2 Questions What impact does poverty have on children? What do within-child designs contribute to understanding the effects of poverty?Are the effects of poverty (and the estimated effects of a reduction in poverty) greater or less if the child's caregiver has a partner? if the child's caregiver is employed? What accounts for these effects?What are the effects of familial instability on children's adjustment problems?How does parental work stress impact the parent-child relationship?How is the quantity and quality of child care associated with peer competence? Specifically, how does experience in child-care settings impact observed skill in peer play? And, what impact does quality of child care have on socioemotional and peer outcomes?NEW: What are risk factors for high SES high schoolers Are they the same or different than those of low SES high-schoolers?What are two dimensions of parenting and how do they combine to form three-four styles of parenting?What are the characteristics of the three main styles of parenting?What are the characteristics of children raised with those styles?How would you characterize your own parents' parenting style and what style of parenting would you favor as a parent?
3 The Big Picture: Psychosocial ecology of human development Physical and social circumstances are likely to be the among the strongest predictors of socioemotional developmentdivorce/remarriage, beginning and changing schools, economic upturns/downturns -Are these direct or indirect effects?The emotional impact of the divorce or the downturn in standard of living?
4 Policy ImplicationsResearchers can’t hide in the lab, but they should not be overly prescriptiveThey should understand that policy can have unintended repercussions for diverse partiesattachment and daycareadoptionmaternal drug useThompson
5 Some poverty statistics in U.S. In 2011, 16.1 million (22.0 percent) children under the age of 18 were in poverty.Children living in poverty more likely to have problems in school, earn less as adults, more likely to be teenage parents16.7 million children under 18 in the United States live in households where they are unable to consistently access enough nutritious food necessary for a healthy life—food insecurehttp://feedingamerica.org/hunger-in-america/hunger-facts/hunger-and-poverty-statistics.aspx68% of children live in married-couple familiesSingle and unmarried couple families likely to be poorerOnly 8% of kids living in married-couple families lived in poverty14% (10 million kids) have no health insurancemedialab.scu.edu/psychology/faculty/turdan/developmental%20ppts/contexts%20of%20development.ppt
10 Consequences of poverty Worse health, lower cognitive functioningMost consistent finding is for lower academic achievementDepends on persistence, depth, and ageLonger, deeper poverty at early age is the worst
11 How poverty affects development Lack of warmth in parent-child relationship; fewer educational opportunities at homeLower quality childcare outside of homeEconomic pressure creates conflict in the homeLower parental physical, mental health; worse relations with childBad neighborhoods, schoolsGenetics? Mentally unstable, low IQ leads to poverty, passed to kids?Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). Family poverty, welfare reform, and child development. Child Development, 71(1), doi: /Duncan, G. J., Yeung, W. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Smith, J. R. (1998). How much does childhood poverty affect the life chances of children? American Sociological Review, 63(3), doi: /
12 “…a $10,000 increment to income averaged over the first five years of life for children in low-income families is associated with a 2.8-fold increase in the odds of finishing high school.” (p. 149, A & E 28) see
13 Dynamic associations between family income and child “Children had fewer externalizing problems during times when their families' incomes were relatively high than during times when their families' incomes were relatively lowthe estimated benefits of increased income were greatest for children who were chronically poor.N = 1,132Dearing, E., K. McCartney, et al. (2006). "Within-child associations between family income and externalizing and internalizing problems." Developmental Psychology 42(2):For both externalizing and internalizing problems, income was most strongly associated with problems when chronically poor children's mothers were partnered and employed.”
14 Income strongly associated with problems when chronically poor children's mothers were partnered and employed
17 Familial Instability“There are associations between the degree of environmental instability and difficulties in adjustment, such that children exposed to higher levels of family instability (e.g., more frequent separations from parent figures and more frequent residential moves) show worse adjustment across a variety of developmental domains. greater attention in future research on child and adolescent adjustment.”Adam, E. K. (2004). Beyond Quality:. Parental and Residential Stability and Children's Adjustment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(5),
19 Parental work stress…Indirect effects of parental work stress on children’s and adolescents’ adjustment“Work stress is linked to parents’ feelings of overload and strain, which in turn predict lower parent-child acceptance and higher conflict…Processes that in turn are related to less positive adjustment of children and adolescents.In the face of high work stress, withdrawing from family involvement may be adaptive in the short run but ultimately problematic.”Crouter, A. C., & Bumpus, M. F. (2001). Linking Parents' Work Stress to Children's and Adolescents' Psychological Adjustment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(5),
20 Rich and poor‘614 sixth graders from two communities, one low and the other highOutcomes: subjective well-being and school competence.Very affluent children can perceive their parents as emotionally and physically unavailable to the same degree as youth in serious poverty.Closeness to parents was beneficial for all, just as criticism was deleterious.Parents' physical absence (e.g., at dinner) connoted vulnerability for distress and for poor school performance in both groups.Even after considering the quality of parent-child relationshipsLuthar, S. S. and S. J. Latendresse (2005). "Comparable "risks" at the socioeconomic status extremes: Preadolescents' perceptions of parenting." Development and Psychopathology 17(1):
21 Problems of the rich‘302 6th & 7th-graders in an affluent, suburban community showed:high rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms among older girls,links between various internalizing symptoms and substance use among both boys and girls,peer approval of substance use among older boys.Associations between achievement pressures (particularly excessive perfectionistic strivings), and isolation from parents (particularly low perceived closeness to mothers).Luthar, S. S. and B. E. Becker (2002). "Privileged but pressured?: A study of affluent youth." Child Development 73(5):
22 Substance Use Among Affluent, Suburban High School Students Clusters reporting escalating, declining, and persistently high use consistently demonstrated relatively poorer psychosocial adjustment -- when compared with a cluster of students reporting minimal use.Other dimensions of psychosocial adjustment remained relatively stable despite changes in substance use…social safety net?McMahon, T. J. and S. S. Luthar (2006). "Patterns and Correlates of Substance Use Among Affluent, Suburban High School Students." Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 35(1):
23 Its parental criticism and absence – not child overscheduling .Negligible evidence for deleterious effects of high extracurricular involvement per se.Far more strongly implicated was perceived parent criticism for both girls and boys as well as the absence of after-school supervision.Low parent expectations connoted significant vulnerability especially for boys.At least among early adolescents, converging scientific and media reports may have scapegoated extracurricular involvements, to some degree, as an index of ubiquitous achievement pressures in affluent communities.Luthar, S. S., K. A. Shoum, et al. (2006). "Extracurricular Involvement Among Affluent Youth: A Scapegoat for "Ubiquitous Achievement Pressures"?" Developmental Psychology 42(3):
24 Tenth graders’ substance use, delinquency, and low school engagement. Unique links with grades for self-reported delinquency and school disengagement in high- and low-income samples, but for substance use only among the former.In both schools, grades were clearly compromised among youth with disturbances in all three problem domains.Luthar, S. S. and N. S. Ansary (2005). "Dimensions of adolescent rebellion: Risks for academic failure among high- and low-income youth." Development and Psychopathology 17(1):
26 Is emotion relevant to these kids? ‘Parents of children with developmental delays reported lower prioritisation of emotion & focused less on emotion during discourse than parents of controls.Pathway from developmental status through prioritisation to emotion focus.Emotion focus predicted children’s social skills as reported on by multiple informants.
29 Parenting StylesFirst, parenting style is meant to describe normal variations in parenting. In other words, the parenting style typology Baumrind developed should not be understood to include deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive or neglectful homes.Second, Baumrind assumes that normal parenting revolves around issues of control. Although parents may differ in how they try to control or socialize their children and the extent to which they do so, it is assumed that the primary role of all parents is to influence, teach, and control their children.
30 Two dimensions of parenting Parental responsiveness (parental warmth or supportiveness)"the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to children’s special needs and demands.Parental demandingness (behavioral control)"the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys“faculty.augie.edu/~pchanavan/family/chapter3.ppt
31 Parent StylesIndulgent parents (also referred to as "permissive" or "nondirective") "are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation". Two types:democratic parents, who, though lenient, are more conscientious, engaged, and committed to the child, and nondirective parents.Children and adolescents from indulgent homes (high in responsiveness, low in demandingness)more likely to be involved in problem behavior and perform less well in school, but they have higher self-esteem, better social skills, and lower levels of depression.
32 Parenting StylesAuthoritarian parents are highly demanding and directive, but not responsive. "They are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation".Provide well-ordered and structured environments with clearly stated rules. Two types: nonauthoritarian-directive, who are directive, but not intrusive or autocratic in their use of power, and authoritarian-directive, who are highly intrusive.Children and adolescents from authoritarian families (high in demandingness, but low in responsiveness) tend to perform moderately well in school and be uninvolved in problem behavior, but they have poorer social skills, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression.
33 Parenting StylesAuthoritative parents are both demanding and responsive. "They monitor and impart clear standards for their children’s conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative“.Children and adolescents whose parents are authoritative rate themselves and are rated by objective measures as more socially and instrumentally competent than those whose parents are nonauthoritative
34 Parenting StylesUninvolved parents are low in both responsiveness and demandingness. In extreme cases, this parenting style might encompass both rejecting–neglecting and neglectful parents, although most parents of this type fall within the normal range.Children and adolescents whose parents are uninvolved perform most poorly in all domains.
35 Parenting styles--Baumrind Authoritarian“Because I said so!”Punitive, controlling parenting strategiesObedience orientedAuthoritativeStructure and rules with an emphasis on reasoningLess likely to use physical punishmentInvolve children in decision, rule makingPermissiveLoose structureChildren given much leeway in deciding activities, rules, and schedules
36 Which parenting style is best? Outcomes associated with different stylesAuthoritarianLack of social competenceIncreased aggression among boysWithdrawal from social contactHeteronomous moralityAuthoritativeGreater self-reliance and confidenceMore sociable, willing to explorePermissiveImmature, impulsiveLimitations of the researchCulturally biased? (research based primarily on white, middle class)Confusion of causality? Kids may elicit different parenting styles
37 Parenting: Current view What particular features of a parenting style - including affective behavior - produces outcomes in particular circumstances.More flexibility for older adolescentsGroup differencesMore restrictive caregiving is seen as more loving and has more positive outcomes among African-American teens (Mason’s work)
38 Which parenting style were you raised with Which parenting style were you raised with? Which do you think produces the best kind of kids?
39 What will you do differently? What will you do similarly? If you become a parent will you raise your kids the same way your parents raised you?What will you do differently?What will you do similarly?
41 Self-determination theory model of internalization Conditional negative regard predicts feelings of resentment toward parents, then predicts dysregulation of negative emotions and academic disengagement;Conditional positive regard predicts internal compulsion, which then predict suppressive regulation of negative emotions and grade-focused academic engagement;Autonomy support predicts sense of choice, which then predicts integrated regulation of negative emotions and interest-focused academic engagement.
46 Parenting and emotionTry to achieve goals with/for offspring is very emotional!Discipline strategies are modified by perception of child’s temperament.The actual process is bidirectionalMutual expectations impact next interactions so that relationships impact relationships
48 Covariance of genotype &environment Heritable characteristics of children evoke strong and specific responses from their parents…Moreover, heritable traits that influence parenting are transmitted to children and influence children’s adjustment.Thus, genetically influenced evocative processes from children and parental-transmission mechanisms influence the covariances between measures of family relationships and child development.Intervention: alter parental responses to heritable characteristics of children and influence the genetically influenced ontogeny of parenting.
49 ReferencesThompson, R. A. (1999). The individual child: Temperament, emotion, self, and personality. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook (4th ed.) (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Larence Earlbaum.Thompson (2001). Development in the first years of life. The Future of Children, 11(1),
50 Fathers’ Influence on Children’s Development: The Evidence from Two-Parent Families Lewis & Lamb, 2003“Forgotten Contributors to Child Development”Is fathering equivalent to mothering?Why do mothers have an edge?Parent-infant attachments – mothers might have an edgeLongitudinal research - emerging trend favoring fathersConsider two trends:Mothers are more sensitiveCultural variationsFARHAT
51 Interactions with Newborns SimilaritiesInteractions with newbornsHormonal changesDifferencesMore life changes experienced by mothersMore satisfaction derived by mothersCultural findingsNo differences in caregiving during feeding for AmericansIsraeli mothers sooth infants more effectively during feedingFARHAT
52 Interactions with Infants No differences in level of sensitivity in still-face or questionnairesSubtle differencesFathers are more involved in play than caretakingFathers are less attuned to infants linguistic levelFour-month-olds don’t prefer their fathers’ voicesPaternal play elicits more positive reactions in infantsPlay and communicative styles tend to be differentiated; fathers tend to…tease during playexhibit staccato bursts of stimulationincrease pitch and frequency range more than mothershold babies in course of playing more so than in caretakingCultural findingsFathers have a biological tendency to specialize in play?FARHAT
53 Childhood and Adolescence Patterns in infancy continue on..Both equally involved in scholastic activitiesMothers spend more time with children than fathers doIn adolescence: fathers have more contact with sonsAdolescents report being closer to mothersFARHAT
54 What Makes Fathers Different? Paternal sensitivity – interaction between biology and cultureFamily systemMarital dissatisfaction has a negative effect on parental synchrony and infant-father attachmentFathers and mothers affect each other differentlyLinking the family to wider culture – Dual-earner homesBoth reported feeling anxious about leaving infant with someone elseMen were less sensitive to four-month oldsStrong traditional cultures – e.g. in New DelhiFARHAT
55 Do Father’s Influence Children’s Emotional Development? Meta-analysisPaternal sensitivity predicts infant-father attachmentEvidence of a weaker relationship compared to momsFathers’ recall of childhood attachments predicted:Security of their infant’s attachment to them at age 1Mother-child attachments have more predictive power?Findings are mixedFARHAT
56 Longitudinal Research Father’s hostility predicted:Degree of hostility and ego-resiliency at age 25Father’s involvement predicted:Adult children’s satisfaction inSpousal relationshipsSelf-reported parenting skillsPerformance in national exams at age 16Absence/presence of criminal record at 21Positive correlations with later indices (age 33) of psychosocial adjustmentFARHAT