Presentation on theme: "Building Healthy Relationships. Learning Outcomes To examine the contextual challenge that prohibit some at-risk youth investment in education. To develop."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Outcomes To examine the contextual challenge that prohibit some at-risk youth investment in education. To develop skills to engage all students. To identify and demonstrate the ability to identify at-risk youth strengths. To examine personal bias that may prevent youth engagement
I hear, and I forget; I see, and I remember; I do, and I understand. - Confucious
“School connectedness refers to the belief by students that adults in the school care about their learning and about them as individuals.” Blum & Libbey (2004)
There are 3 types of engagement Cognitive (Operational and Adaptive) Behavioral (Operational and Adaptive) Emotional (Adaptive) Multiple levels of engagement disengaged transient engaged invested
Defined as: Draws on the idea of investment; it incorporates thoughtfulness and willingness to exert the effort necessary to comprehend complex ideas and master difficult tasks. Measured by: Investment in learning, flexible problem solving, independent work styles, coping with perceived failure, preference for challenge and independent mastery, commitment to understanding the work. Values/Beliefs/Skill Development
Defined as: Participation; it includes involvement in academic and social or extracurricular activities and is considered crucial for achieving positive outcomes and preventing dropping out. Measured by: Conduct, work involvement, participation, persistence Action, Habits, and Routine
Defined as: Encompasses positive and negative reactions to teachers, classmates, academics, and is presumed to create ties to an institution and influences willingness to do the work. Measured as: Self reported related to feelings of frustration, boredom, interest, anger, satisfaction; student-teacher relations, work orientation Feelings/Motivation
Students who do not come to school Students who find ways to get out of school No significant relationships with school staff
Little participation in extracurricular activities Very little to any volunteer participation May have surface level relationships with staff few if any are significant
Participate in some extracurricular activities May volunteer for school activities Have engaged relationships with staff
Participation in extracurricular activities frequent Volunteers for school activities Has invested relationships with school staff
“Loneliness causes us to apply these defensive perceptions to situation that are neutral or benign. The negative expectations then have a way of becoming self-fulfilling prophecies”. “When we feel connected we are generally less agitated and less stressed than when we feel lonely. In general, feeling connected also lowers feelings of hostility and depression”. From the book- Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection.
Fig. 1. (A) Increased activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during exclusion relative to inclusion. N I Eisenberger et al. Science 2003;302:290-292 Published by AAAS
“Tell me more about that.” “What do you mean when you say…” “What else…” “How do you know…” “Why is it important to…” “What does that remind you of?” “In other words…” “What do you think…..” “How would you…..”
DO NOT LOOK AT YOUR CARD! The Higher your card the more desirable it is to have lunch with you. High-cards Ace, Kings, Queens, Jacks Next group 10, 9, 8 Next group 7,6,5 Next group 4,3,2
See What do we Contribute What do we Expect What do we Contribute What do we Want What do we EVOLVE, LLC 2011
What do we the staff contribute to the environment? Do we model appropriate behavior? How? Do we address problematic behavior? How? Do we create environments that are positive and enriching for all students? How?
What do we the staff contribute to the environmental expectations? Do we have academic high expectations for all our students? How do we demonstrate expectations to students? Do we make students aware of behavioral expectations? How? Do we create environments that are positive and enriching for all students? How?
What do we the staff contribute to the environmental wants? Do we have academic high expectations for all our students? How do we demonstrate that to students? Do we provide opportunities for students to develop skills necessary? How? Do we create environments that are positive and enriching for all students? How?
Safety Consistent Communication Care TrustInvestment Confidence Performance Action Emotions Action
CONSISTENTINCONSISTENT Predictability Staff are where they are assigned to be Activities start and end when they are scheduled Routines are created and maintained Schedule is frequently changed Staff is frequently absent Rules are applied sporadically or to a particular student or group
SAFEUNSAFE Predictable Rules are clear Rules are enforced Put-downs are immediately addressed Respect and order are woven into the fabric of programs and activities May express Unpredictable Bullying and harassment is ignored by staff and possibly promoted Put downs are routine Violence and threats part of the culture May express fear
VERBAL Expressing needs Expressing interest Expressing expectations Give and take (talking and listening) Information is shared Not expressing needs Not expressing interest No give and take Information isn’t shared
TRUSTINGLACK OF TRUST Shares experiences (positive and negative) Seeks guidance Wants to be around May express trust Doesn’t share experiences Quiet Doesn’t seek your advice or counsel May express distrust
CONNECTIONLACK OF CONNECTION Requesting your assistance Expressing concern for you and yours Seeks your approval May verbalize feelings of connection Routinely Absence Distant Doesn’t engage Head on the desk May express displeasure with person or place
CONFIDENTLACKING CONFIDENCE Taking positive risks Expressing opinion and belief Speaks of future in positive terms Express and demonstrates competence Unsure Quiet Looks away Avoidance Absence Poor performance
PERFORMANCEPERFORMANCE LACKING Conduct is aligned with rules and expectations Completes tasks (skill deficit may not raise performance initially) Seeks to develop relationships Focus In some cases leadership Never improves or Regresses Argumentative Unfocused Unmotivated In some cases irresponsible leadership
Interventions that highlight or acknowledge student strengths Empowers student and partner based Personalized and Flexible Provides students with opportunities to learn or enhance current skill set.
Structural, Institutional, and Organizational Changes Changes to Curriculum and Instruction Changes in Teacher Support Safe, nonthreatening learning environment Small class size Small school size Systemic, comprehensive school reform Culturally proficient leadership Community, business, and university collaboration Student involvement in school policies Reducing retention and suspension Extend class periods or increase instructional time Opportunities for “catch up” courses and for out-of-school programs Academic content that is of interest and relevance to the students Academic and social supports for students Advisory periods Elimination of academic tracking Common planning times Integrated interdisciplinary planning processes Professional development Coaching and mentoring Comprehensive teacher training Support for staff risk-taking, self- governance, and collaboration Collective responsibility and increased autonomy from central control Freudenberg 2009
Structural, Institutional, and Organizational Changes Changes to Curriculum and Instruction Changes in Teacher Support Small learning communities Parent and family training and involvement Violence prevention and conflict resolution programs Culturally competent school and classroom culture Alternative school safety and fair discipline strategies Student-centered, culturally relevant, and diverse pedagogy and practice Opportunities for extra schooling: after school, summer, Saturday, or extended-day school Fair, clear, rigorous, and high expectations and standards for all students Tutoring Mentoring programs Behavioral and psychosocial support Highly qualified, certified, and well-prepared teachers Teachers teaching only in their field of certification Education programs to help teachers promote social justice Teacher training for effective instruction of and care for culturally and linguistically diverse learners Freudenberg 2009
Structural, Institutional, and Organizational Changes Changes to Curriculum and Instruction Changes in Teacher Support Alternative school models: school-to-work programs, apprenticeship, vocational, service learning Efforts to build relationships, foster school engagement and social support, and reduce alienation Diverse and individualized instruction and use of instructional technologies Early intervention and academic supports Interdisciplinary instruction Freudenberg 2009
Type of Intervention (Selected References) Program ActivitiesHow the Intervention Reduces Dropout Rates Coordinated school health programHealth education; physical education; health services; nutrition services; counseling, psychological, and social services; healthy school environment; health promotion for the staff, family, and community; partnerships Teaches decision-making skills for better life choices; reduces absenteeism; offers early intervention and referrals for learning, psychological, substance abuse, and mental health problems; makes school more engaging; connects students to caring adults; engages families and communities in lives of young people School-based health clinicPrimary and preventive health care, referrals, assistance in finding health insurance and health care for family, reproductive health services, mental health counseling Reduces family health problems; offers early intervention and treatment for psychological and physical health problems that can interrupt schooling; reduces teen pregnancy Freudenberg 2009
Type of Intervention (Selected References) Program ActivitiesHow the Intervention Reduces Dropout Rates Mental health programsAssessment and early intervention for young people with psychological, learning, or behavioral problems; referrals for children and families; counseling; staff training Prevents problems that can interfere with school from becoming more serious; connects young people to caring adults; makes school more engaging; provides counseling or referrals for family mental health problems Substance abuse prevention and treatment programs Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prevention education; peer education; early intervention for drug users; support for young people with substance-abusing parents; referrals for drug treatment or counseling Reduces or delays onset of heavy alcohol or marijuana use; offers young people with a drug-using parent a source of support; makes school more engaging Freudenberg 2009
Type of Intervention (Selected References) Program ActivitiesHow the Intervention Reduces Dropout Rates Sex, HIV infection, and pregnancy prevention programs Sex education; HIV infection prevention services; referrals for reproductive and sex health services; birth control; peer education; sexually transmitted infection prevention Reduces or delays teen pregnancy; connects young people to caring adults or peers who encourage healthy behavior Services for pregnant and parenting teens Child care; parenting education; reproductive health services; continued participation in high school academics/courses Encourages and supports teen mothers to continue schooling; delays second pregnancy Freudenberg 2009
Type of Intervention (Selected References) Program ActivitiesHow the Intervention Reduces Dropout Rates Violence prevention programsPeer education/mediation; anger management; conflict resolution; violence prevention education; psychosocial services; individual and group counseling Makes young people feel safer in school; makes school more engaging; connects young people to caring adults or peers who encourage healthy behavior School climatePolicy changes to reduce stigmatization, bullying, aggressive policing, or punitive disciplinary measures; peer education; increased opportunities for close adult-student interactions Improves student engagement in school activities; connects young people to caring adults; reduces bullying, stigmatization, and distrust of authority Freudenberg 2009