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Fostering Reading and Literacy in ESD/ELT: Strategies for Providers

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1 Fostering Reading and Literacy in ESD/ELT: Strategies for Providers
Lisa Hiley, PhD EnCompass: Resources for Learning October 2013

2 21st Century Skills Learning and Innovation: Media and Tech:
Creativity and Innovation Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Communication and Collaboration Media and Tech: Information Literacy Media Literacy Information, Communications and Technology (ICT) Literacy Life and Career: Flexibility and Adaptability Initiative and Self-Direction Social and Cross-Cultural Skills Productivity and Accountability Leadership and Responsibility The Role of ESD/ELT Programs: Partnership for 21st Century Skills

3 Reading Habits What are Reading Habits? Why do Reading Habits Matter?
Those literacy practices we engage in as part of learning and our social processes. Critical Literacy - Reading and interacting with various texts in an active, reflective manner in order to better understand human relationships. Why do Reading Habits Matter? For youth to be ready for college and career expectations they must have AMPLE opportunities to take part in a variety of rich and structured reading and literacy opportunities.

4 Reading Habits A note on “independent reading” and literacy
Youth need opportunities to practice reading on their own – ahead is a “lifetime of both academic and extracurricular reading adventures: analyzing primary history sources, reviewing the findings of laboratory reports, or just picking up a novel for pleasure” (Bambrick-Santoyo, 2013) Remember, youth can’t fall in love with reading if they are not reading in the first place. Choosing texts (with kids) is a critical part of fostering independent reading.

5 Reading Habits Applying Strategies with a “Growth Mindset”
Remember people (kids too) grow in steps, not leaps…intentional opportunities to interact with various texts are critical. Giving praise and feedback is critical to build confidence and to reinforce reading habits – consider the structures you have in place and the language you’re using. Making growth evident allows for the celebrations of success. Pairing success with purpose (goals) allows you to build relevance. Consider how reading can help youth reach their goals (e.g., career) and foster commitment to reading, writing, critically thinking, connecting, etc.

6 CCSS Shifts - ELA

7 Strategies Program Level (G) Individual Level (I) Audit Trail
Research Journals Literacy Circles Reader’s Theatre Close Reading Protocols Graphic Organizers and Thinking Maps Vocabulary Instruction to support word learning Spelling Strategies

8 Audit Trails (G) What is it? Who uses it? How?
Community representation of reading, writing, learning and research - interactive and creative over time with perspectives of many. Artifacts are created by youth and become opportunities to represent learning. Creates a space for youth to re-visit, re-read, analyze and connect various topics and issues. Who uses it? How? Anyone. Need space to represent learning, ground rules for posting and creating. You only need simple office materials and IDEAS! How can afterschool providers adopt critical concepts in programming?

9 Research Journals (G) What is it? Who uses it?
Youth representation of reading, writing, learning, research and reflection – various texts are collected, reflected upon, and synthesized. An opportunity to question, record and synthesize. Youth learn critical skills around researching (text sources, reliable resources) and providing evidence for their claims – just like a scientist would. Provides an opportunity to collect work samples and create additional projects. Who uses it? Anyone – who wants to foster writing and reflection. How can afterschool providers adopt critical concepts in programming? Eric and I used the Learning Journals at the end of day in the Summer Program.  After completing research, doing a project or going on a field trip, we asked students to recall some new facts they learned.  When we noticed their ideas were great, but their mechanics needed support - we put a rubric in place for them to use to monitor the quality of their work - out of a total 9 points.  Each day after writing their entries, they would use the rubric, but then share their work with a friend to double-check.  Lastly, each student would read their entry aloud to the group or to one of us for their final score.  We saw a dramatic improvement in the quality of their writing and were always surprised by the little factoid "nuggets" they seemed to latch on to during the day. (Theresa M.)

10 Supporting the Writing Process
Research Journals (G) Discuss It. Discuss current writing performance and strategies Review current use of the writing process Reflect on the value and application of the writing process Model It. Use self-talk and self-instructions to work through the writing process Analyze your own use of writing process and share successes and challenges with others Share your own goals and strategies used in the writing process Support It. Offer direct assistance in specific steps of the writing process Offer corrective praise and constructive feedback on process Provide reminders of the steps of the writing process Promote Independent Performance. Identify opportunities to use writing process in other situations Examine possible modifications based on assignment Set goals for using the writing process in other situations Supporting the Writing Process

11 Literature Circles (G)
What is it? Small groups of students gathering together to discuss a piece of literature in depth. The discussion is guided by students' response to what they have read. What are the roles within the Literature Circle? Literary Luminary: finds interesting sections where the author uses language Discussion Director: asks questions Illustrator: illustrates scenes or ideas from the selection Vocabulary Extender: finds and teaches new words from the selection to the group) Connector: makes connections between the selection to other literature, authors, movies, life experiences, etc.) **A Discussion Debriefing Sheet is also included for use after the in-class discussion. How can afterschool providers adopt critical concepts in programming? In literature circles, small groups of students gather together to discuss a piece of literature in depth. The discussion is guided by students' response to what they have read. You may hear talk about events and characters in the book, the author's craft, or personal experiences related to the story. Literature circles provide a way for students to engage in critical thinking and reflection as they read, discuss, and respond to books. Collaboration is at the heart of this approach. Students reshape and add onto their understanding as they construct meaning with other readers. Finally, literature circles guide students to deeper understanding of what they read through structured discussion and extended written and artistic response. Perhaps the easiest way to understand what literature circles are is to examine what they are not. Literature Circles are . . .Literature Circles are not . . .Reader response centeredTeacher and text centered Part of a balanced literacy programThe entire reading curriculum Groups formed by book choiceTeacher-assigned groups formed solely by abilityStructured for student independence, responsibility, and ownershipUnstructured, uncontrolled "talk time" without accountabilityGuided primarily by student insights and questionsGuided primarily by teacher- or curriculum-based questionsIntended as a context in which to applyreading and writing skillsIntended as a place to do skills workFlexible and fluid; never look the same twiceTied to a prescriptive "recipe"

12 Reader’s Theatre (G) What is it? Who uses it?
A dramatic presentation of a script.  No memorization, costumes, blocking, or special lighting is needed. Lines are not memorized. The focus is on reading the text with expressive voices and gestures. Making comprehending the text meaningful and fun for the student! Who uses it? Small groups of youth – potentially mixed ages. Facilitated by an adult to promote reading habits and natural practice. How can afterschool providers adopt critical concepts in programming? What is its purpose? It enables students to bring a text to life and together create a powerful interpretation. It offers less confident readers support from peers and provides a genuine social purpose for attentive reading. It also provides students with models for creating 'the voice behind the page' in their own silent reading. Readers' Theatre provides a real context for reading and has obvious benefits for students by increasing their skills as readers, writers, listeners and speakers. Readers' theatre can be used to introduce longer texts that students may then go on to read. In the same way that a television adaptation can push book sales through the roof, readers' theatre can take students into the world of a text and entice them into enthusiastic reading. How can I do it? First an appropriate text is selected. Many narrative texts can be adapted for readers theatre. Picture books are often ideal and fun to use. For longer texts, several narrators can be allocated, characters can be assigned to students who read their speech, and longer descriptive passages that do not suit dramatic reading can be omitted. Alternatively, scripts are sometimes prepared specifically for readers' theatre. Susan Hill and Joelie Hancock suggest starting by demonstrating with repetitive picture books such as Hattie and the Fox by Mem Fox or Who Sank the Boat? by Pamela Allen. The teacher can start by reading the text through and then getting the students to join in with the dialogue or for alternate sentences to create a dramatic reading. The degree of preparation depends on the expertise of the readers and the specific purpose of the reading. Some students like to include costume suggestions, music and other props. How can I adapt it? The whole class can work on the same text, or cooperative groups can work on different parts of a text. An alternative is to invite groups to select their own texts to present, from a collection of picture books or short stories. The performance can be just for the class or for other classes or audiences. When using readers' theatre to tune students into reading and studying a set text, a gripping segment from any part of the book can be chosen to work on, with a brief introduction by the teacher to set the scene. Create and read scripts to introduc and reinforce concepts related to other subject areas. Adapt stories from various cultures to the readers' theatre format. Assessment & Evaluation Considerations Observe students' willingness and ability to make predictions and inferences about character and plot development. Note students' efforts to interpret characters and communicate meaning through voice (volume, pitch, stress and juncture), facial expressions and hand gestures. Note students' interest in participating. Record or video tape presentations. Note students' interest in independent script writing. Readers' Theatre Evaluation Teacher Resources Braun, W. and Braun, C. (1995) Readers' Theatre - Scripted Rhymes & Rhythms, Braun & Braun Educational Enterprises Ltd, Calgary. Braun, W. and Braun, C. (1995) Readers' Theatre - More Scripted Rhymes & Rhythms, Braun & Braun Educational Enterprises Ltd, Calgary. Braun, W. and Braun, C. (1996) A Readers' Theatre Treasury of Stories, Braun & Braun Educational Enterprises Ltd, Calgary. Braun, W. and Braun, C. (1998) Readers' Theatre For Young Children, Braun & Braun Educational Enterprises Ltd, Calgary. Dixon, N., Davies, A., and Politano C. (1996) Learning With Readers' Theatre, Peguis, Winnipeg. Hill, S. (1992) Readers Theatre: Performing the Text, Eleanor Curtain Publishing, Armadale. White, M. (1993) Readers' Theatre Anthology, Meriwether Publishing, CO. Walker, L. (1996) Readers' Theatre in the Middle School and Junior High School, Meriwether Publishing, CO. Readers Theatre - Aaron Shepherd's site gives scripts that can be used for students in grades 3 to 9. They can be edited and printed for classroom use. Aaron Shepherd, who is a children's author, also gives some useful tips on how to make readers theatre work well in the classroom. Free Sample Scripts from Storycart® Press Classroom Theatre - lesson plans and scripts Free Sample Scripts from Lois Walker's Reader's Theater Scripts The Beginning of the Armadillios by Rudyard Kipling: Readers' Theatre Script What Is Readers Theater? Readers Theatre (from ReadWriteThink) Readers' Theatre Assignment

13 Reader’s Theatre (G) Expression. Voice. Meaning.


15 Close Reading (I) What is it? Who uses it?
Close reading describes the careful, sustained interpretation of a brief passage of text. Close reading emphasizes paying close attention to individual words, syntax, and the order in which sentences and ideas unfold as they are read. Develops meta-cognitive skills where a youth is thinking about their own reading, understanding, and meaning making. Intentional reading that is focused on learning new information/vocab. Who uses it? Many secondary aged youth who are learning core content specific material and vocabulary. Can be reinforced by afterschool providers to encourage youth to go deeply into complex texts. How can afterschool providers adopt critical concepts in programming? Skilled readers do not read blindly, but purposely. They have an agenda, goal, or objective. Their purpose, together with the nature of what they are reading, determines how they read. They read in different ways in different situations for different purposes. Of course, reading has a nearly universal purpose: to figure out what an author has to say on a given subject.


17 Graphic Organizers (I)
What are they? Visual representations of thinking – allows us to have concrete images of abstract thoughts. Graphic organizers assist youth in brainstorming and/or organizing information to make it easier to understand how ideas connect. Who uses it? Adults to have a common language to support youth in writing and understanding texts. Youth use these to produce and distribute a variety of texts and for various purposes (academic, extracurricular) How can afterschool providers adopt critical concepts in programming?


19 Vocabulary Teaching (I)
“One should not underestimate the value of any meaningful encounter with word, even if the information gained from the encounter is relatively small” (Nagy and Herman, 1987, p ) 6 Step Process for Vocabulary Learning Provide a Description, Explanation or Example Ask youth to re-state. Ask youth to construct a picture, symbol or graphic to represent. Engage them in activities where they can use the new word. Ask youth to discuss terms with others. Provide opportunities to play games with the terms. 25. Girn – To bare your teeth in anger and sadness 24. Yerd – To beat with a stick. 23. Dendrofilous – Loving trees enough to live in them. 22. Wamfle – To walk around with flapping clothes. 21. Ribazuba – Ivory from a walrus. Let’s Practice!! GIRN – YERD – DENDROFILOUS – WAMBLE – RIBAZUBA How can afterschool providers adopt critical concepts in programming?

20 Spelling Support (I) Factors we know are critical for spelling:
What we can do to support: Phonological awareness – sound awareness Orthographic knowledge - understanding of patterns and rules Vocabulary & Knowledge of Semantic Relationships Morphological knowledge – understanding of word parts Sounding it out (e.g., c-a-t) Spelling Forward and Backward (e.g., c-a-t, t-a-c, c-a-t) Thinking about rhyming words (e.g., flame-same-dame) Asking “does it look right/write?” – looking for common word patterns (e.g., been, bean, Ben) Create a word wall Tap out syllables (e.g., rain-bow) Highlight the hard parts (e.g., belIEve) Phonics Based Spelling Instruction When young children attempt to spell new words they often fall back on the phonics skills they have learned during reading instruction to “sound” them out. They draw on their understanding of the connection between letters and sounds to make educated guesses about how words are spelled. While this method is not effective for all English words (since many have irregular spellings), this strategy is generally an effective and productive one for children to use. Teachers and parents should encourage children to use and build on what they know about phonics when teaching them how to spell. Children should be taught to segment the phonemes (sound units) in a word they are trying to spell and to connect these with the letters they associate them with when reading. For example, if a child is attempting to spell “hat” a teacher could remind him of what he already knows about the letters that make each of the sounds in this word. The teacher should encourage him to write the letters that he knows are associated with the sounds /h/ /a/ /t/. Even if the child’s spelling of the word is not exactly correct, the act of using segmentation to spell builds important skills that he can often apply when writing. Orthographic Patterns While the English language contains many words that feature irregular spellings, there are even more that follow general patterns of construction. Letter or orthographic patterns reoccur frequently in our language. Teaching children these basic patterns will help them master the spelling of many words. For example, understanding the orthographic pattern of using the vowel set “ie”after all consonants except for “c” allows young writers to “unlock” many words. Children should be explicitly taught these patterns and then be given opportunities to practice producing words using them. Spelling is complex – you need to support over time! Let’s try it.

21 General Points to Support Literacy
Actions that Support Learning Explaining Showing Practicing Reflecting Sharing Teaching Assessing Checking-in Making a plan Actions that Support Learning Environment Instructions and Expectations Visuals and Technology Vocabulary and Language Background Knowledge Values and Beliefs Wait time Question types Giving feedback and praise

22 Reflecting and Perfecting
Reflecting and Perfecting. Lisa Hiley PhD EnCompass: Resources for Learning

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