Presentation on theme: "BOXING AUSTRALIA INC STATE/TERRITORY LEVEL REFEREE SEMINAR."— Presentation transcript:
BOXING AUSTRALIA INC STATE/TERRITORY LEVEL REFEREE SEMINAR
Purpose At the end of this seminar and practical lessons you will: have the theory knowledge and understanding of the rules to provide the athletes with fair and consistent rulings, and have the basic referee practical understanding to perform as a trainee State/Territory Level referee. Horizons
Agenda Objectives Ref Dress/Duties Ref Powers Before bout –Positioning –Boxers dress/mouthguard rule –Seconds –Shaking of hands During bout –Positioning –Hints/movements –Commands –Cautions/warnings –Gestures for fouls –Down –Counts/limits –Decisions –Injuries –Doctors role After bout –Positioning –Role/duties Exhibitions Practical demonstrations Process for advancement
Objectives The following is a comparison of objectives to make you better understand the role we play and why we have to overcome distractions or disappointments following unpopular decisions. The objective of an athlete or coach is to: win the bout [at all cost]. Our objective as officials is to: ensure we arrive at the correct decision within the boundaries of the rules.
Boxers dress Clothing Light boots or shoes without spikes or heels, socks, shorts not to exceed knee length, and a red or blue vest matching their corner covering the chest and back. Where the vest and shorts are the same colour, the belt line must be clearly indicated. A soft knee brace is acceptable; no metal or hard plastic. Gum shields Shall be worn and shall be form fitted. Where the gum shield is knocked out the referee shall take the boxer to their corner, have it washed and refitted. While this is being done the seconds are not to talk to the boxer. If the gum shield falls out a second time for any reason the boxer shall be warned and further warned if it happens again. Red coloured gum shields are forbidden Cup/ breast protectors A cup protector shall be worn by male boxers, a jock strap may be worn in addition. Females may wear a breast protector.
Boxers dress cont’ Head guards Boxers shall wear conforming head guards approved by AIBA, BAI or the state. Head guards should be of the same colour as their corner; in national and international bouts it is mandatory. National champs only AIBA approved head guards shall be used (Adidas, Everlast, Top Ten are approved). The head guard will be fitted once in the ring and removed at the bout conclusion and before the decision. Prohibited objects No other objects may be worn during the bout. No type of body piercing and no body accessories shall be worn during the bout. The use of rubbing liniment or products likely to be harmful or objectionable to an opponent, on the face, arms or any part of the body is forbidden. However, grease or vaseline rubbed into the forehead and eyebrows before a contest is allowable to prevent injury. Dress infractions A referee shall exclude from competition a boxer that does not wear a head guard, a cup-protector, and gumshield. Where a boxer’s glove or dress becomes undone during boxing the referee shall stop the contest and have it attended to.
Gloves Competitors shall wear red or blue gloves as per the respective boxer’s corner and which are approved by AIBA, BAI or the state. At national champs only Adidas, Everlast or Top Ten are approved. Boxers are not allowed to wear their own gloves. The gloves shall weigh 10oz of which the leather portion shall not weigh more than half of the total weight and the padding not less than half the total weight. The regular hitting surface must be marked on the gloves with a clearly discernible colour. The padding of the gloves shall not be displaced or broken. Only clean and serviceable gloves shall be used. All gloves and bandages shall be fitted under the supervision of two knowledgeable officials appointed for that purpose.
Bandages A bandage between 2.5m and 4.5m and 5.7cm wide on each hand will be used. No other kind of bandage may be used. The bandages shall be made of stretched material. The use of any kind of tapes, rubber or adhesive plaster, as bandages, is strictly forbidden. However, a single strip of adhesive 3” (7.6cm) long and between 1” (2.5cm) and 2” (5cm) wide, may be used at the upper wrist to secure the bandage. At national champs only AIBA approved bandages will be used (Addidas, Everlast, Top Ten). Bandages shall be checked by the referee at the end of the bout.
Referee’s duties Dress: White pants and shirt. Flat soled shoes. Disposable gloves. Surgical swabs. Duties: The referee’s primary duty is the safety of the boxers. The referee’s secondary duties are to: maintain control of the bout and ensure rules and fair play are adhered to, and ensure a boxer does not take unnecessary or excessive punishment. Check the gloves and dress. Use three words of command: “stop” when ordering the boxers to stop boxing. “box” when ordering them to continue. “break” when breaking a clinch, at which stage each boxer shall step back a full pace before continuing boxing. Indicate by suitable signs or gestures any infringement of the rules. When the winner of the bout is announced, raise the hand of the winning boxer; not before. Where a disqualification or stoppage has occurred a referee will first notify the jury, and if the judges are using the ‘Handhelds or similar’, notify the judges.
Advice to referees · Read and absorb the rules of AIBA and BAI. ·Practice the application of the rules. ·Attend seminars. ·Keep physical fit. ·Be physically and mentally fit to officiate. ·Carefully watch the ringside, boxers, coaches, judges, doctors and jury during the one- minute intervals. ·Avoid giving commands out of position. ·Strive for the best positioning. ·Keep command of the bout with resolute commands. ·Carefully consider warnings etc (commonsense). ·Do not argue with the boxers or their coaches. ·Remember, the spectators/viewers are there to watch the boxers – NOT YOU.
What makes a good referee Knowledge/application of the rules. Positioning. Movement. An ability to interpret what you see and react (speed) accordingly. To recognise when a boxer is hurt/outclassed/injured. To identify fouls and take correct action. But, most of all ‘GOOD JUDGEMENT’.
The referee’s authorities Authorities Terminate a contest if it is too one-sided. Terminate if one or both boxers are injured or can’t continue. Terminate if one or both boxers are not in earnest, in which case the referee may disqualify one or both boxers. Caution a boxer or stop a contest and give a warning. Disqualify a boxer who fails to comply immediately with orders or behaves aggressively or offensively towards referee. Caution or remove a second who infringes rules, and disqualify a boxer if the second does not comply with orders. Disqualify for a foul, with or without a previous warning. Suspend a count if other boxer deliberately fails to retire to neutral corner, delays so doing, or seconds are talking or gesturing to their boxer or crowd. Interpret rules and take action on any matter not covered by a rule.
The coach Each competitor is entitled to one coach and one assistant coach who shall be appropriately dressed; no thongs, singlets, offensive shirts. Only the two coaches shall mount the ring and only one shall enter the ring during the interval. Coaches are not to enter before or at the end of a contest. During the bout no coaches shall remain on the platform, nor lean on the ring. Before the bout begins they shall remove everything from the platform. A coach may retire their boxer, but not whilst the referee is counting. No advice or encouragement shall be given to spectators so they may act on their behalf. If advice to their boxer becomes aggressive or disruptive appropriate action should be taken. A coach may be cautioned or removed for their actions. A boxer may also be cautioned, warned or disqualified for offences committed by the coach. Where a coach is removed from the corner they shall not act again in that session. If it occurs a second time the coach shall not act again during that tournament.
Shaking of hands Purpose Boxers shall shake hands as a sign of sportsmanship and friendly rivalry in accordance with the rules of boxing. Authorised times Takes place before the beginning of the first round and after the result has been given. No other shaking of hands is permitted.
The Jury’s role At national champs the jury will consist of not less than three persons who will be at least Aust qualified RJ; each bout conducted at state level will not have less than one who will be at least a state qualified RJ. The duties of the jury will be to: Oversee the scoring and decisions of the referees and judges. Recommend to the RJ Committee to suspend or disqualify referees and judges. Hear protests. Cease boxing or stop a bout where circumstances should arise that require action. Stopping the bout on the recommendation from the ringside physician. Overturn boxing contests or change boxing decisions where appropriate.
The Jury cont’ Protests The team manager can lodge a protest within 30 minutes of bout termination, and within 5 minutes for championship final bouts with a protest fee of $A220. If upheld, the fee is refunded. Overriding a decision The Jury can overturn a decision only where they consider the Referee has made a decision against the rules and articles of AIBA/BAI or where there has been obvious cheating or, where Handheld Boxing Points Calculator Scoring, or similar, is used, the score has been incorrectly added.
Hints for referees Be first into the ring. Stand smartly in the neutral corner facing the jury and await entry of the boxers. The boxers will enter the ring without their head guard fitted. When the boxers have entered the ring the coach is to remain on the apron, they are not to enter the ring. When the boxers have fitted their head guards and been introduced to the public, proceed firstly to the red corner and inspect the dress of the boxer. When checking the groin protector ensure you use the back of the hand to prevent being offensive or ask them to tap the area so you are sure. Likewise, with a breast protector, ask the boxer to tap the protector if you are unsure. If the boxer has long hair that is braided or loose and hanging down the back of the boxer, have it placed under the head guard, thereby preventing the hair coming forward of the shoulder and injuring the opponent. Ensure the boxer’s singlet is tucked-in thereby allowing a clear view of the belt-line. If all is correct, have the gum shield fitted and shake the hand of the coaches. Proceed to the blue corner and replicate your actions performed in the red corner. Call the boxers to the centre of the ring and have them shake hands in a friendly, sporting and respectful manner. It is not necessary to explain to them any of the boxing rules as they are supposed to know the rules and regulations of boxing. Your duty is to see that they comply with the rules when boxing in the ring. For novice boxers it is acceptable to explain parts of the rules, but do this whilst inspecting the boxer in their corner. Make sure that the boxers are ready, the coaches have retired, judges and Ringside Physician are ready, that no ring implements are lying on the ring platform, the computer operator is ready and the jury are ready before signalling the timekeeper to commence the round (the timekeeper is the final person you signal). Make sure your signal to commence the round is noticed by the timekeeper. When the gong is sounded, you are in full control of the bout and must see that the boxers and their coaches strictly observe the rules of boxing.
Hints for referees cont’ The first and most important duty of the referee in amateur boxing is to protect the safety of the boxer(s). Thereafter, to maintain and control the bout according to the rules, and to prevent either boxer from receiving unnecessary and excessive blows. The referee must immediately stop the boxing when a boxer appears unable to properly defend him/herself. This is a difference from professional boxing! Likewise you are expected to be aware of all the rules and the prescribed "fouls" so as to carry out your duties efficiently. Consideration of pleasing the public or disappointing a gallant loser must never influence a referee or judge. Be strict without being severe. Boxing is a sport. Never try to intimidate a boxer by ‘finger pointing’ when issuing a caution or warning. Be sure to use the ‘whole’ hand as this projects a better image and will maintain respect from the competitors. Forget the public who may "boo" when you issue a count, caution or a warning. The "third man" in the ring risks more criticism than anyone else. Never try to get into the act! A good referee makes the boxers feel his/her presence. But the audience hardly realises he/she is in the ring. Rules are intended to prevent one boxer taking unfair advantage of the other. The referee is there to see that the rules are followed. Be quick and alert to detect instantly any of the infringements, but use commonsense and don’t overreact. You have the responsibility to interpret the rules of the contest for which you are officiating and to decide any question not provided in the rules. Deal with the serious offences at the very outset with proper cautions and warnings. Your demeanour should impress on the boxers that they are not inside the ring for the purpose of fighting but for a game of skill strictly according to the rules.
Hints for referees cont’ At the sound of the bell to commence round one signal the boxers to commence and say BOX. This is the only time that the referee will say box at the start of a round. Move around the ring in a ‘walking’ or ‘strolling’ manner standing upright and in a direction opposite to the boxers. Do not ‘crab’ or walk backwards, your movements should be neutral and calm. Do not remain in one position. Always try to be on the “open" side of the action, i.e. where a southpaw is boxing an orthodox boxer remain on the southpaw’s left shoulder and inside the lead right hand. Your work in the ring should create a favourable impression. The boxers do better if they feel they are in the hands of a good referee. Move alertly around the ring and avoid remaining in one position for a long period thus obstructing the view of the judges and onlookers. Be ready to move closer if the need arises. If the contest is fought at close quarters the referee should be up close in a position where ‘break’ can be enforced and at all times ensuring both boxers hear the call. If a boxer is hurt or suspected of being hurt and the bout is continuing remain close to the action so you are in a position that immediate action to cease the contest can occur. Avoid excessive stopping of the bout; let them find their own level. Never give commands if the boxer has their back to the referee. Ensure you are in a correct position where the boxer fully understands your instructions, actions or gestures. If the contest is fought at a fast pace, follow the aggressor and work around the boxers always endeavouring to watch both of the contestants. Decide when a boxer is incapable of continuing the bout. Do not let a bout continue if in your opinion the weaker boxer has no chance of winning and could be hurt. Be especially alert to detect the most common infringements such as: –hitting with an open glove, –holding, –not stepping back on the command "break“.
Do not create difficulties for the judge by allowing the infringements to pass unnoticed. A judge may otherwise feel that he/she is mistaken and thereby give credit to a boxer that should have been admonished or penalised. Importantly, use commonsense and don’t overreact to small and minor infringements, allow boxing to continue; remember, the public is there to watch boxing and not you or the continual stopping of a bout. Distinguish between "infighting" and "clinching". A clinch occurs when one or both boxers lead and for a moment their arms become locked together. This is not an offence, but an offence does occur when a boxer does not make an attempt to disengage from the clinch and continues to hold. Southpaw boxers Southpaw boxers are those that lead with their right hand and their power hand is their left hand. Refereeing southpaws can be a difficult task because they move in a different direction (in most cases) to those of the orthodox (left lead hand) boxer. Whilst refereeing a southpaw stay on their open side (left shoulder side) where possible, but don’t let this need to be positioned correctly drive how you referee. It can be difficult especially when the southpaw is against an orthodox boxer because they are moving oppositely. Move around the boxers as normal, but don’t lose sight that it is important to get onto the open side when possible. Being on the open side allows you the best view of the action. You need to be very conscious where a ‘switch-hitter’ is competing, as their stance will change from orthodox to southpaw and vice-versa. Hints for referees cont’
Cautions and warnings A caution is advice or admonishment for less serious infringements. 3 cautions for the same type of foul shall require a warning to be given. A warning is given where a boxer breaks the rules but does not warrant disqualification. A minor infringement that is not advantageous to the offender does not merit a warning. A caution therefore should be sufficient. Warnings are for dangerous infringements, harm fouls or persistent offences. Cautions and warnings must be given clearly in such a way that the boxer understands the offence and that you are "speaking" to him/her with your signal. Demonstrate by imitating the nature of the infringements. To issue a "warning" the referee must stop the bout by giving the command "stop". Send the victim boxer to the neutral corner, give warning (indicate this with the thumb), clearly showing infringement to boxer, then indicate to each judge in order from No 1 (jury 1 st) to No 5 with the demonstrating thumb. Demonstrate again to boxer the infringement and indicate with thumb that warning has been given, and then order BOX. The command "box" should be given only after you have been satisfied that the offender clearly understands the warning.
Cautions and warnings cont’ At the "third" warning, you must disqualify the offender. After you have disqualified the boxer by issuing the warning and then returning the boxers to their respective corners, you must let your decision be known to the Jury/official in charge and to each judge (only for Handheld Boxing Points Calculator scoring). For this purpose, you may lean over the ropes and very clearly indicate which boxer you have disqualified. Do NOT take a disqualified boxer, or for that matter any stoppage, to his/her corner and enter into any discussion with the boxer or the seconds to justify your decision. Judges’ responsibility Where a judge agrees with a warning the judge will press the ‘warning’ button, whereas if a judge does not agree with the warning he/she simply does not press any buttons. Where a judge is unsighted they shall agree with the referee. Where a judge sees a foul where the referee was possibly obstructed or failed to respond, the judge may penalise the boxer by pressing the ‘warning’ button. This will be indicated by a ‘J’ on the bout printout and will increase the judge’s individual score by 2 blows. However, if 2 other judges press the warning button within 20 secs then the victim boxer will receive 2 scoring blows. Boxer down from a foul Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul his/her opponent shall be warned, and the victim boxer shall receive two (2) points or the equivalent to two (2) scoring blows if three of the five judges agree with the referee. Where the judge does not see the alleged foul blow the judge shall agree with the referee. Where the referee fails to warn the offending boxer, but simply gives a caution then the judge is to warn the boxer.
Gestures for fouls oHitting below the belt, holding, tripping, kicking, and butting with foot or knee. oHits or blows with head, shoulder, forearm, elbow, throttling of the opponent, pressing with arm or elbow in opponent’s face, pressing the head of the opponent back over the ropes. oHitting with open glove, the inside of the glove, wrist or side of the hand. oHits landing on the back of the opponent, and especially any blow on the back of the neck or head and kidney punch. oPivot blows. oAttack whilst holding the ropes or making any unfair use of the ropes. oLying on, wrestling and throwing in the clinch. oAn attack on an opponent who is down or who is in the act of rising. oHolding. oHolding and hitting or pulling and hitting. oHolding, or locking of the opponent’s arm or head, or pushing an arm underneath the arm of an opponent. oDucking below the belt of the opponent in a manner dangerous to an opponent. oCompletely passive defence by double cover and intentionally falling or turning the back to avoid a blow. oUseless, aggressive, or offensive utterances during a round. oNot stepping back when ordered to break. oAttempting to strike an opponent immediately after the referee has ordered “break” and before stepping back. oAssaulting or behaving in an aggressive manner towards a referee at any time. oSpitting out the gumshield. oKeeping the advanced hand straight in order to obstruct the opponent’s vision. If a referee has any reason to believe a foul has been committed which is unseen, the ref may consult the judges.
Down A knockdown is the result of a blow or series of blows. No extra points are awarded for a knockdown, only the blow that landed. Where a boxer is down the opponent must retire to the neutral corner. However, at all times your first priority and consideration is the downed boxer. Definition of down: if any part of the body other than the soles of the feet touch the floor from a blow or series of blows, if the boxer hangs helplessly on the ropes from a blow or series of blows, if the boxer is outside or partly outside the ropes from a blow or series of blows, or if following a hard blow the boxer has not fallen or hanging helplessly on the ropes, but is in a semi-conscience state and in the opinion of the Referee is unable to continue.
Down cont’ The count The referee shall immediately start the count. Before “one” is counted an interval of one second must have lapsed. The referee shall count aloud from one to ten with a second between the numbers, and indicate the passing of the seconds with the fingers in a manner that the down boxer is aware. Where an opponent fails to retire to a neutral corner the referee shall stop counting, until the opponent has done so, and then resume where it was stopped. Number of counts (compulsory count limit) For males and females who box as ‘Elites’ (aged 17-34 inclusive), a contest shall be terminated as Referee Stopped Contest if there are three counts in any one round or four counts in the bout. Male, 3x3 min rounds Female, 4x2 min rounds For all other divisions, a contest will be terminated as Referee Stopped Contest if there are two counts in any one round or three counts in the bout. Opponent’s responsibility If a boxer is down, the opponent must at once go to a neutral corner, and only continue on the command box. Mandatory eight count If a boxer is down as a result of a blow the bout shall not continue until the count of eight is reached.
Down cont’ The knockout After the referee has said “ten” and the word “out”, the bout ends and shall be decided as a “knockout”. Nevertheless, where a boxer is unconscious the referee shall say “one” and “out” and a knockout shall apply. Boxer down at end of round In the event of a boxer being down at the end of any round the referee shall continue to count. If the boxer is fit to resume boxing before the count of ten is reached, the referee shall immediately command “box”. The bell cannot save a boxer. Boxer down a second time without a fresh blow Where a bout is continued after the count of eight, and the boxer falls again without receiving a fresh blow, the referee shall continue counting from the count of eight. Both boxers down If both boxers go down at the same time, counting will be continued as long as one is still down. If both boxers remain down until “ten” both boxers will lose by KO and the mandatory probation period will apply. KO and win by disqualification Where a boxer receives a blow to the head illegally after the referee has called ‘break’ or ‘stop’ and the boxer is counted out, the boxer cannot continue to compete at the event even if awarded the bout by disqualification as the mandatory probation period would apply.
Down cont’ Boxer fails to resume A boxer who fails to resume after the interval or fails to resume within ten seconds following a down situation shall lose the contest. Boxer down from a foul Count to eight and if the ‘down’ boxer is unable to continue have the Ringside Physician attend immediately to the down boxer. The referee will then consult the judges and if the majority consider it a foul then the offender will be warned and disqualified. Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul his/her opponent shall shall receive two (2) points or the equivalent to two (2) scoring blows if three of the five judges agree with the referee. Where the judge does not see the alleged foul blow the judge shall agree with the referee. Count limit when boxer down from a foul Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul that count will not count towards the compulsory count limit.
Down cont’ Boxer possibly unconscious In this situation there is no need to count to eight or ten. After giving the order ‘stop’, the referee will order one-out and immediately call the Ringside Physician to the stricken boxer. Do not touch the boxer, do not remove the mouthguard or place boxer in coma position. Only if the mouthguard is partially out, then remove it; otherwise let the Ringside Physician only attend to boxer. No one else is allowed into the ring. Bell sounds during count If the bell sounds during the count, continue to count the boxer. Remember you are still in control of the bout. If the boxer is fit to continue at the count of eight (8) instruct BOX and immediately STOP. This effectively means that the bout can be continued. If the boxer is unable to continue at the count of 8 call STOP and then inform jury either RSC or RSC(H). If Handheld Boxing Points Calculator Scoring or similar is in place inform the jury firstly and then the judges of your decision. Saved by the bell A boxer cannot be saved by the bell at any time.
Down cont’ While counting a boxer the opponent goes down Continue to count first boxer while observing the condition of the opponent who has gone ‘down’. However, if either boxer falls unconscious, or appears in an unconscious state, the bout is to be stopped immediately irrespective of the count, i.e. if at ‘4’ the opponent goes down unconscious do not continue to count, stop the boxing immediately. If at ‘eight’ first boxer is able to continue and opponent is still considered ‘down’, continue count nine, ten out for the opponent and give the appropriate decision. If first boxer is unable to continue at eight and opponent is still ‘down’, continue to count to ten for both boxers and the decision will be given as a double knockout and both boxers given probation periods. Boxer knocked out of the ring According to the rules a boxer who has fallen out of the ring should not be assisted. But it is the basic duty of the referee to preserve and protect the boxers’ health. So, when a boxer is falling out of the ring, the referee may hold him/her. The same applies to the judges, seconds or spectators, and this assistance is not deemed outside help and will not be punished. However, it is deemed outside help: if seconds or friends help a boxer who has fallen out of the ring to stand up and get back into the ring, or if seconds or friends give a boxer in question any restorative or stimulating substance. In such a case the boxer will be disqualified.
Down cont’ Low blow criteria Referee saw the blow The blow was low, referee counts to 8, the boxer can continue Call ‘stop’ and direct victim boxer to the neutral corner. Call offending boxer to the centre of the ring and issue a warning. ‘Box’. The blow was low, referee counts to 8, the boxer cannot continue ‘Stop’. Call doctor to the victim boxer. Call offending boxer to the centre of the ring and issue a warning and then disqualify. The blow was legal, referee counts to 8, the boxer can continue ‘Box’. The blow was legal, referee counts to 8, the boxer cannot continue 9-10-out. Call doctor to down boxer. Send other boxer to his/her corner and advise jury RSC.
Down cont’ Low blow criteria Referee did not see the blow The blow was low, referee counts to 8, the boxer can continue ‘Stop’ and direct down boxer to the neutral corner; direct other boxer to remain in neutral corner. Consult judges. 1 st, simulate to judges “did you see blow”, if no consult other judges. 2 nd indicate “body or below belt”. Where even accept it was legal (not proven guilty). If majority of judges say low, call offending boxer to the centre of the ring and issue a warning and direct ‘box’. The blow was low, referee counts to 8, the boxer cannot continue ‘Stop’. Call doctor to the down boxer. Direct other boxer to remain in neutral corner. Consult judges. 1 st, simulate to judges “did you see blow”, if no consult other judges. 2 nd indicate “body or below belt”. Where even accept it was legal (not proven guilty). If low, call offending boxer to the centre of the ring, issue a warning and disqualify. The blow was legal, referee counts to 8, the boxer can continue ‘Stop’ and direct down boxer to the neutral corner; direct other boxer to remain in neutral corner. Consult judges. 1 st, simulate to judges “did you see blow”, if no consult other judges. 2 nd indicate “body or below belt”. Where even accept it was legal (not proven guilty). If majority of judges say ‘body’, call ‘box’. The blow was legal, referee counts to 8, the boxer cannot continue ‘Stop’. Call doctor to the down boxer. Direct other boxer to remain in neutral corner. Consult judges. 1 st, simulate to judges “did you see blow”, if no consult other judges. 2 nd indicate “body or below belt”. Where even accept it was legal (not proven guilty). If majority of judges say ‘body’ send other boxer to his/her corner and advise jury RSC.
Break Do not give the command "break" too quickly or too often. This order should be given when the boxers are slow in getting out of a clinch. It must be noted that if one of the boxers has his/her hands free there is no clinch. Therefore, the command "break" need not be given, but the bout may be stopped and the other boxer cautioned for holding. Remember that fouls should be dealt with by cautions and warnings and not by always ordering “break”. At the command "break” insist on both the boxers taking one full step backward with both feet before resuming boxing. Break when one boxer is up against the ropes Do not give the command too quickly; ensure you are in the correct position before doing so. Call ‘stop and insert your arm between the boxers with the palm of your hand facing the boxer on the ropes. Move the boxers to the centre of the ring and instruct ‘box’. Never call break while the boxers are on the ropes without taking appropriate action. The boxer on the ropes cannot take a step back and could therefore be potentially at risk. Never push or pull the boxers apart or step between them when breaking the clinch. They must respond to your vocal command.
Infighting Distinguish between "infighting" and "clinching". A clinch occurs when one or both boxers lead and for a moment their arms become locked together. This is not an offence, but an offence does occur when a boxer does not make an attempt to disengage from the clinch and continues to hold You must be able to differentiate between infighting and lying on. A proper infighter balances steadily on his/her own feet without leaning on his/her opponent and can take an upright position anytime without falling forward.
Injury It is not mandatory, but it is strongly suggested that a referee has Hepatitis B inoculations. The referee, upon noticing any bleeding about the head, shall give the command "stop". The referee will have on their person a gauze pad to clean the injured area. Once the injured boxer is cleaned the gauze pad or swab is to be discarded in the plastic bags in the neutral corners. The referee is not to reuse the pad or swab on an opponent, or carry the pad or swab. If an opponent requires cleaning a new pad or swab is to be used. Nose bleeds Boxing is a combat sport and as such nose bleeds will occur, but your role is to nurse the injury and keep the area clean. If the area continues to bleed nurse the injury, however, where blood is entering the throat or mouth and affecting the breathing then the referee will consult the Ringside Physician. The Ringside Physician will inform the referee whether the bout is to continue or issue an RSC. If the area continues to bleed, the referee will consult the ringside physician. The physician will inform the referee whether the bout is to continue or issue an RSC. Always check the condition of the opponent when a bout is stopped due to excessive bleeding. It’s possible that the opponent has also been injured and the decision could be a double injury and result in a points decision.
Injury cont’ Facial lacerations Any bleeding or any cut noticed on the face is to be checked as soon as possible. As a guide use the image to the left (provided by AIBA Medical Comm. Chair), which illustrates cuts or lacerations to facial areas: Cut A:Tarsal plate – STOP, seek doctor. Cut B:Tear duct – STOP, seek doctor. Infra Orbital nerve – STOP, seek doctor. Cut C:Supra Orbital nerve – STOP, seek doctor. Cut D:BOX. Cut E:BOX. Cut F:Vermillion border lip – STOP, seek doctor. Cut H:Bridge of nose – STOP, seek doctor.
Injury cont’ The referee may summon the Ringside Physician as often as necessary during a bout, and this may include between rounds if the boxer is distressed or in need of medical attention, in which case the bout shall be stopped. The referee has the sole right to decide whether the boxer is fit to continue or not, but when in doubt, be on the safe side. Safeguard your position, consult the Ringside Physician and thereby avoid unnecessary demonstration from the audience and the concerned boxer's camp. Once you consult the Ringside Physician, you are duty bound to follow his/her advice. Following the nursing of injuries it is important to ensure no blood is still on the gloves. Check both boxers to ensure all blood is removed, thereby promoting the image of a clean and competitive sport. Once you have wiped a boxer, never use the same pad or swab to wipe an opponent. Finals of championships In the finals of a championship the uninjured boxer will be determined the winner irrespective of the round.
Attendance of doctor Attendance A qualified doctor of medicine shall be in attendance throughout the competition and should not leave the place where it is held before the end of the last bout. Doctors may wear surgical gloves; referees shall wear surgical gloves. Seating The doctor should be seated at ringside. Doctor intervention Where the doctor believes the bout should be stopped because of severe punches they shall advise the jury chair who shall press a bell, raise a flag, or get the attention of the referee to stop the bout. The doctor will then mount the ring and examine the boxer and advise the referee whether to box or stop. The doctor shall have one minute to decide.
Doctor’s role The doctor, or ringside physician, has arguably one of the most important roles before, during and after a boxing contest. The doctor shall: Check the boxer before each contest and sign their Competition Record Book. Sit at ringside and be prepared to interject if required. Has the right to request suspension of up to one minute to examine a boxer or stop the bout. If called into the ring by the referee, no other personnel are to enter the ring. Inform the referee whether the bout is to continue (box) or stop (RSC) following a request from the referee to check a boxer. Referee may consult the Ringside Physician and, if does so, must follow the Ringside Physician’s advice. Not interfere during the one-minute interval unless the boxer is distressed or in need of medical attention, at which stage the bout should be terminated. Sign a boxer’s Competition Record Book next to the decision where a boxer has been KO-H, RSCH or has been concussed to verify a probation period. The referee may summon the Ringside Physician as often as necessary during a bout, and this may include between rounds. The referee has the sole right to decide whether the boxer is fit to continue or not, but when in doubt, be on the safe side. Safeguard your position, consult the Ringside Physician and thereby avoid unnecessary demonstration from the audience and the concerned boxer's camp. Once you consult the Ringside Physician, you are duty bound to follow his/her advice. If a boxer continues to bleed, the referee will consult the ringside physician.
Action at end of the round Action at end of round At the end of each round when the bell has sounded the referee will instruct ‘stop’ and ensure the boxers retire to their corners. Do not rush, wait for the boxers to retire. Walk to the centre of the ring, turn, and back into the neutral corner always facing the jury. Both boxers will face the centre of the ring facing their opponent as respect and so you can observe the corners’ activities. What happens during the one-minute interval is not your concern unless illegal activities occur, the boxer is not facing the centre or the boxer is in distress, in which case you will take action and alert the doctor. Do not lean back on the corner pad between rounds and relax, keep yourself composed and alert. Keep a careful watch on both corners for possible infringements. Stand upright and feel confident, remember, the boxers will feed off your body language. Once you are sure that the corners and boxers are ok check around the ring and engage with the judges as they may wish to bring something to your attention. Check the jury and check the doctors; if all ok wait for the ‘seconds out’ before proceeding to the centre of the ring to await the commencement of the next round. Do not wait for the bell before getting to the centre of the ring; you will be late, and the action could have commenced.
After bout roles/duties At the bell, command ‘STOP’. Do not turn your back on the boxers, but wait for the boxers to retire to their respective corners before returning to your position in the neutral corner. During this, do not turn your back as it shows disrespect to the boxers, and you lose sight of what’s happening; walk to the centre of the ring, turn, and then back into the neutral corner. Await for each boxer to remove their gloves AND headgear. Where Handheld or similar scoring is used collect each judges scorecard, ensuring the scorecard is complete, it is tallied correct, a winner is nominated and the scorecard is signed. Hand the scorecards to the jury member in charge or announcer. Where trophies are given, collect the trophies and move to the centre of the ring facing the jury or main table and call the boxers to the centre. Place the trophies in front of you awaiting the decision. If there is a sponsor(s) awarding prizes then hand them trophies. At this stage you will shake the hand of each boxer in recognition of their efforts, courage and sportsmanship. At this stage check the bandages. Take each boxer’s wrist and await the decision. At the decision raise the winner’s arm and award their trophy. When the boxers have left the ring you exit (first in, last out).
Decisions (and actions) Win on points. Retirement. RSC: Outclassed (OC). Injury. Disqualification. Knockout. RSCH (referee stops contest – head injury). ‘R.S.C.H.’ is a term to be used only when a boxer is being saved from a knockout after having received hard head blows making him defenceless and incapable of continuing. The term RSCH is not to be used when a boxer is simply outclassed and is receiving too many scoring hits without scoring him/herself. Walkover. No contest. Draw.
Exhibitions Exhibitions are less intense where boxers punch lighter and where no result is given. Exhibitions are a way for boxers to demonstrate their style or gain useful learning experiences. Exhibition bouts between novices can be extremely frustrating and you as a referee need to take complete control to ensure the bout does not get out of hand. It is acceptable that the boxers wear larger gloves, but they must be identical, and head guards may be full-face or more protective. During exhibition bouts there will be no judging and the judges will not be seated at ringside. Whilst checking the boxers it is a great opportunity to explain the tempo of the bout that you expect. Explain to the boxers the speed of the bout and the weight of the punches that you expect. Boxers will not touch gloves during the contest other than at the start and conclusion. During the contest don’t be afraid to talk to the boxers and encourage them, plus give direction where necessary. Don’t get into the habit of continually stopping the contest; remember it is an exhibition and it is best to allow the bout to progress without menial stops. If during the contest a situation presents itself where a boxer has been put into a ‘down’ situation then the bout will be terminated as it’s evident that one the boxers has taken advantage of the other boxer. This can be relaxed during ‘elite boxer’ competition sparring, at which time a count will be applied. During the contest it is acceptable that the coach’s instruct the boxers, however, ensure their participation does not become excessive; if it does take appropriate action.
Pop Quiz What is the CCL for Elite boxers: –3x3 minute rounds? –3x2 minute rounds? What is the primary duty of the referee? What are the referee’s main secondary duties? Can coaches encourage their boxers? When is boxer considered down? A boxer goes down claiming a low blow which you did not see; what will you do?