Presentation on theme: "ACCELERATION: MYTHS, REALITIES, AND OPTIONS"— Presentation transcript:
1ACCELERATION: MYTHS, REALITIES, AND OPTIONS First documented acceleration: St. Louis 1862341 studies on accelerationSo, you’d think it would be routine, ho-hum. But it’s not!Kiri Jorgensen & Barbara GellerOctober 2013
2What is Acceleration?In general, acceleration is defined as the recognition of students’ prior achievement. (Southern, Jones, & Stanley, 1993)However, the practice also includes academic progress based on individual abilities without regard to age (Paulus, 1994) andImplies adjustment of the curriculum, as well as administrative procedures, for student placement (Schiever & Maker, 2003).Kiri
3Types of Acceleration Whole-Grade Skipping Curriculum Adjustments Early admission to Kindergarten or First GradeGrade SkippingEarly College EntranceCurriculum AdjustmentsSubject AccelerationTelescoping CurriculumCurriculum CompactingFast Paced Extracurricular Classes
6Early Entrance to Kindergarten Should We or Shouldn’t We?3 testors: absolutely not!IntrovertSocial repercussionsExperienced G/T teacher:HumorKnowledge & behaviorAttitudePrincipal:Problematic behaviors?BarbaraCoppell criteria: Clay’s Observation Survey + Math Achievement Subtest (+Giselle development assessment)NAGC poster session: “Identifying the Gifted Using Personality”Carol A. Carman, University of Houston Clear LakeThree personality questions correctly identified 72% of gifted kids:It takes me longer than other people to get jokes (negatively correlated)I stay away from crowds.I find activities to perform in front of others (dance, music, etc.)So, if you’re trying to guess if a very young child is gifted, pay attention to his reaction to jokes.
7Myths about Grade Skipping “It hurries children out of childhood”“Acceleration hurts children socially”“Children must be kept with their age group”“It’s not fair to the other students”“They will have gaps in their learning / skills”BarbaraAsk the audience.Why? Limited familiarity with the research on acceleration
8NAGC: 20% of gifted kids drop out of high school RealitiesWhen GT students do not move ahead at an appropriate pace, the results are:BoredomPoor study habitsUnderachievementBehavior problemsBarbaraNAGC: 20% drop out of HSNAGC: 20% of gifted kids drop out of high school
9Realities of Acceleration Students who are moved ahead tend to:Be more ambitiousEarn graduate degrees at higher ratesSay acceleration was an excellent experience for themFeel academically challengedFeel socially acceptedBarbara
10When is Grade Skipping Appropriate? KiriUsing the Iowa Acceleration Scale
11Iowa Acceleration Scale It is a tool for use by a team of school professionals. It provides educators and parents with a systematic and defensible way to generate recommendations and guidelines to use for placement of highly gifted students. The IAS is not a test.Kiri$179 for IAS Manual and ten IAS Forms and Summary and Planning Records
12Why IAS Recommends a Team Approach Discuss strengths and potential difficulties of the K- 8 student.Designed to bring objective data to the discussion.Minimize any potential bias for or against whole- grade acceleration.Ensure that all who have relevant knowledge about the child will have input.Kiri
13What Info Does IAS Require? General info about student, family, teamAbility (IQ, intelligence) test such as WICS-IVPreferably administered individually by a psychologistAptitude (above-level) testExamples: ITBS, EXPLORE, SAT, ACTAchievement (at-level) assessmentExamples: ITBS, CAT, Woodcock-Johnson Test of AchievementSchool & Academic Factors: attendance, motivation, attitude toward learning, and academic self confidence.Development: age, physical size, motor skillsInterpersonal skills: emotional development, behavior, and relationships with peers and teachers.Attitudes: student’s attitude regarding the grade skip, level of parent support, and level of school system supportKiri
14Interpreting the IAS Grand Total 60-80 points totalExcellent candidate for whole grade acceleration. Acceleration is recommended.46-59 pointsGood candidate.Whole grade acceleration is recommended.35-45 pointsMarginal candidate. No clear recommendation.Consider curricular alternatives.34 or fewer pointsWhole grade acceleration is not recommended.Kiri
15Reasons to NOT Grade Skip The student’s ability (measured by IQ) is less than one standard deviation above the meanThe student would be accelerated into the same grade as (or a higher grade than) a siblingThe student presently has a sibling in the same gradeThe student does not want to be whole-grade acceleratedBarb…or dealing with other issues (e.g., a disability, a divorce, a move) that would result in delaying a grade-skip.We got around #2 by moving the younger child to a different school.Reasons to perhaps delay a grade skip:Divorce, move, disease or other temporary family disruptionDisabilitiesEnglish proficiency
16When To Grade Skip Kindergarten Elementary Middle School High School Mid-year or beginning of year?BarbK – easiest; the challenge of making new friends would only be encountered once3-6: greatest research-supported academic & social effectsJim Delisle: middle school – it’s a social/emotional problem for all students; minimize it.High school: subject acceleration; early college programs easier than accelerating within a school, due to state butts-in-seats-for-4-years requirements.Texas history year (4th & 8th); know what parts of the curriculum can be skipped.
17The Child Study Team Model: What We Did Started meeting early in K year to plan for current needsIncluded parents, teachers - current and future, administrator, counselor, psychologist, GT Coordinator, mentorProgressed through the IAS systematically throughout the year, breaking the actual form into two meetingsKiri
18The Iowa Acceleration Scale The Iowa Acceleration Scale provided our school with an objective and defendable measure of the multiple aspects of whole grade acceleration consideration. We covered academic appropriateness, emotional readiness, social readiness, behavior and attitudes, the school itself, the family, and the thoughts of the student being considered. Many people were involved with the acceleration decision, and supported it. We are confident in our decision, and empowered by the plan we created.Kiri
19Keys to Successful Acceleration Once the decision is made to whole grade accelerate, then the team’s work starts. What happens next? Who will make sure it happens? Who will monitor and provide support? What is expected of the student? When will the team meet again to evaluate progress and address concerns? What will show the acceleration as a success or failure? What will happen next year? The year after that?Create an Acceleration PlanEnsure receiving teacher has positive attitudeTrial periodKiri
20Keys to Successful Acceleration Our plan for BenAccelerate to 2nd grade.Continue with his teaching mentor.Provide opportunities for quick advancement, or high grouping in subject areas of strength.Check in support from counselor, especially at the beginning of the year.Establish clear expectations with fine motor skills, specifically handwriting. Teach keyboarding.Make PE teacher aware of physical differences.Meet regularly as a team to discuss progress.Make necessary changes to curriculum as needed, including future acceleration.KiriI’ll add to this what we have done over the years since his acceleration. We meet as a team at least once a year and discuss his progress and challenges.
21No Policy?Presents recommendations in five key areas for components of an acceleration policy.Supports schools in creating a comprehensive and research-based acceleration policy that is compatible with local policies.Provides an easy-to-use Checklist for Developing an Academic Acceleration Policy to guide policy development.Co-authored by Institute for Research and Policy on Acceleration, the National Association for Gifted Children, & the Council of State Directors of Programs for the GiftedeitherFree PDF from
22Early College Programs HS diploma not requiredFull fledged university studentPreferably a program, not an ad-hoc solution“Considering the Options: A Guidebook for Investigating Early College Entrance from Davidson Young Scholars” _Guidebooks_375.aspxNot the same thing as an “early college high school” or a “boarding school”Barbara
23Residential Early Entrance Programs Bard College at Simon's Rock (MA)Clarkson School (NY)Georgia Academy of Mathematics, Engineering, and Science (GAMES) (GA)Mary Baldwin College Program for the Exceptionally Gifted (PEG) (VA; for females only)Missouri Academy of Science, Mathematics, and Computing (MO)Shimer College, the Great Books College of Chicago (IL)State University of West Georgia Advanced Academy (GA)Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS) (Texas residents only)University of Iowa National Academy of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering (IA)University of Southern California Resident Honors Program (RHP) (CA)University of Washington Early Entrance Program (WA)Davidson Academy for the Profoundly Gifted (NV) – free for profoundly gifted local residentsBarbarahas a comparison chart of the programs
24Who? What? Possible drawback: High achievers Interested in math & scienceReady for pre-calculusWhat?Take university coursesLive in a dorm with (just) other TAMS studentsTAMS specific extracurricularsPossible drawback:If student doesn’t finish college and has no HS diplomaBarbaraJack’s best friends are TamstersResearch on TAMS: Serving Gifted Learners Beyond the Traditional Classroom
26Alternative Forms of Acceleration Subject AccelerationTelescoping Curriculum / Curriculum CompactingFast Paced Extracurricular Classes
27Subject Acceleration Decison Option A: Administer an end-of-year, comprehensive subject examOption B: Use state proficiency exam scoresOption C: Belin-Blank “IDEAL Solutions® for STEM Acceleration” report:Gather recent scores for at least one of the following tests:ACT EXPLORE Iowa Algebra Aptitude Test$49 for one student; discounts for multiple studentsCan be done by parent or teacherMost common for math, science & foreign language
28Logistics of Subject Acceleration Walk to another classZero hour classIndependent study / mentorOnline coursesOr a flexible teacher!What happens when the class is in another building?You need a long-term plan.
29Telescoping or Compacting Curriculum Telescoping = Complete the curriculum in a shorter time period than normalExample: Finish 3 years of science in 2 yearsGifted kids can learn in 1-3 repetitionsTypically done in middle or high schoolTypically done for a group or class togetherCompacting = Eliminate repetitive material or material already masteredPre-testingBased upon individual’s gaps & strengthsTime saved is commonly used for enrichmentKiriTelescoping lets the kids progress at their own pace. Compacting gives them credit for what they already know. Combined, these two acceleration techniques are very effective.
30Extracurricular Acceleration Summer campsMath camps explore non-curricular subjects, like number theory, game theoryRegional talent search summer programs (Center for Bright Kids)Online coursesMentorshipsAdvice & resources:For the profoundly gifted: Davidson Young ScholarsFor minorities: The Next Generation Venture FundFor 7th Graders: Jack Kent Cook ScholarshipNo credit earning acceleration summer camps in Montana, but lots elsewhereCarroll college program.Kiri: talk about the Jack Kent Cook Scholarship
31Effect Size of Acceleration OptionAcademic ESSocialization ESPsychological ESEarly Entrance to School.36.12.14Grade Skipping.78.46Early College.44-.06.11Residential HS (TAMS)1.04Subject Acceleration1.02 (.49)*-.16Curriculum Compaction1.48 (.45)*Grade Telescoping.56.22Mentorships.42.50 (.01)*.48Adv Placement.29.24**.07**Concurrent Enroll..16.05.74 (.36)*Define “effect size”Results of Karen Rogers’ meta-analysis of 314 studies, 81 of which had enough data for calculating effect sizesSocialization and Psychological ES either positive or not statistically significant, except for Grade Skipping & MentorshipsOther research on TAMS and Northwestern Univ: initial blow to self esteem, but later recouped (change from big fish in small pond to small fish in big pond)Bold = statistically significant. (ES> +.30)*1 study may have overly influenced outcomes. 2nd # has study removed.** Based on 1 studyKaren B. Rogers: 10 “Things” That Work;A best-evidence synthesis of research on acceleration options
32How is acceleration working for our kids? Why didn’t we grade skip Christina? Disabilities; humanities interests; wants to take all the courses; Instead, she took GT classes, DMNews internship. Took 5 courses instead of 4 most semesters in college.Jack spent 5 years in college, to get his Chinese major and to reapply to PhD programs.College admission might be a problem: too young and inexperienced to interview well; too many credits; underage drinking
3360 Profoundly Gifted - Outcomes Australian researcher Miraca Gross followed a group of 60 students with very high IQs for two decades. She found that those who were allowed to skip ahead at least three grade levels tended to do well academically and socially; most got PhDs, settled into professional careers, formed relationships, and developed good friends.The 33 who were not allowed to accelerate in school had less charmed lives. Most ended up at less rigorous colleges and several never graduated high school or college. They also had more trouble forming social relationships. Having spent so many years feeling alienated, they had no practice connecting with people, Gross speculated.“IQ like Einstein” by Susan Freinkel
34Resources & Further Reading A Nation Deceived – free downloadRe-Forming Gifted Education by Karen B. Rogers $11.50Guidelines for Developing an Academic Acceleration Policy – free downloadIowa Acceleration Scale $179 for 10 studentsBelin-Blank “IDEAL Solutions® for STEM Acceleration” <=$49/student“Considering the Options: A Guidebook for Investigating Early College Entrance from Davidson Young Scholars” – free downloadIn Coppell, we gave A Nation Deceived to each school board member. (Free on special request)