support in school (Croninger & Lee, 2001) Classes were not interesting; felt unchallenged (Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006; Dalton, Glennie & Ingels, 2009)
Significant Risk Factors for School Dropout Individual Background Characteristics Has a learning disability or emotional disturbance Early Adult Responsibilities High number of work hours Parenthood Family Background Characteristics Low socioeconomic status High family mobility Low education level of parents Large number of siblings Not living with both natural parents Family disruption
School Performance Low achievement Retention/over-age for grade School Engagement Poor attendance Low educational expectations Lack of effort Low commitment to school No extracurricular participation School Behavior Misbehavior Early aggression Social Attitudes, Values, & Behavior High-risk peer group High-risk social behavior Highly socially active outside of school Family Engagement/Commitment to Education Lack of conversations about school Low educational expectations Sibling has dropped out Low contact with school National Dropout Prevention Center at Clemson University and Communities In Schools, Inc., 2007
Academic Reasons Only 30 percent of entering high school freshmen read proficiently. National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2009
Ways to Engage Students Providing opportunities for students to experience success Expressing high expectations to students Building relationships with students Creating a family-like classroom atmosphere Making the curriculum relevant to students’ lives
College and Career Ready High schools must be improved to give all students the excellent education that will prepare them for college and a career, and to be productive members of society. Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012
IES Recommended Dropout Prevention Practices Diagnostic Practices (early warning system) – Data system and use – Screening Targeted Interventions – Adult advocates – Academic supports – Social/behavioral supports School-wide Practices – Learning environment – Rigorous and relevant instruction Dynarski, et.al.,
Diagnostic Practices 1. Early Warning System (EWS) 2. Data Collection—Teacher Based Teams 3. Screening/Interviewing
Early Warning System (EWS) Identifies students exhibiting early warning signs that they are at risk for dropping out of high school. The enhanced EWS Tool v2.0 and accompanying guides are available free-of-charge on the National High School Center’s Web site.
Targeted Interventions Targeted interventions involve matching research based interventions to student specific need to assist in eliminating issues contributing to student dropout.
Targeted Interventions Research Based Examples: Programs to improve students’ classroom behavior and social skills, including Positive Behavioral Intervention Supports (PBIS), behavioral contracts and training in problem-solving skills. Targeted models, such as Service Learning, Check and Connect, ALAS, that provide multiple strategies to help students bond with school. During IEP meetings, discuss critical risk factors that place students at risk for school dropout and impact the delivery of FAPE.
Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) Improving student academic and behavior outcomes is about ensuring all students have access to the most effective and accurately implemented instructional and behavioral practices and interventions possible. PBIS provides an operational framework for achieving these outcomes.
Service Learning Service-Learning is a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities. This enables students to see the meaning and make real world connections to their instruction, thus allowing them to see the relevance of their school activities.
Check and Connect Check & Connect is a comprehensive intervention designed to enhance student engagement at school and with learning for marginalized, disengaged students in grades K-12, through relationship building, problem solving and capacity building, and persistence.
ALAS ALAS is an evidence-based comprehensive dropout prevention program specifically designed for at-risk youth. The goals of ALAS are to: build the capacity of schools to eliminate student underperformance or dropout raise the academic achievement of all students raise post-secondary achievement of every student teach schools how to build the capacity of families and community to serve youth effectively
School Wide Practices Safe and orderly school climate where students feel welcome and supported. Extra curricula activities and programs to promote school bonding for marginalized students. Support to students who enter critical transitions without adequate skills in reading, math, and other core content. Diagnostic processes for identifying state, district, school-wide and student-level dropout problems. Ongoing professional development to teachers/other core team members to expand knowledge and skills in design and delivery of instruction in critical content areas.
School-Wide Interventions Promote and facilitate the implementation of evidence-based strategies: Promote a positive school climate Increase school attendance Promote pro-social behaviors Promote academic success Increase family engagement Increase student engagement
Promoting Positive School Climate Students must universally: Feel physically safe. Feel social and emotional security. Believe they are supported in their learning and goals (both short & long term). Believe their social and civic learning and activities are important and supported. Believe they are respected, trusted, and connected to the adults and the learning environment.
Strategies to Increase Attendance Create culture which says attending school everyday matters Every absence brings a response Positive social incentives for good attendance Data tracking at teacher based team (TBT) level
Promote Pro-social Behaviors Students learn appropriate behavior in the same way they learn to read – through instruction, practice, feedback, and encouragement. Enhancements that increase school-wide social competence and positive behavioral supports decrease disciplinary actions that lead to dropout.
Promote Academic Success: Provide Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Effective Teachers: Manage an organized and efficient learning environment Maximize time on academic tasks Minimize time on non-instructional activities Provide students with tasks that allow them to be successful Maximize use of active or direct teaching procedures with groups of students
Increase Family Engagement Increase communication between home and school (i.e., family outreach) Home visits Inviting parents to be part of school teams and committees Hold parent conferences or support groups Provide feedback to parents on student progress more frequently Report more than just negative behavior
Increase Student Engagement Four Types of Engagement & Associated Factors: 1. Academic engagement refers to time on task, academically engaged time, or credit accrual. 2. Behavioral engagement includes attendance, avoidance of suspension, classroom participation, and involvement in extracurricular activities. 3. Cognitive engagement involves internal indicators including processing academic information or becoming a self-regulated learner. 4. Psychological engagement includes identification with school or a sense of belonging. Christenson, 2002
Resources The following slides describe resources for dropout prevention and for your school’s programming.
Dropout Prevention Guide Dropout Prevention: A Practice Guide (NCEE ). Dynarski, M., Clarke, L., Cobb, B., Finn, J., Rumberger, R., and Smink, J. (2008). Washington, DC: National Center for Education and Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. This guide provides practical, clear information on critical topics related to dropout prevention and is based on the best available evidence as judged by the review panel.
National Dropout Prevention Center/Network The mission of the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network is to increase high school graduation rates through research and evidence-based solutions. They have identified 15 effective strategies that have the most positive impact on the dropout rate, and have developed a database of research-based programs and information available on the website.
National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities (NDPC-SD) A national technical assistance center funded by OSEP to support states in designing evidence based interventions that decrease dropout rates, increase school completion rates and improve reentry/recovery for students with disabilities.
References Alliance for Excellent Education. Issue Brief, November Chapman, C., Laird, J., & KewalRamani, A. (2010). Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972–2008 (NCES ). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from C. Hammond, J. Smink, & S. Drew: National Dropout Prevention Center. D. Linton: Communities In Schools, Inc. (May 2007). Dropout Risk Factors and Exemplary Programs: A Technical Report. Institute of Education Sciences [IES]. (2005). Facts from NLTS2. High school completion for students with disabilities. Retrieved from
References U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, ―Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. (accessed September 7, 2011). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation’s Report Card: Reading 2009 (NCES 2010–458). (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009).
State Support Team 11 Contacts Kim Fausnaugh Barb Knipe