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Writing the Literature Review

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Presentation on theme: "Writing the Literature Review"— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing the Literature Review
Lydia Lunning, Editor Walden University

2 Housekeeping Issues Questions
Recording:

3 Objectives Define purpose and goals of literature review
Recognize differences by program Identify resources for locating, reading, and organizing sources Learn strategies for synthesizing sources and writing the review

4 Literature Review: Definition
Collection of materials on a topic Scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles (most common) Books Government documents Conference proceedings Internal documents (sparingly; consult with faculty)

5 Literature reviews by program
DBA Section 1 DBA doctoral study rubric DNP DNP minimum standards rubric EdD Research study: Section 2 Project study: Sections 1 & 3 EdD research & project study rubrics PhD Chapter 2 PhD checklists

6 Literature review: Resources
Center for Research Quality Research Resources (Research Planning & Writing) DBA doc study rubric, DNP min. standards rubric, EdD research & project study rubrics, PhD checklists Library Lit review appointment with librarian Disciplinary databases, Thoreau, & Google Scholar Journal articles, books, gov’t docs, theorists Verify peer-reviewed status & Library webinars Writing Center Literature review basics (includes matrices) Paraphrasing Lit review and annotated bib basics: Webinar

7 Literature Review: Purpose
Provide clear background of your topic and focus Update colleagues on state of field Demonstrate your credibility as a researcher

8 Literature Review: Goals
Teach readers about your topic and focus State of the field History Current ideas Major studies Practical headings Keywords from study title and problem statement Present full picture of topic Studies supporting your focus Studies opposing your focus Saturation point Numbers of sources will vary

9 Literature review: Process
Locate literature Read and take notes Organize notes into sections Synthesize and understand sources well enough to teach them Write/revise the literature review essay

10 Locating literature Search options Publication types Library resources
Broad search, then narrow Disciplinary databases Multiple databases (Thoreau) Google Scholar Publication types Journal articles Books Government documents Theories and theorists Library resources Verify peer-reviewed status Lit review appointment with librarian Library webinars

11 Locating literature: Common errors
Relying on sources that are not peer reviewed (e.g., personal communications) Citing unreliable websites for definitions (e.g., Wikipedia; --.com) Citing only textbooks (not journal articles) for methods (e.g., Creswell) Relying on secondary sources: Yadir, as cited in Ingebretsen (2013)

12 Evidence (lit review, references)
Reading literature Each Source What was the problem? Research questions Evidence (lit review, references) What were the method details? Method and design Participants Instrumentation What were the findings? Data Conclusions Recommendations

13 Organizing ideas: Literature review matrix
Microsoft Word, Excel

14 Writing the literature review: Synthesis
Summary Brief description of one source’s main ideas Tell brief story of each source Annotated bibliography Synthesis Extended explanation of ideas, trends, themes, theories, and/or methods among multiple sources Combine multiple sources to tell detailed story of your topic Literature review

15 Synthesis Synthesis language
Keller (2012) found that X occurred. Likewise, Daal (2013) found that X occurred but also noted that the effects of X differed from those suggested by Keller (2012). Schwester (2013) reported results consistent with findings in Hill’s (2011) and Yao’s (2012) studies. Although Mehmad (2012) suggested X, O’Donnell (2013) recommended a different approach. Synthesis

16 Organize by theme rather than by source:
Research Notes: Author A (2011): single mothers, working parents, wage gaps Author B (2013): childcare cost increases, demographics at daycare Author C (2010): parent-child relationships, role of caregivers Thematic Outline: Financial cost to single parenting: Author A (2011), Author B (2013) Socioeconomic status and parenting styles: Author B (2013), Author C (2010) Working and raising children: Author A (2011), Author C (2010)

17 Sample Headings for the Table of Contents
Review of Relevant Literature (in a study of how managers in a for-profit organization can encourage community among coworkers using “the Mountbatton approach”) Literature Search Strategy Democratic versus Commanding Community in the Workplace The Mountbatton Approach Benefits of Community in the Workplace Mountbatton and Employee Engagement Community Among Coworkers Successful Applications of the Mountbatton Approach Community Among Employees and Supervisors Previous Methods for Studying Management and Community Building Barriers to Community in For-Profit Settings This section addresses how some earlier researchers on this topic approached the issue and designed their studies For-Profit Leadership Styles Management Strategies and Building Community Summary Grass-roots versus Top-down

18 Synthesis: Common errors
Present multiple sources in one paragraph without clear connections Force illogical relationships among sources “Most researchers agree” “These statistics are alarming” “Study X is just like Study Y” Use back-to-back direct quotations Synthesis Present clear relationships among sources Establish logical connections among sources “Author X’s (2013) results aligned with [or diverged from] Author Y’s (2012) in these ways” Use paraphrases and clear analysis to hold ideas together

19 Common errors: Citation Salad
Author X (2010) argued that the cost of public transportation in the Midwest affected student participation in after school activities. Author Y (2012) reported that 60% of high school students in the United States relied on school buses to get home. According to Author Z (2009), in a study of after school program attendance most of the participants (74%) received rides home from parents or friends . . .

20 How to fix it: Multiple studies indicated a strong link between transportation availability and student engagement in extracurricular activities. Author X (2010) argued that the cost of public transportation in the Midwest affected student participation in after school activities, which was similar to findings in studies across the country. Author Y (2012) reported that 60% of high school students in the United States relied on school buses to get home, meaning that the majority of students had no alternative means of getting home if they decided to stay after regular school hours. According to Author Z (2009), in a study of after school program attendance most of the participants (74%) received rides home from parents or friends. In addition to transportation availability, researchers have noted a strong correlation between student participation in extracurricular activities and parental involvement . . .

21 Common errors: “Plop” quotations
Many educators and community members alike have expressed frustration about the lack of financial support for arts education. “The arts and its related businesses are responsible for billions of dollars in cultural exports for this country” (Segars, 2010, para. 4). The ABC (2012) reported that orchestra and band programs in the Pacific Northwest saw their budgets cut by over 50% in the past 5 years despite documented benefits to students and the community . . .

22 How to fix it: Many educators and community members alike have expressed frustration about the lack of financial support for arts education. In a prepared statement at a Congressional hearing on arts funding, Segars (2010) stated that “the arts and its related businesses are responsible for billions of dollars in cultural exports for this country” (para. 4), so it would be in the government’s best interest to strengthen arts education rather that allowing the funding to continue to diminish. The ABC (2012) reported that orchestra and band programs in the Pacific Northwest saw their budgets cut by over 50% in the past 5 years despite documented benefits to students and the community . . .

23 Writing the literature review: Content
Critical essay (introduction, body, conclusion) Connect source details to heading: How do these sources teach readers about this part of your topic? Include only source details relevant to your study: Which details do readers need to know? Conclude with Summary of key points Connections of key points and your study Transition to next section Acknowledge and refute counterarguments: Which studies oppose yours? How are supporting studies stronger?

24 Content: Show the tip of the iceberg . . .
What you write What you read

25 Writing the literature review: Tips
Present literature in context of your study (synthesis). Explain ideas clearly to readers outside field. Clarity Copying words/ideas without credit is unethical. Copying/citing only abstracts is not a lit review. Use TurnItIn to locate/correct quotation errors. Academic integrity Use sparingly (not in every section/page); paraphrase sources instead. Quotations do not demonstrate critical analysis. Direct quotations

26 Literature review: Process (reminder)
Locate literature Read and take notes Organize notes into sections Synthesize and understand sources well enough to teach them Write/revise the literature review essay

27 (replies within 24 hours)
Moving ahead Type answers into Questions box: → What steps will you take to apply what you learned about writing the literature review in this session? Questions? (replies within 24 hours)


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