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Writing the Literature Review Lydia Lunning, Editor Walden University.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing the Literature Review Lydia Lunning, Editor Walden University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing the Literature Review Lydia Lunning, Editor Walden University

2 Housekeeping Issues Questions Recording:

3 Objectives Define purpose and goals of literature reviewRecognize differences by program Identify resources for locating, reading, and organizing sources Learn strategies for synthesizing sources and writing the review

4 Literature Review: Definition Collection of materials on a topic Scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles (most common) Books Government documents Conference proceedings Internal documents (sparingly; consult with faculty)

5 Literature reviews by program Section 1 DBA doctoral study rubric DBA DNP minimum standards rubric DNP Research study: Section 2 Project study: Sections 1 & 3 EdD research & project study rubricsEdD research & project study rubrics EdD Chapter 2 PhD checklists PhD

6 Literature review: Resources Research Resources (Research Planning & Writing)Research Resources DBA doc study rubric, DNP min. standards rubric, EdD research & project study rubrics, PhD checklistsDBA doc study rubricDNP min. standards rubricEdD research & project study rubrics PhD checklists Center for Research Quality Lit review appointment with librarian Disciplinary databases, Thoreau, & Google ScholarDisciplinary databasesThoreauGoogle Scholar Journal articles, books, gov’t docs, theoristsJournal articles, booksgov’t docstheorists Verify peer-reviewed status & Library webinarsVerify peer-reviewed statusLibrary webinars Library Literature review basics (includes matrices)Literature review basics Paraphrasing Lit review and annotated bib basics: WebinarLit review and annotated bib basics: Webinar Writing Center

7 Literature Review: Purpose Provide clear background of your topic and focus Update colleagues on state of field Demonstrate your credibility as a researcher

8 Literature Review: Goals Teach readers about your topic and focus State of the field History Current ideas Major studies Practical headings Keywords from study title and problem statement Present full picture of topic Studies supporting your focus Studies opposing your focus Saturation point Numbers of sources will vary

9 Literature review: Process Locate literature Read and take notes Organize notes into sections Synthesize and understand sources well enough to teach them Write/revise the literature review essay

10 Locating literature Search options Broad search, then narrow Disciplinary databases Multiple databases (Thoreau)Thoreau Google Scholar Publication types Journal articlesBooks Government documents Theories and theorists Library resources Verify peer- reviewed status Lit review appointment with librarian Library webinars

11 Locating literature: Common errors Relying on sources that are not peer reviewed (e.g., personal communications) Citing unreliable websites for definitions (e.g., Wikipedia; --.com) Citing only textbooks (not journal articles) for methods (e.g., Creswell) Relying on secondary sources: Yadir, as cited in Ingebretsen (2013)

12 Reading literature Each Source What was the problem? Research questions Evidence (lit review, references) What were the method details? Method and design Participants Instrumentation What were the findings? Data Conclusions Recommendations

13 Organizing ideas: Literature review matrixLiterature review matrix Microsoft Word, Excel

14 Writing the literature review: Synthesis Summary Brief description of one source’s main ideas Tell brief story of each source Annotated bibliography Synthesis Extended explanation of ideas, trends, themes, theories, and/or methods among multiple sources Combine multiple sources to tell detailed story of your topic Literature review

15 Synthesis Synthesis language Keller (2012) found that X occurred. Likewise, Daal (2013) found that X occurred but also noted that the effects of X differed from those suggested by Keller (2012). Schwester (2013) reported results consistent with findings in Hill’s (2011) and Yao’s (2012) studies. Although Mehmad (2012) suggested X, O’Donnell (2013) recommended a different approach.

16 Organize by theme rather than by source: Research Notes: Author A (2011): single mothers, working parents, wage gaps Author B (2013): childcare cost increases, demographics at daycare Author C (2010): parent- child relationships, role of caregivers Thematic Outline: Financial cost to single parenting: Author A (2011), Author B (2013) Socioeconomic status and parenting styles: Author B (2013), Author C (2010) Working and raising children: Author A (2011), Author C (2010)

17 Sample Headings for the Table of Contents Literature Search Strategy Community in the Workplace Benefits of Community in the Workplace Community Among Coworkers Community Among Employees and Supervisors Barriers to Community in For-Profit Settings For-Profit Leadership Styles Management Strategies and Building Community Grass-roots versus Top-down Democratic versus Commanding The Mountbatton Approach Mountbatton and Employee Engagement Successful Applications of the Mountbatton Approach Previous Methods for Studying Management and Community Building This section addresses how some earlier researchers on this topic approached the issue and designed their studies Summary Review of Relevant Literature (in a study of how managers in a for-profit organization can encourage community among coworkers using “the Mountbatton approach”)

18 Synthesis: Common errors Error Present multiple sources in one paragraph without clear connections Force illogical relationships among sources “Most researchers agree” “These statistics are alarming” “Study X is just like Study Y” Use back-to-back direct quotations Synthesis Present clear relationships among sources Establish logical connections among sources “Author X’s (2013) results aligned with [or diverged from] Author Y’s (2012) in these ways” Use paraphrases and clear analysis to hold ideas togetherparaphrases

19 Common errors: Citation Salad Author X (2010) argued that the cost of public transportation in the Midwest affected student participation in after school activities. Author Y (2012) reported that 60% of high school students in the United States relied on school buses to get home. According to Author Z (2009), in a study of after school program attendance most of the participants (74%) received rides home from parents or friends...

20 How to fix it: Multiple studies indicated a strong link between transportation availability and student engagement in extracurricular activities. Author X (2010) argued that the cost of public transportation in the Midwest affected student participation in after school activities, which was similar to findings in studies across the country. Author Y (2012) reported that 60% of high school students in the United States relied on school buses to get home, meaning that the majority of students had no alternative means of getting home if they decided to stay after regular school hours. According to Author Z (2009), in a study of after school program attendance most of the participants (74%) received rides home from parents or friends. In addition to transportation availability, researchers have noted a strong correlation between student participation in extracurricular activities and parental involvement...

21 Common errors: “Plop” quotations Many educators and community members alike have expressed frustration about the lack of financial support for arts education. “The arts and its related businesses are responsible for billions of dollars in cultural exports for this country” (Segars, 2010, para. 4). The ABC (2012) reported that orchestra and band programs in the Pacific Northwest saw their budgets cut by over 50% in the past 5 years despite documented benefits to students and the community...

22 How to fix it: Many educators and community members alike have expressed frustration about the lack of financial support for arts education. In a prepared statement at a Congressional hearing on arts funding, Segars (2010) stated that “the arts and its related businesses are responsible for billions of dollars in cultural exports for this country” (para. 4), so it would be in the government’s best interest to strengthen arts education rather that allowing the funding to continue to diminish. The ABC (2012) reported that orchestra and band programs in the Pacific Northwest saw their budgets cut by over 50% in the past 5 years despite documented benefits to students and the community...

23 Writing the literature review: Content Connect source details to heading: How do these sources teach readers about this part of your topic? Include only source details relevant to your study: Which details do readers need to know? Conclude with Summary of key points Connections of key points and your study Transition to next section Acknowledge and refute counterarguments: Which studies oppose yours? How are supporting studies stronger? Critical essay (introduction, body, conclusion)

24 Content: Show the tip of the iceberg... What you write What you read

25 Writing the literature review: Tips Present literature in context of your study (synthesis). Explain ideas clearly to readers outside field. Clarity Copying words/ideas without credit is unethical. Copying/citing only abstracts is not a lit review. Use TurnItIn to locate/correct quotation errors. Academic integrity Use sparingly (not in every section/page); paraphrase sources instead. Quotations do not demonstrate critical analysis. Direct quotations

26 Literature review: Process (reminder) Locate literature Read and take notes Organize notes into sections Synthesize and understand sources well enough to teach them Write/revise the literature review essay

27 Moving ahead Type answers into Questions box: → What steps will you take to apply what you learned about writing the literature review in this session? Questions? (replies within 24 hours)


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