3 Objectives Define purpose and goals of literature review Recognize differences by programIdentify resources for locating, reading, and organizing sourcesLearn strategies for synthesizing sources and writing the review
4 Literature Review: Definition Collection of materials on a topicScholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles(most common)BooksGovernment documentsConference proceedingsInternal documents (sparingly; consult with faculty)
5 Literature reviews by program DBASection 1DBA doctoral study rubricDNPDNP minimum standards rubricEdDResearch study: Section 2Project study: Sections 1 & 3EdD research & project study rubricsPhDChapter 2PhD checklists
6 Literature review: Resources Center for Research QualityResearch Resources (Research Planning & Writing)DBA doc study rubric, DNP min. standards rubric, EdD research & project study rubrics, PhD checklistsLibraryLit review appointment with librarianDisciplinary databases, Thoreau, & Google ScholarJournal articles, books, gov’t docs, theoristsVerify peer-reviewed status & Library webinarsWriting CenterLiterature review basics (includes matrices)ParaphrasingLit review and annotated bib basics: Webinar
7 Literature Review: Purpose Provide clear background of your topic and focusUpdate colleagues on state of fieldDemonstrate your credibility as a researcher
8 Literature Review: Goals Teach readers about your topic and focusState of the fieldHistoryCurrent ideasMajor studiesPractical headingsKeywords from study title and problem statementPresent full picture of topicStudies supporting your focusStudies opposing your focusSaturation pointNumbers of sources will vary
9 Literature review: Process Locate literatureRead and take notesOrganize notes into sectionsSynthesize and understand sources well enough to teach themWrite/revise the literature review essay
10 Locating literature Search options Publication types Library resources Broad search, then narrowDisciplinary databasesMultiple databases (Thoreau)Google ScholarPublication typesJournal articlesBooksGovernment documentsTheories and theoristsLibrary resourcesVerify peer-reviewed statusLit review appointment with librarianLibrary webinars
11 Locating literature: Common errors Relying on sources that are not peer reviewed (e.g., personal communications)Citing unreliable websites for definitions(e.g., Wikipedia; --.com)Citing only textbooks (not journal articles) for methods (e.g., Creswell)Relying on secondary sources:Yadir, as cited in Ingebretsen (2013)
12 Evidence (lit review, references) Reading literatureEach SourceWhat was the problem?Research questionsEvidence (lit review, references)What were the method details?Method and designParticipantsInstrumentationWhat were the findings?DataConclusionsRecommendations
13 Organizing ideas: Literature review matrix Microsoft Word, Excel
14 Writing the literature review: Synthesis SummaryBrief description of one source’s main ideasTell brief story of each sourceAnnotated bibliographySynthesisExtended explanation of ideas, trends, themes, theories, and/or methods among multiple sourcesCombine multiple sources to tell detailed story of your topicLiterature review
15 Synthesis Synthesis language Keller (2012) found that X occurred. Likewise, Daal (2013) found that X occurred but also noted that the effects of X differed from those suggested by Keller (2012).Schwester (2013) reported results consistent with findings in Hill’s (2011) and Yao’s (2012) studies.Although Mehmad (2012) suggested X, O’Donnell (2013) recommended a different approach.Synthesis
16 Organize by theme rather than by source: Research Notes:Author A (2011): single mothers, working parents, wage gapsAuthor B (2013): childcare cost increases, demographics at daycareAuthor C (2010): parent-child relationships, role of caregiversThematic Outline:Financial cost to single parenting: Author A (2011), Author B (2013)Socioeconomic status and parenting styles: Author B (2013), Author C (2010)Working and raising children: Author A (2011), Author C (2010)
17 Sample Headings for the Table of Contents Review of Relevant Literature (in a study of how managers in a for-profit organization can encourage community among coworkers using “the Mountbatton approach”)Literature Search StrategyDemocratic versus CommandingCommunity in the WorkplaceThe Mountbatton ApproachBenefits of Community in the WorkplaceMountbatton and Employee EngagementCommunity Among CoworkersSuccessful Applications of the Mountbatton ApproachCommunity Among Employees and SupervisorsPrevious Methods for Studying Management and Community BuildingBarriers to Community in For-Profit SettingsThis section addresses how some earlier researchers on this topic approached the issue and designed their studiesFor-Profit Leadership StylesManagement Strategies and Building CommunitySummaryGrass-roots versus Top-down
18 Synthesis: Common errors Present multiple sources in one paragraph without clear connectionsForce illogical relationships among sources“Most researchers agree”“These statistics are alarming” “Study X is just like Study Y”Use back-to-back direct quotationsSynthesisPresent clear relationships among sourcesEstablish logical connections among sources“Author X’s (2013) results aligned with [or diverged from] Author Y’s (2012) in these ways”Use paraphrases and clear analysis to hold ideas together
19 Common errors: Citation Salad Author X (2010) argued that the cost of public transportation in the Midwest affected student participation in after school activities. Author Y (2012) reported that 60% of high school students in the United States relied on school buses to get home. According to Author Z (2009), in a study of after school program attendance most of the participants (74%) received rides home from parents or friends . . .
20 How to fix it:Multiple studies indicated a strong link between transportation availability and student engagement in extracurricular activities. Author X (2010) argued that the cost of public transportation in the Midwest affected student participation in after school activities, which was similar to findings in studies across the country. Author Y (2012) reported that 60% of high school students in the United States relied on school buses to get home, meaning that the majority of students had no alternative means of getting home if they decided to stay after regular school hours. According to Author Z (2009), in a study of after school program attendance most of the participants (74%) received rides home from parents or friends. In addition to transportation availability, researchers have noted a strong correlation between student participation in extracurricular activities and parental involvement . . .
21 Common errors: “Plop” quotations Many educators and community members alike have expressed frustration about the lack of financial support for arts education. “The arts and its related businesses are responsible for billions of dollars in cultural exports for this country” (Segars, 2010, para. 4). The ABC (2012) reported that orchestra and band programs in the Pacific Northwest saw their budgets cut by over 50% in the past 5 years despite documented benefits to students and the community . . .
22 How to fix it:Many educators and community members alike have expressed frustration about the lack of financial support for arts education. In a prepared statement at a Congressional hearing on arts funding, Segars (2010) stated that “the arts and its related businesses are responsible for billions of dollars in cultural exports for this country” (para. 4), so it would be in the government’s best interest to strengthen arts education rather that allowing the funding to continue to diminish. The ABC (2012) reported that orchestra and band programs in the Pacific Northwest saw their budgets cut by over 50% in the past 5 years despite documented benefits to students and the community . . .
23 Writing the literature review: Content Critical essay(introduction, body, conclusion)Connect source details to heading:How do these sources teach readers about this part of your topic?Include only source details relevant to your study:Which details do readers need to know?Conclude withSummary of key pointsConnections of key points and your studyTransition to next sectionAcknowledge and refute counterarguments:Which studies oppose yours?How are supporting studies stronger?
24 Content: Show the tip of the iceberg . . . What you writeWhat you read
25 Writing the literature review: Tips Present literature in context of your study (synthesis).Explain ideas clearly to readers outside field.ClarityCopying words/ideas without credit is unethical.Copying/citing only abstracts is not a lit review.Use TurnItIn to locate/correct quotation errors.Academic integrityUse sparingly (not in every section/page); paraphrase sources instead.Quotations do not demonstrate critical analysis.Direct quotations
26 Literature review: Process (reminder) Locate literatureRead and take notesOrganize notes into sectionsSynthesize and understand sources well enough to teach themWrite/revise the literature review essay
27 (replies within 24 hours) Moving aheadType answers into Questions box:→ What steps will you take to apply what you learned about writing the literature review in this session?Questions?(replies within 24 hours)