1WestCare Sleep Disorders Center: Harris Regional Hospital SLEEP AND COLLEGE LIFEWaverly Green, III, MDTeresa Green, MDWestCare Sleep Disorders Center: Harris Regional HospitalSylva, NCSleep is a biological requirement, as essential and valuable as good nutrition and exercise. It is an active process that energizes and restores your brain and body.Getting enough uninterrupted and restorative - or quality sleep - gives you the potential to thrive and makes it possible to live a full life. Sleep is essential to your ability to perform both cognitive and physical tasks at your peak and engage fully in life.While sleep needs and patterns change from childhood into adolescence and through adulthood, sleep still plays a vital role and contributes to every aspect of your development--physically, psychologically, emotionally, and socially.
2Overview Why Sleep is Important Consequences of Sleep Deprivation Recognizing Sleep DisordersTips for Good SleepHere is what we will cover today.Why sleep is importantThe consequences of fatigue in the workplaceShift work perils and countermeasuresCommon Sleep Disorders and ProblemsNSF Healthy Sleep Tips, educational materials, and national campaigns and programs
3Sleep is Vitally Important... Growth and physical developmentLearning & memory consolidationCognitive & physical performanceMood and emotional stabilityHealth maintenance and prevention of diseaseSleep is important for all these reasons.Sleepiness affects vigilance, reaction times, alertness, mood, hand-eye coordination, and the accuracy of short-term memory.1-2 Sleep and sleep-related problems also play a role in a numerous human disorders and affects almost every field of medicine.Recent research has shown that there is a connection between sleep and appetite control. You may be at risk of eating too much if you are continually sleep deprived, as many of us are. The lack of sleep sets off a chain of events that lowers the level of a hormone called leptin that causes people to overeat.3Think of your body as a computer. Walking around in a sleep-deprived state is like working on a computer with a fragmented hard drive. You are not getting all the performance from that computer that you could. As you sleep, your body repairs itself and gets ready for the next day.References:1. Bonnet MH. Sleep deprivation. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W. editors, Principals and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders2. Dinges, D.F., Kribbs, N.B. Performing while sleepy: Effects of experimentally-induced sleepiness. In:Monk, T.H., ed. Sleep, Sleepiness and Performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons,3. Spiegel K et al. Leptin levels are dependent on sleep duration: relationships with sympathovagal balance, carbohydrate regulation, cortisol, and thyrotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab Nov;89(11):
4Sleep Needs Vary Over the Life Cycle Newborns/Infants0 - 2 monthsmonthshours14-15 hoursToddlers/Childrenmonths18 months - 3 yrs.3 - 5 yrs.yrs.13-15 hours12-14 hours11-13 hours10-11 hoursAdolescents/Young AdultsOn Average9 hoursAdults/Older Persons7-9 hoursOver the life cycle, our sleep needs and the amount of hours required to sustain a quality lifestyle vary.Infants or newborn babies (up to 2 months) need hours over a 24-hour cycle. Sleep is definitely a priority for new babies and they need a lot of sleep to grow and develop. From 2-18 months, the average baby requires hours of sleep.Around 18 months and during the toddler or pre-school age, children need around hours of sleep. When children reach the age of 5 they need 10 hours at night. Most children give up a nap by the age of 5.Adolescents need about as much sleep as when they were younger—8 ½ - 9 ½ hours. Although teens are often involved in activities that deprive them of sleep, it is just as important to their development. Teens experience a lot of daytime sleepiness due to chronic sleep deprivation.Adults perform best with 7-9 hours although most adults get between 4 and 10 hours of sleep.Contrary to a common myth, older adults need just as much sleep as younger adults; however, they often have more medical or sleep problems, they often do not sleep as efficiently due to pain, discomfort or disruptions and may not experience as much deep sleep as they age.Reference:Mindell J, Owens J. A clinical guide to pediatric sleep. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.
5Yet… College Students are Chronically Sleep Deprived Average significantly less sleep (6-7 hours). A 2hr sleep debt each night!Most experience excessive daytime sleepiness on a regular basis (50-70%)Report twice as many sleep problems as the general population
6Why? The obvious: The less obvious: Academic workload Social activities, extracurricular activities, and jobsComputer / internet / TV / cell phonesExcessive caffeine use, alcohol and/or recreational drugsDelayed sleep phase and irregular sleep wake schedules
7Class start times / delayed sleep phase Genetic predisposition Social pressuresAcademic workloadsClass start times / delayed sleep phaseSleep TimeGenetic predispositionRisk taking behavior including the use and abuse of recreational legal and illegal drugs and alcohol is extremely common in adolescence.11 These behaviors often contribute to problems with daytime sleepiness and are also an additive risk factor for Motor vehicular accidents. Forty percent have tried an illicit drug. Ninety percent of high school students have tried alcohol. Sleep problems are significantly more common in individuals using illicit drugs, alcohol and nicotine. There are an enormous variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence daily sleep amounts in the adolescent. These factors can affect not only the development of sleep disturbance, but also the development of a variety of awake behavioral problems and psychiatric illness in this population.1211. Johnson EO, Breslau N. Sleep problems and substance use in adolescence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001;64(1):1-7.12. Halbower AC, Marcus CL. Sleep disorders in children. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2003;9(6):471-6.Substance abuseComputer, Internet, TV, Cell phones
8Delayed Sleep Phase Sleep Schedule Contributing to the physical changes that occur as adolescence approaches, teens also experience a biological shift to a later sleep-wake cycle. Studies have found that, in teens, the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin is secreted later in the evening – around 11:00 pm – and also drops later in the morning. This sleep tendency to later times, often called a “delayed sleep phase syndrome,” puts teens into conflict with typical schedules, particularly early school start times.This slide shows what would be a natural sleep schedule for a teen. Many teens are physiologically not able to fall asleep before 11:00 pm. You can lie down earlier, but you might find it hard to actually fall asleep. After getting the 9 1/4 hours of sleep that you need in order to wake without an alarm clock or other intervention, a natural wake time would be around 8:00 am or so – again, putting you in conflict with earlier school start times.In order to get to classes on time, many students must wake early and shorten their sleep time.
9QUESTION: What do the following disasters have in common? Three Mile IslandChernobylExxon ValdezSpace Shuttle Challenger
10QUESTION:What do the following disasters have in common?Three Mile IslandChernobylExxon ValdezSpace Shuttle ChallengerAll are attributed in some degree to the poor judgment of sleep deprived workers.
11Effects of Sleep Deprivation Impaired alertness/excessive daytime sleepinessAlertness is impaired after:3 hrs of sleep for 1 night5 hrs for 2 nightsHowever, although the individual’s subjective sleepiness levels out, cognitive and performance impairment does not:* We are not always aware of theseverity of our impairment *
12Effects of Sleep Deprivation Impaired performance (cognitive and motor)Impaired short-term memoryDecreased reaction time and judgmentIncreased number of errorsImpaired information processingAll of which can lead tolower academic performance…Sleepiness negatively affects mood, judgment, reaction-times, attention, vigilance, vision, short-term memory, and motivation—similar to alcohol. Sleep loss makes it easier to fall asleep at inappropriate times, affecting a worker’s ability to perform safely.1It is important to for you to remember that a person does not have to fall asleep at the wheel to be a danger to themselves and others. Just being tired or drowsy can significantly impair your performance.70% to 90% of industrial and transportation accidents are due to human error.2-3References:1. Dinges, DF. The Nature of Sleepiness: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences. In: Albert J. Stunkard & Andrew Baum (Eds.) Perspectives in Behavioral Medicine: Eating, Sleeping, and Sex. Hillsdale, N.J. Erlbaum; 1989:2. Heinrich, H. Industrial accident prevention (4th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill3. Nagel, D. Human error in aviation operations. In: E. Wiener and D. Nagel (Eds.) Human Factors in Aviation. San Diego: Academic Press. 1988;
13Effects of Sleep Deprivation Would you ever take an test drunk?……18 hours awake produces performance impairment= 0.05% Blood alcohol level (BAL)24 hours awake = 0.10% BAL.Chronic sleep restriction of 4-6 hrs for 2 weeks also results in performance deficits = 0.08% BALOn 4 hours sleep, 1 beer can have the impact of a six-pack.
14Sleep and College Performance Study at St Lawrence Univ.“All nighters” correlated with lower GPAsStudy at Stanford Univ.Academic and athletic performance in basketball players improved with lengthening of sleep timeStudy in South KoreaStaying up late associated withpoorer academic performanceStudy of sleep patterns in 111 students2/3 had pulled all-nighters during the prior semesterStudents who pulled all-nighters had lower GPA’sIndependent of procrastination, though also associated with decreased GPA
15Effects of Sleep Deprivation Health ProblemsMood disturbances – depression, irritability, and anxietyWeight gainInsulin resistance leading to diabetesImpaired immunityIncreased cardiovascular problems – hypertension, stroke, heart attack
16The Consequences of Sleep Deprivation on the Highway One of the most serious consequences of sleep deprivation is driving drowsy – leading to injury, and possibly, death.
17Sleepiness and Driving 15-20% of all MVA’s felt to be sleep related.DOT estimates 100,000 MVA’s per year direct result of driver sleepiness/drowsiness.1500 fatalities / 71,000 injuries per year.Excessive sleepiness 2nd leading cause of car accidents, and a major cause of truck accidents in the US.The peak age for fall-asleep driving accidents is 20.Drivers under 30 account for 2/3 of all drowsy-driving crashes.
18Drowsy Driving Recognizing The Warning Signs Trouble focusing, keeping your eyes open or your head upDaydreaming; wandering/disconnected thoughtsYawning or rubbing your eyes repeatedlyDrifting from your lane, tailgating, & missing signs or exitsFeeling restless & irritableThese are some of the signs that you should be self conscious while driving or before leaving for a trip. Sleep is very insidious and people are notoriously bad at estimating their own alertness, so you have to be very vigilant in looking for the slightest change in how you feel.Trouble focusing, keeping your eyes open or your head upDaydreaming; wandering/disconnected thoughtsYawning or rubbing your eyes repeatedlyDrifting from your lane, tailgating, & missing signs or exitsFeeling restless & irritable
19Drowsy Driving Countermeasures While Driving Stop drivingPull off the road at a safe place and take a short napLet a passenger take over the drivingConsume caffeine (best combined with a nap)Don’t rely on “drowsy driving devices”Be aware of shoulder rumble strips“Old tricks” (e.g., turning up the radio, chewing ice) people use to “keep themselves awake” do not work for long. Just because your eyes are open does not mean that you are alert. Below are the only proven countermeasures to help prevent a drowsy driving and/or increase alertness for a sustained period of time:Stop driving - A very simple solution. This is the only sure way to save yourself. Find a place to sleep for the night (e.g., motel, friend’s house)Naps - Take 15 to 45 minute nap. More than 20 minutes can make you groggy for 15 minutes after or more after awakening.Let a passenger drive – It’s good to share driving, especially on long trips.Caffeine - Consume the equivalent of 2 cups of coffee. Caffeine is available in various manners (soft drinks, chewing gum, tablets) and amounts. Remember, caffeine takes about 30 minutes to enter the blood stream and will not greatly affect those who regularly consume it. Try taking caffeine and then a short nap to get the benefits of both.Alerting Devices – At this time, there are no validated devices available to alert drowsy drivers. There are a lot of “snake-oil” products out there. Be very wary about these devices.Continuous shoulder rumble strips – These are deep grooves placed on the side of a high-speed road, have been shown to be very effective in reducing off-the-road crashes. If you hit these, get off the road at a safe spot immediately – you may be tired.
20Watch for Sleep Disorders InsomniaAffects up to 40% of college studentsInvolves difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, associated with daytime impairmentCan be a normal reaction to short term stressWhen chronic can lead to long-term problems
21Watch for Sleep Disorders Obstructive Sleep ApneaAirway closure during sleep, that leads to partial or complete pauses in breathing.This leads to drop in oxygen levels, rise in carbon dioxide levels, and eventually arousal from sleepSymptoms: snoring, pauses inbreathing, gasping, frequentawakenings restless sleep,and daytime sleepinessRisk factors: obesity, malegender, small upper airwayfamily history,neuromuscular disease
22Watch for Sleep Disorders Restless Legs SyndromeUnpleasant, tingling, painful or restless feeling in the legs occurring primarily in in the evening.Worsened by rest/inactivity and relieved by movement.Can be associated with legs movements during sleep.Can be associated with sleep disruption and daytime sleepiness.
23Watch for Sleep Disorders NarcolepsySevere excessive daytime sleepiness and uncontrollable “sleep attacks”, sleep paralysis, and hallucinations at the onset of sleepMay be associated with sudden episodes of muscle weakness triggered by emotional situations1/2000 people and often diagnosed late due to subtlety of symptomsCan be very disabling,but is treatable withmedications
24When Should You Get Help? Trouble getting to sleep or waking up frequently during the night for several weeksExcessive daytime sleepiness (falling asleep at inappropriate times despite adequate sleep)Sudden attacks of sleep or muscle weakness (especially associated with emotional situations)Loud snoring or witnessed episodes of not breathing during sleep
25Healthy Sleep TipsMaintain a regular sleep schedule, even on weekends.Allow for relaxing activities during the hour before sleepCreate a sleep friendly environment:Go to bed only when sleepy and get out of bed if unable to fall asleep.Exercise daily, but not too close to bedtimeAvoid caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol, especially in the late afternoon and eveningAvoid naps, particularly in the lateafternoon or eveningMake Sleep a Priority!Establish a regular sleep schedule: going to bed and waking at the same time every dayCreating a lifestyle that includes establishing a regular sleep schedule is a key step toward getting a good night’s sleep. This will allow you to get in sync with your natural circadian clock and sleep will come easier. A regular schedule keeps our brain and body in balance. This is just as important for the weekend. Keeping to this schedule at all times will improve your ability to fall asleep, maintain sleep and achieve restorative sleep - so essential to your quality of life.Here are some tips for developing a healthy sleep style during the day:Avoid caffeine, alcohol and nicotine, especially close to bedtime. Caffeine is a stimulant that has alerting properties, so consuming products like coffee, tea, cola and chocolate within 6 hours before bed can cause disruptions to your sleepNicotine is also a stimulant and may keep you from falling asleep. After it loses its effect and when you are sleeping, you may experience withdraw, which can again disrupt sleep or cause problems waking in the morning. Nicotine has been known to cause nightmares.Alcohol helps to relax people and promotes sleep, but just like nicotine, can cause disrupted sleep during withdrawal.Exercise, but not too close to bedtime. Overall, exercise helps to promote good sleep, but not too close to bedtime. During exercise our body temperature rises and we become more alert. After about 6 hours, the body cools down and helps to signal the body that it is time for sleep. Try exercising in the afternoon for best results.Avoid naps, particularly in the late afternoon or evening.