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Benefits of ‘ After ’ School Activities Ruth Falzon March 22, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Benefits of ‘ After ’ School Activities Ruth Falzon March 22, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Benefits of ‘ After ’ School Activities Ruth Falzon March 22, 2011

2 2 What does ‘after’ school activities tell us about school? How are our schools defining education? Are our schools reflecting the profile of our present civilisation? EDUCATION?EDUCATION?

3 3 Schools’ Success? Longstanding culture of prioritizing academic skills and excellence; Overwhelmingly focused on improving GCSE (SEC) scores; Little time & resources devoted ‘work-related’ learning; Closed off from the outside world; What about the NEETs -the other 50% (those N ot in E ducation, E mployment or T raining) Birdwell, Grist & Margo (2011)

4 4 Injecting character into the curriculum We recommend that schools & colleges should provide further time for, and investment in, ‘enrichment’ Frameworks that help to prioritize and capture ‘life skills’ and other employability skills. Extracurricular activities outside the classroom can help young people develop ‘life skills’, but our research revealed that few young people take part in them and schools only give students limited encouragement. Birdwell, Grist & Margo (2011) Schools’ Success for whom?

5 5 CURRENTNEEDS?CURRENTNEEDS? Eric Hoffer

6 6 E m p l o y a b i li t y ? Amongst Core characteristics employers look for are soft skills, positive attitudes motivation and flexibility. These include willingness to work willingness to learn, appearance, behaviour, confidence, positive gestures and mannerisms. Newton et al (2005); Taylor (2005) Winterbotham et al ( 2001)

7 7 Education and the Future? Degrees /job guarantee (e.g. 50% of Knowledge of Graduate engineers becomes obsolete within a span of 5 years) 90% of our present 7-year olds will be in jobs which do not yet exist Workless people have attitudinal barriers -lack of confidence in ability to learn; increasing lack of training motivation with age (Newton et al, 2005).

8 8 Accessibility for ALL The Matthew Effect (2010) ‘For whosoever hath, to him shall be given and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath.’ (Matthew Chap. 12-Verse 12)

9 9 What makes the difference? Education? Present Civilisation? Employability? Accessibility?

10 10 National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center – USA (NYVPRC) After-school hours are the peak time for juvenile crimes and risky behaviors, including alcohol and drug use. Children are at the highest risk of becoming a victim of violence after school, particularly between 14:00. and 18:00 Highest amount of juvenile crime occurs between 15:00. and 16:00 (School dismissal).

11 11...NYVPRC Students who spend no time in after-school activities are 49 % more likely to have used drugs Students who spend no time in after-school activities are 37 % more likely to become teen parents than students who spend 1-4 hrs a week in after-school activities (Westat, Inc. analysis of national data,1995) After-school programs prevent pregnancy by promoting sound judgment, offering health education, and providing positive alternatives to sexual activity ("Child Trends Research Brief," May 2002) If youth stay involved in after-school activities through adolescence, they are more likely to attend college, vote and volunteer as adults. (Zaff and Moore, et al. 2003)

12 12 …NYVPRC It is estimated that every $1 spent on ASAs/ASPs will save taxpayers $3 because of reductions in youth crime, teen parenthood and school dropout rates. This cost benefit is in addition to the life-long love of learning, improved level of education, and contributions in civic life that results from participation in after-school programs and activities.

13 13 A Meta-Analysis of After-School Programs That Seek to Promote Personal and Social Skills in Children and Adolescents concluded: Increases in self-perceptions feelings and attitudes bonding to school positive social behaviors - behavioral adjustment school performance/ of academic achievement Reductions in problem behaviors drug use Durlak, Weissberg & Pachan (2010)

14 14 Two reasons for ASP/ASAs Children/adolescents need guidance to grow into productive adulthood. ASPs and ASAs keep youth busy between 2pm and 6 pm; ASPs/ASAs can provide extra time for career exploration, skill development, service learning and internships to prepare them for future education and work.

15 15 Effectiveness of ASP/ASAs? 1.ASP/ASAs support and complement classroom learning by emphasizing social, emotional and physical development. 2.ASP/ASAs provide opportunities for informal learning. 3.Provide positive emotional climate without harsh, punitive controlling adult supervision. 4.Provide activities that support socialization with peers. 5.Include time for physical and creative activity. (Why not also SCHOOL learning?)

16 16 Before- and After-school Activities - FINLAND A Meaningful Free Time – Every Child’s Right Law for provision came into force on 1 st August 2004 Voluntary attendance for children National Board of Education guidelines Define the objects of the activities and the central contents Define qualifications required To improve the quality

17 17 The Qualifications required of Instructors (Finland) Suitable higher academic degree (160 credits), the Master's degree, vocational initial qualification or special vocational qualification and the skill to act as an instructor of the group of children.

18 18 Julia Margo, IPPR senior research fellow British teenagers are more likely to get into fights, hang out with other teenagers, binge drink, take drugs & have underage/ unprotected sex, spend more time 'hanging out' with their mates, and less with adults than teenagers in most other European countries. ….. British adults are less likely to intervene to stop teenagers committing vandalism and other antisocial behaviour. NHS leaflet 'an orgasm a day keeps the doctor away’

19 19 UK Department of Children, Schools and Families (2007) ‘Over the next three years, we will provide an additional £265m to enable extended schools to do more to support disadvantaged children and young people. By year three, funding will enable all schools to offer those children two hours per week of group activities in term time, plus 30 hours of additional activities over the holidays.’

20 20 BBC Poll NICOLA PEARSON ( ) After-school children's clubs too expensive 67% of UK parents cannot afford after school activities. 50% of UK parents paying more than £10 per child per week Most parents thought that their children would miss out if they did not take part in such activities

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23 23 Sunday Times of Malta, Drinks for underage youths in Paceville? No problem.

24 24 Education Act Part 1 Obligations of the State. 4. It is the duty of the State - (a) to promote education and instruction; (b) to ensure the existence of a system of schools and institutions accessible to all Maltese citizens catering for the full development of the whole personality including the ability of every person to work ;

25 25 Minister Lawrence Gonzi (2007) Our vision is of an intelligent European, Mediterranean island nation, promoting peace, security, justice and well-being, a smart hub generating wealth and prosperity and an incubator fostering expertise, innovation and entrepreneurship. L. Gonzi, Growing Stronger, Talking Point, The Times, 25 April (in Vision 20-20, Camilleri 2010)

26 26 Timing of after-school activities queried by Finance Minister Times of Malta 29th September 2010 Christian Peregin Finance Minister Tonio Fenech yesterday proposed coming up with a more efficient educational timetable to make it easier for parents to work. He said it did not make sense for school to finish in the early afternoon and for all extracurricular activities such as catechism, football, ballet and drama to take place in the evening. “This is not something for the Budget to tackle,” Mr Fenech admitted. But, he said, it still had to be considered as a holistic measure that could attract women into the workforce while not having the adverse effects of having a society of children who were not brought up by their parents.

27 27 Vision (Camilleri, 2010) At present, a panel is discussing the introduction of Drama and Theatre Studies at SEC level and consultations have started about the possibility of offering Intermediate level Physical Education. (p. 55) Doctor of Literature to Maestro Roberto Benigni, Actor and Film Director, in April 2008;

28 28 Vision (Camilleri, 2010) Degree Plus (p. 79) intended to promote the acquisition of experience and skills outside the curriculum of degree programmes, which can come in handy later on in one’s personal life or to enhance one’s employability. No any formal ECTS but formally acknowledged in transcript and the Europass Diploma Supplement. More than 3000 students since launch in 2007.

29 29 Recognition of ASAs Secondary School Certificate and Profile - Guidelines determining the verification of informal learning in secondary education (2010) Informal Education includes all activities in which the student takes part and which take place after school hours. These can be carried out on school premises or any other approved location. For Informal Education activities to be given credit in the Secondary School Certificate and Profile transcript, the organization offering such activities must be registered with MQC.

30 30 Informal Education carries a 10% share of the whole Secondary School Certificate and Profile allotted marks. Although Informal Education takes place outside school hours, it is not independent from school's ethics, rules and regulations. If activities are deemed to be in conflict with the school's ethics, rules and regulations, the school can deduct or refuse to validate. For Informal Education activities to be considered as valid for accreditation on the Certificate, these must be carried out during the scholastic year, i.e. between October and May. ________________________________________ Why not ONE BODY - MQC joining the National Council for Higher Education? Recognition of ASAs

31 31 Kunsill Malti għall-Isport KMS is responsible for the administration of four main sports facilities in Malta. Maximum use of all public sports facilities fuller use of the various government sports facilities sports facilities in Government schools after school hours. Programme in collaboration with Local Councils Twice weekly 90-minute sessions sports activities (school age) 25% funding from KMS, 25% Dept of Local Councils, 50% local council totally free for participants All personnel must be trained

32 32 Examples of some KMS activities Social Inclusion programme in Cottonera : 380 participants (6- 12 years) Sports and dance totally free of charge Skola Sport (48 euro per annum) 1.5 hrs a week Girls on the move (12 euro per annum) 1.5 hours a week to encourage more participation Summer on the move – not subsidized Active youngster (9-16) – in summer Arty Sports – traditional games, games on historical sites 1.5 hrs a week 5-16 year olds SPORTS programme for M.U.S.E.U.M. children on Sundays –trained coach rotation/funded by KMS Walking Club - Tal-Handaq track

33 33 "The MFA is delighted to be working so closely with the government to provide equal opportunities for all Maltese children. We feel we have achieved success when we see the children's faces beaming with happiness.“ Maria Mifsud, MFA on the 3 rd School Futsal Festival (56 schools)

34 34 Protecting our Children KMS established in 2003 and there is to date no regularization To register with KMS, school (with profile) or club (NGO) Clubs/School are not regularized but can be registered with KMS. NGOs – should register as from 2008 Registered – present statute, committee as well as accounts. No need for qualifications or vetting for safety CHILD PROTECTION GUIDELINES Work in progress in final stages Would cover training, safety, standards and monitoring and complaints procedure.

35 35 Segretarjat Parlamentari GĦAŻ-ŻGĦAŻAGĦ U SPORT RAPPORT SENA ĦIDMA - MARZU L-2009 kienet is-sena fejn l-għaqdiet sportivi setgħu jirreġistraw biex jiġu rikonoxxuti mal-Kunsill Malti għall-iSport għall-ewwel darba. Sal-aħħar ta’ Frar 2010, 259 (c.50%) entità sportiva ġew irreġistrati mal-Kunsill Malti għall-iSport. Din ir-reġistrazzjoni toffri assigurazzjoni ta’ standards segwiti u għalhekk tagħti timbru ta’ serjetà. Huwa propju għal dan il-għan li l-Kunsill Malti għall-iSport jassisti esklussivament u b’diversi modi għaqdiet irreġistrati miegħu. (p.47)

36 36 Sports participation (2004) (NSO Malta 2006) ,62824,80818,99219, ,47417,25416,26816,534 TOTAL40,10242,06235,26036,344

37 37 Sports in 2004 Percentage of TOTAL Population % Male% Female% TOTAL

38 38 Recommendations Streamline cultural education within the National Curriculum and within any other national policies. Work with the NSA for a statistics base for the sector, with particular attention to education, employment, and economic contribution. Develop collaboration agreements with local councils, individually or within regional clusters, aimed at developing concrete measures and initiatives for the promotion of creativity at local community level Cultural works to which children are exposed and to which they contribute should be developed by professional artists and cultural operators, and quality-assured capacity building measures to develop this professional base shall be enacted. (National Cultural Policy Draft – 2010 p )

39 39 Culture Statistics 2004 (NSO Malta 2006) 109 NGOs serving children/& young persons 12.7%. Membership increase from 63,476 (2001) to 71,509 (2004) 45.1 % youth population aged 5-29 yrs 61.5 % Male membership. Female participation on the increase: 38.5 % (2004) 35.0 % (2003) 34.3 % (2002)

40 – Young Dancers in Malta Dance3-9 yrs10-14 yrs15-19 yrs Ballet (1411) 10 ♂ 829 ♀ 0 ♂ 381 ♀ 0 ♂ 191 ♀ Jazz (609) 13 ♂ 198 ♀ 7 ♂ 213 ♀ 6 ♂ 172 ♀ Cont./Mod. (329) 12 ♂ 155 ♀ 0 ♂ 84 ♀ 1 ♂ 77 ♀ Spanish (175) 0 ♂ 27 ♀ 2 ♂ 87 ♀ 2 ♂ 57 ♀ Tap (60) 1 ♂ 25 ♀ 0 ♂ 28 ♀ 0 ♂ 6 ♀ Ballroom (45) 3 ♂ 3 ♀ 10 ♂ 10 ♀ 8 ♂ 9 ♀ L. American ♂ 53 ♀ 12 ♂ 32 ♀ 11 ♂ 20 ♀

41 41 Drama Centre (2006) Drama Centre 419 girls 068 boys Total Malta186 girls 36 boys Total Gozo233 girls 32 boys Drama Malta122 girls 36 boys Drama Gozo 38 girls 28 boys Ballet Malta 64girls 0 boys Ballet Gozo 146 girls 0 boys Latin American 42 girls 4 boys (Gozo Only) Movement 7 girls 0 boys (Gozo Only)

42 42 School of Music/Art (2006) School of Music 484 girls 532 boys Malta 318 girls 397 boys Gozo 166 girls 135 boys School of Art 115 girls 115 boys Malta 21 girls 15 boys Gozo 94 girls 100 boys

43 43 Temporary Register for Accreditation Training of the Arts. The Malta Council for Culture and the Arts (MCCA) announced a temporary measure for institutions/ individuals who provide training of the Arts. To register as a tuition centre with the Directorate for Quality and Standards in Education. Temporary measure pending appropriate accreditation and quality assurance structures. Temporary registration allows tapping council and state incentives Temporary until further provisions from the appropriate structures are set up.

44 44 NSO, 2010 – Children 2010

45 45 Household Budgetary Survey 2008

46 46 Internet after school? (NSO 2005) 79.1 % School children access the internet 91.7 % Secondary school students access the internet 60.9 % Browse the internet alone 75.0 % Claim parents/guardians supervision 63.6 %/ Students residing in Gozo are supervised least, 65.9 % Govt secondary schools are supervised least Pornographic, violence, racism, vulgar language Exposure 65.0% Exposed (43.1 % boys and 25.7 % girls) 55.6 % Southern Harbour district Form 3 to 5 students 59.5 % Independent secondary schools

47 47 Kemm Qegħdin Tajjeb? 5.1 hrs online each week average. 8.2 hrs online each week 3 rd -5 th formers 1.2 hrs average number of dance hours (2004) 1.5 hrs Skola Sports 1.5 hrs Girls on the move 1.5 hrs Arty Sports

48 48 VAT EXEMPT? Musical Instrument lessons – VAT Exempt Art lessons are VAT Exempt Ballet ONLY dance that is VAT Exempt – ‘an exception’ –after heavy lobbying Sports – VAT Exempt only if they are Article 11 VAT Exempt status (14,000 threshold) VALUE ADDED TAX ACT Fifth schedule Part 2 Exempt without credit supplies 12.(4) Any training in the arts which is provided by an organisation accredited by the Register for the Accreditation in the Training of the Arts.

49 49 Benefits of After- School Activities Development Creativity Stress Relief Self-Confidence Team Spirit and Camaraderie Sense of Community Time Management Employability Character Building Respect Responsibility Citizenship Health Circle of Friends Scores Quality of Life

50 50 Clare Agius Actress, TV Presenter & Producer Whilst academic studies might train the brain to be disciplined, without a shadow of a doubt, it is the other diverse social activities and experiences in life that colour and shape us.

51 51 Lydia Caruana Soprano Many students, once grown up, will take up what was once a side hobby (an after school activity), as a career or as a part time activity which enriches their lives. There is more to life than lessons at school. Students who study an instrument or art, who go to ballet or drama or sport training will have an enriched mind by the time they're teenagers and this in turn will make them cultured, appreciative, mentally empowered adults. What is important is that students are actually allowed to choose what gives them pleasure as an after school activity - it should not be a prerogative of the parents.

52 52 Dr Dione Mifsud I experienced the benefits of after school activities during my 9- year stint as a guidance teacher in Maltese Trade Schools. Students were able to become involved in all sorts of activities. These included cultural visits, sports, intrapersonal awareness activities. One particular activity I remember fondly was the school's participation in the local carnival. The students used to design and create a carnival float and subsequently team up with a girls' school to create carnival costumes and take part in dancing competitions. Such activities created a sense of camarederie between the students, helped foster better relationships with the teachers and gave the students the opportunity to practice and work on skills that could range from carpentry to choreography. Head, Department of Psychology IAC President Elect MACP ex-President Former teacher and School Counsellor

53 53 Aaron (23-year old) 1: The fact that you are not bored is very important. If you are already engaged in several activities you feel the need to explore other things to do less, because you are already doing so. Consequently a variety of after-school activities is probably helpful when one is very young allowing you to get a decent sample of what it is you like, then being allowed to pick on a few and devote yourself more to a few preferred activities. It is also important to develop necessary lifeskills not taught at school.

54 54 Aaron (23-year old) 2 - I also would like to add the following comments: They also help in increasing your circle of friends, and given you do not have to spend everyday at school with them, you feel more liberated to be yourself because there are no long-term repercussions in having to deal with somebody you don't like day in day out, as you do in school. Meeting people from other social backgrounds is also an important learning experience, in my case particularly, since the people I was surrounded by represented a particularly small group amongst Maltese youths; having attended a predominantly English speaking private school. …

55 55 Aaron (23-year old) …I believe it is also vital for children to be made aware that while doing well in school is helpful in being successful in life, it is not conditional to do so. Excelling in an activity, however seemingly irrelevant as a tool in later life to the parent, is essential in instilling confidence and fostering a sense of ambition, both essential to long term success in the competitive work environment that presently exists. The key here is balance, too much focus on an extracurricular activity can obviously eat into necessary study time.

56 56 Deborah B. Psy (Hons) Present Job – Class Facilitator (21- year old) Being involved in after school activities whilst aiming to do well academically, has helped me develop skills in time and stress management, learn how to remain committed and dedicated to things I take part in. I have found that having such activities has helped me do better in school since they act s a form of encouragement to do my school work according to necessary deadlines.

57 57 Thoughts and Recommendations Overhaul of the Maltese School experience The Homework Culture ASA and children’s right ASA should be supported/monitored by law Minimum one activity a week per child School hours? Should be in the local community Properly trained/warranted personnel/Correct qualifications Government sponsors for children to attend after school activities of their choice and locality Linked with PSD/Youth Work/academic learning A whole community Approach Terminology – AFTER School?

58 58 Deborah In fact, I do not think I can imagine my childhood and adolescence without such participation as I think I would have gotten very bored and frustrated and probably not managed to succeed in my schoolwork. Such activities are DEFINITELY something I would promote with all students!

59 59 Miriam Teuma CEO Aġenzija Żgħażagħ I believe that after school activities enables young people to acquire skills and competences that contribute to the development of capabilities and motivations that are more directly linked to a general motivation for learning. These skills include a wide range of competencies such as team, organizational and conflict management, intercultural awareness, leadership, practical problem solving, self-confidence, discipline and responsibility. These activities play an essential role in the life long learning process of young people.

60 60 Matthew Scurfield Actor/writer Being very dyslexic, before the word added up to anything, afterschool activates opened up the possibility of a more relaxed relationship between the teacher and student. On the odd occasion I plucked up the courage to go, I kind of felt the teacher respected me more, because I wanted to participate in the lessons, not because I was told too.

61 61 Amanda Caruana PSD and Guidance Teacher Youth Worker President, MPSDA ASAs provide an environment that is more creative, student- centered and less rigidly traditional. Due to their voluntary, participative and flexible nature, a safe environment where individuals have right to make mistakes, is created. In such a setting most of the learning is done informally. Teamwork, cooperation, communication, decision-making, conflict management, negotiation, problem solving, leadership, critical thinking, time management, assertiveness, participation, creativity and organization are skills that are easily practiced during after school activities.

62 62 Carmen Galea As an ex-PE teacher I can definitely say that some children who were not interested in the academic realm of school attended regularly specifically because of these extra-curricular activities. They started having a more positive attitude towards school & their self-esteem was even further enhanced by the added bonus of winning competitions Carmen Galea School counsellor St Ignatius College President MACP IAC membership chair Homestart executive Committee

63 63 Patrick Decelis Assistant Head Schools, other public entities and NGOs in Malta are organising after school activities on school premises and elsewhere. Private ventures have mushroomed throughout the island in a myriad of disciplines. It is up to the parents to grab the opportunity. Maybe financial help from the state can help this sector flourish. A synergy must be built between the after school and school hours activities by highlighting the importance of such activity in show-and-tell sessions and using the child’s experience in special school activities, such as morning assemblies and concerts. This serves as a showcase to encourage further adherence to these programmes.

64 64 Enrique Cuschieri B.Psy. (Hons) Apart from giving children the time to 'switch off' from school based tasks, after school activities allow for increased socialization away from the classroom, an opportunity to exert oneself physically, or express oneself through art, dance, theatre etc... Having participated in after school activities throughout my childhood and beyond, I can definitely see their importance in the long run. Being involved in theatre, dance and sport increased my self confidence and opened doors and opportunities that could not have come about solely through formal schooling. They also gave me the opportunity to meet many different individuals, build on my talents and strengths, which later also impacted on my schooling, such as better self- confidence in public speaking. All in all, I believe extra curricular activities are very fruitful for any child since it gives them the space to tap into and develop other skills, which are not usually focused on in the classroom.''

65 65 Christiane Sullivan Health Psychologist We need to be clear about what we mean by After School activities. If these are to mean recreational activities such as sports or other creative / cultural activities that help to broaden a child's knowledge and experience of the world, then yes these are certainly beneficial. Unfortunately, many parents continue to pump their children with after school academic work, which besides HW given by the child's school, also includes a hefty amount of private lessons each day. If education is the concern, there are certainly other ways we can educate our children that don't need to tax them so much. At the rate we are going, we are creating stress for our children that possibly leads to further mental health problems as the child grows up.

66 66 …Christiane Sullivan Health Psychologist There is no space it seems, for creative expression that can lead to children being healthier both mentally and physically. Investing in after school activities of this nature can contribute to one day having healthier adults and a healthier society in general. Our children are forgetting how to play, forgetting how to use their imagination and creativity in order to think, as well as to process fears and anxieties that come to them through the constant bombardment of negative images from news about events happening around them in the world, including recent happenings in North Africa - where events are a little closer to home.

67 67 Vanessa Camenzuli B.Psy (Hons) student, Singer and singing teacher Apart from the fact that these activities were fun, stimulating and promoted an environment in which I could actually express myself and my opinion counts; they gave me an aim in my life. As an only child I was never bored, I always had something to do which was productive. They also helped me cope from a young age. I had to learn the glories of time management which helped me ALL throughout my life. I do not break down when at university I have 5 exams in a week. But mostly these activities gave me a sense of self which school alone will never EVER give you!

68 68 Courtland C. Lee, Ph.D. Professor, Counselor Education, University of Maryland, College Park President, International Association for Counselling Former Teacher and School Counselor As a former teacher and school counselor, I have seen the benefits of after school activities first-hand. This is an excellent period for students to get extra help with their studies in after school tutorial programs. It is also a Wonderful time for students to develop athletic skills. After school Time period can allow for students to establish positive mentoring relationships with older people that generally cannot be developed during the school day. In addition to filling after school hours with quality time for students, after school activities provide working parents with peace of mind. Parents can feel at ease knowing that their children are engaging in safe and constructive activities in the hours after the formal school day ends.

69 69 References Birdwell, J., Grist M. & Margo, J. ( ) The Forgotten Half. Pamphlet Camilleri J. – UoM Rector (2011) 2020 vision of optical illusion? Malta: UoM Hoffer, E. (1982) Between the devil and the dragon. New York: Harper and Row. Newton B, Hurstfield J, Miller L, Page R, Akroyd K. (November 2005 ) Research Report DWPRR 295, USA: Department for Work and Pensions, Robinson, K, (2009) The element: how finding your passion changes everything. USA Penguin Group Taylor A (2005), ‘What employers look for: the skills debate and the fit with youth perception’, Journal of Education and Work, Vol. 18, No. 2 Winterbotham M, Adams L, Kuechel A (2001), Evaluation of the work based learning for adults programme since April 2001: Qualitative interviews with ES Staff, Providers and Employers. USA: Department for Work and Pensions, Granger, R., Durlak, J. A., Yohalem, N., & Reisner, E. (April, 2007). Improving after- school program quality. New York, N.Y.: William T. Grant Foundation

70 70 References risk-heart-attack-stroke.html Acknowledgements Mr Roderick Vella KMS Mr Sean Buhagiar MCCA Mr Clyde Caruana NSA


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