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Curriculum to Extra Curricular. Federal Involvement in HE 1947 President’s Commission on HE –Half of HS graduates benefit from HE 1950 Commission of Financing.

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Presentation on theme: "Curriculum to Extra Curricular. Federal Involvement in HE 1947 President’s Commission on HE –Half of HS graduates benefit from HE 1950 Commission of Financing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Curriculum to Extra Curricular

2 Federal Involvement in HE 1947 President’s Commission on HE –Half of HS graduates benefit from HE 1950 Commission of Financing HE –Two tracks: Vocational (CC) & Collegiate 1950 Housing Act- low interest loans for campus housing 1958 National Defense Education Act –Loans, grants, fellowships Johnson’s Position –HE as primary instrument to address social issues Education Act 1965 –Facilities funding, coordinating super board 1970 Task force on Reform in HE –Education is goal, not research or public service Carnegie Commission on HE –Access, public/private balance

3 Student Life Colonial Constraints –Fixed curriculum –Religious orthodoxy Develop campus life apart from academics College Football –Adaptation of Rugby –1869: 1 st game Princeton-Rutgers –1873: Pres. White @ Cornell “I will not permit 30 men to travel 400 miles to Michigan to agitate a bag of wind.” –1881 Michigan plays Harvard, Yale, and Princeton in less than a week –Colleges begin to consult on matters of athletics

4 Student Life Midwest schools agreed on only 2 professionals per team 1893 Yale & Princeton play annual Thanksgiving game in NY Need to win gets out of control –Univ. of Oregon plays 3 different opponents over 3 weeks and faced some of the same players each game –1905: 18 die playing game –1905: Theodore Roosevelt….rough but fair Stanford, Columbia, Northwestern drop football Football/athletic as access Influence of alumni - Football as a way of getting attention for schools--marketing Early programs were student managed –Dartmouth alumni donate a field in exchange for control

5 Student Life College Football Cont. 1885: Women attend football but not baseball –Football becomes and remains a social event Also a business –Spectators needs: colors and numbers (now names) –1926 Army-Navy in Chicago; draws 110,000 –Univ. of Michigan 1927: Stadium seats 87,000 1948: $4 million football complex –1928: Yale grossed $1.1m in football revenues; $348K profits

6 “Notre Dame’s and Southern California’s athletic departments are each at least $150,000 richer as a result of the game played in Soldiers Field yesterday. Even at low estimates, gate receipts exceeded $350,000. Excluding all complimentary tickets and gate crashers, at least 110,000 persons paid from $3 to $7 for their seats. Rental of Soldiers Field was $40,000 and allowing $10,000 for other expenses, the fifty-fifty split of the remaining receipts will net each school $150,000.” The Chicago Tribune, November 27, 1927

7 In 1929, ND spent $15,400 for new football uniforms, an amount equal to what was spent on library book acquisition 1930 Notre Dame football season Income: $897,173 Athletic dept Expenses: $347,000 Including: $42,700 for travel $14,550 for uniforms $27,200 stadium/practice field First year of the depression, ND nets $540,000 from football Campus issue: should ND spend $750,000 to build a football stadium to be used 4 or 5 times a year

8 Student Life Educational Merit of Extracurricular Activities –Unity of experiences/ concern for out of class experience-driven by athletics –Education of whole person – physical, emotional, social, intellectual –Europe/Adults US/ Immature –Parental expectations in loco parentis—body, mind and soul –Inst. becoming larger, more impersonal –Role of faculty (research vs. in loco parentis) Beginnings of Student Personnel Movement –Developmental needs of students –Unity to the curriculum and extracurricular –Philosophy of student success/uniquely American –Personalizing education

9 Student Life Harper @ Chicago; calls for scientific study of college student 1899 - 1890-Two deans: of faculty & for students - Aptitude testing WWI/;counseling Extra-curricular becomes curriculum –Debate club to speech dept - Drama club to theatre dept. –Athletics goes to athletic dept & physical education –Student newspaper to journalism –European tradition of student involvement in inst gov’t (Jefferson @ VA) late 19 C models: 1. students assume responsibility for dorms (Vanderbilt, Penn, Chicago) 2. consult w/faculty over shared interests (Princeton, Vermont, Virginia 3. Illinois: students assume responsibility for discipline 4. Women’s colleges (Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Vassar) students determine and execute policy 5. Honor Codes; 123 by 1915; more common in south

10 Dorms –Colonial provided housing –Tappen @ Michigan argues against it; money needed elsewhere –Fall into disrepair/largely neglected until following WWII –3 models Boarding Houses Fraternity Houses Private, for profit residence halls Student Discipline –Eliot: Harvard- 1869; student self discipline/ others follow –relaxation of Puritan codes (decline of violence against faculty) replaced by limited democratic humanism

11 By end of Civil; War, clergy no longer dominate in HE - By 1913 compulsory chapel attendance done away with at Harvard, Hopkins, Cornell, Wisconsin, & Ohio State Greeks and Secret Societies (Student Cultures) –Populist movements – south and west –Laws against membership: Indiana and MS –1865: 25 nationals –Mid 20 th C: 77 Fraternities, 45 sororities –Secret Societies (Benet, The beginnings of wisdom) Ivy League schools mainly Yale 6 Skull and Bones/Scroll and Key

12 Student Life Interesting Tidbits on Students: –1870: less than 2% of 18-21 cohort; 21% female –1890: 2.4% of cohort in college –1900 around 4% of 18-21; plus 5,700 graduate students; Blacks approximately.3% –1930: about 12% 18-21 cohort –1940: 18% of cohort; Blacks earn 119 doctorates; 47% female –Enrollment of Blacks in northern colleges seldom over 1% of student pop. –Harvard 1914 “No one excluded by reason of his color but men of white and colored races shall not be compelled to live and eat together.”

13 Freshmen at Cornell 1930 Average hours per week (168) spent in various activities Activity Low Scholarship High Scholarship Other Sleeping 56 58 60 In class 24 24 25 Studying 17 18 20 Writing/reading 3 4 4 Job/working 10 8 7 Exercise 6 7 7 Social 3 3 1 Movies/etc. 3 3 3 Library 3 1 1 __________________ Recall Harper’s 1899 comment about scientific research regarding students

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