2Thermal Imaging Services, Inc. Your Instructor…Brian KumerThermal Imaging Services, Inc.1136 E. Brookview LanePeoria, IL 61615Cell:Office:or
3Building Science Hot Line Illinois Home Performance Building Science HOT LINEext. 3Free to homeowners, renters, contractors, anyone looking for unbiased advice on specific home performance issues and improvements!To learn more go to:
5Todays Conversation… BPI’s new standards what that means to you Major changes related to combustion safetyWhen will they become finalized (who knows)Equipment needed for testingAir-Free vs As-Measured CO readingsSources of carbon monoxideCAZ testing procedureMeasuring ventilation through baht fansMeasured CO limit changesCO exposure limits
6www.improvinghomeperformance.com or www.briankumer.com My Website…or
8Largest Manometer in the World! 24” wide x 44” tallTouch screenDG700 manometerComing to a theater near you!
9Useful Links COSA Carbon Monoxide Safety Assoc. Not for profit providing CO: Education, Training & CertificationGAMA Gas Appliance Manufactures Assoc.NFPA Nation Fire Protection Assoc.Developed the NFPA 54 National Fuel Gas Code
10Parking Lot Topics Questions you may have about: Problem homes Testing proceduresInterpreting resultsTest equipmentRemediating problemsAnything, really anything…
11Future Training Topics Thermography (IR)Duct pressure testingVentilationMulti-family Blower Door testingWhole House Air Leakage Control InstallerYour thoughts?????
12Changes to the BPI Standards No CAZ depressurization limitsNo draft measurementNo smoking the doorsNo testing failed spillage under natural conditionsNo checking the air filter during CAZNot required to measure CO on both sides of turbulator
14What Causes Carbon Monoxide? CO is produced by:Insufficient or excess combustion air (oxygen)Insufficient or excess fuelFlame impingement**When any part of the flame is reduced below1,128º F, CO will be produced.
15Bob Dwyer – Co-Founder of COSA Bob Dwyer - former Director of training for the Carbon Monoxide Safety Association, and also Bacharach Inc., a manufacturer of environmental test instruments for 13 years. Author of “Carbon Monoxide, A Clear and Present Danger”
16Carbon Monoxide Sources.. There have been carbon monoxide sources and carbon monoxide poisonings dating back to times when people lived in caves.Carbon monoxide is formed by the incomplete combustion of materials containing carbon and can be produced by virtually anything that burns. The more efficient the combustion process, the less carbon monoxide is produced.
17Cold Weather Carbon Monoxide Levels The largest numbers of poisonings occur in winter when fireplaces, furnaces and boilers are being used to keep buildings warm.Vehicles are also left idling more during winter. This creates circumstances that can easily cause carbon monoxide levels to rise within a vehicle and the surroundingarea (such as a garage).
18Power Outages Power outages increase the risk of rising carbon monoxide levels. Poweroutages and naturaldisasters greatly increasethe carbon monoxide risk as people are placed in unfamiliar circumstances using unfamiliar equipment.
20After getting his Bronco stuck late one night, Shane and three of his friends die of CO poisoning when the exhaust became blocked with mud
21Teak Surfing is be Deadly! Surfers hold onto the teak platform to perform there surfing moves behind the moving boat with no life jacket. When they are overcome by CO they let go and sink into the water.Teak surfing has been outlawed in several states.
22Disable water heater before leaving the house! Ventless Water Heater????Do you realize there is no difference between operating this gas water heater with no vent and operating a gas cook stove?Stop Everything!Disable water heater before leaving the house!
233 Sources of Carbon Monoxide Automobile exhaust 66%Faulty heating appliances 33%Fire – burning wood, smoking 1%I would assume that the automobile exhaust incidences would increase due to Power-vented replacement furnaces less likely to cause CO poisoningSource: Illinois Department of Public Health
24Greatest Risk of CO Poisoning? The most vulnerable have the greatest riskof CO poisoning and they are…People with existing health problems such as heart and lung diseaseElderlyInfantsChildren and pregnant womenSmokersSmall animals
25Health Affects of CO Poisoning When carbon monoxide is inhaled into the lungs and bonds with hemoglobin in blood, which forms Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). This condition displaces oxygen in the blood stream and affects all major organs and muscles. Carbon monoxide molecules bond with hemoglobin in blood over 200 times more easily than oxygen molecules. Suffocation occurs from the inside out.
26Symptoms of CO Poisoning 200 ppm Slight headaches, tiredness, dizziness, and nausea after 2-3 hours 400 ppm Frontal headaches within 1-2 hours, life threatening after 3 hours 800 ppm Dizziness, nausea and convulsion with 45 minutes. 800 ppm Unconsciousness within 2 hours. Death with 2-3 hours 1,600 ppm Headache, dizziness and nausea within 20 minutes. Death within 1 hour 3,200 ppm Headache, dizziness and nausea within 5-10 minutes. Death within 30 min. 6,400 ppm Headache, dizziness and nausea within 5-10 minutes. Death within min.
27UL 2034 CO Detector Alarm Levels Detector must ignore CO levels of 30 ppm or less for at least 30 days70 ppmUnit must sound alarm within minutes.150 ppmUnit must sound alarm within minutes.400 ppmUnit must sound alarm within 4-15 minutes.
30Killer Water Heater…1,200 ppm + tested before dilution with 100% spillage!Notice the rust on the side of the di-electric fittings from the constant back-drafting
31Combustion Basics & Measuring CO (As Measured & Air-Free)
32Combustion Appliance Zone CAZCAZ is the air space surrounding yournatural draft or induced draft heating appliancesCAZ pressure testing lets us know whatconditions the drafting equipment has to work in
33Natural Draft FurnaceA natural draft furnace requires 15 cubic/ft of dilution air for every cubic foot of natural gas it uses.1 cubic foot (cf) = 1,027 Btu 100 cubic feet (1 cf) = 1 therm (approximate)The operation of a 100k furnace for one hour is the equivalent of operating one 50cfm bath fan operating for one hour
34Air + Fuel + Ignition = Heat The Three T’s of CombustionTimeTemperatureTurbulenceHEATIGNITIONFUELAIR
3579% Nitrogen 20.9% Oxygen Our Atmosphere Our atmosphere is made of: Nitrogen is an inert gas that will not react in the combustion process.
36What is Perfect Combustion? For perfect combustion all 20.9% of the oxygen was completely used up during the combustion process and 0% of oxygen will be measured in the spent flue gases in the vent. That would be considered perfect combustion. A typical water heater or furnace would measure 6 to 8% oxygen.
37Excess AirExcess air is the amount of air (specifically oxygen) in the combustion gases in excess of the exact amount needed for perfect combustion. When combustion is perfect, just the right amounts of fuel and oxygen are supplied to the combustion process so that all the oxygen is utilized - no oxygen remains in the combustion gases.
38“As Measured” vs “Air Free” There are two scales with which to measure CO: one is “As-Measured” and the other is “Air-Free.”As-Measured is the method used by most technicians today. The CO is measured from a sample of combustion gases with no regard for the amount of excess air diluting the CO concentrations.
39“As Measured” vs “Air Free” The basic problem with the as-measured method is this: As the amount of excess air increases, the as-measured CO value falls for a given source strength of CO. In other words, the amount of excess air in the sample can significantly influence the as-measured value. This can cause a technician to mistakenly think that a hazardous burner is working properly. - Rick Karg
40“As Measured” vs “Air Free” “As-Measured” – is a CO measurement made in a situation where there is no control of the combustion air entering the combustion chamber of an appliance. You could think of it as measuring the CO from an open flame on stovetop. You are measuring diluted flue gases. The flue gases would then contain large quantities of oxygen (above approx. 15%). An example would be measuring the CO in an oven or the stovetop burners. As Measured CO is always lower than Air Free CO measurements.
41“As Measured” vs “Air Free” This technician is measuring the CO approx. 15” above the burner in diluted flue gases. This is considered an “As-Measured” CO measurement.
42“As-Measured” vs “Air-Free” Air-free measurement of CO takes account of the amount of excess air by incorporating an adjustment to the as-measured ppm value, thus simulating air-free (oxygen-free) conditions in the combustion gases. To do this, a reading of oxygen (O2) percentage is taken from the combustion gases along with the as-measured CO reading.
43“As Measured” vs “Air Free” “Air Free” – is a CO measurement in the vent of a heating appliance where the volume of air entering the combustion chamber is somewhat controlled. These flue gases would typically contain oxygen levels between 4% and 10%.
44“As Measured” vs “Air Free” If air-free CO is determined with a single meter, the meter will have an integral electronic chip that will calculate the air-free level from as-measured CO ppm and O2 percentage.
45Calculating Air-Free CO COAFppm = ( ) x COppm20.920.9 – O2COAFppm = Carbon monoxide, air-freeCOppm = As-measured combustion gas carbon monoxide ppmO2 = % of oxygen in combustion gas, as a percentageCO = % of carbon monoxide in combustion gas, as a percentage20.9 – 8% (O2) = 12.9(20.9 ÷ 12.9) x 23 (CO) = 37 ppm air-free
46“As Measured” vs “Air Free” This technician is measuring the CO in undiluted flue gases of this water heater.This is an “Air-Free” CO measurement.The instrument you will be using does have the Air-Free option. No math required!
49Venting Gas Appliances Venting spent fuel gases to the outside of the home from combustion appliances can be done one of three ways:Masonry chimneyB-vent (metal double wall pipe)PVC pipe – high efficiency equipment only!
50Masonry ChimneyA masonry chimney may be constructed out soft brick and it may have a clay tile liner on the inside connecting the heating appliance to outside. Chimneys most times are oversized and take a long time to warm up and promote draft. Installation of a a flue liner will correct this problem.
51B-Vent Flue“B-vent” is a double wall vent pipe that is routed from the heating appliance or vent connector through the roof to the outside. Commonly referred to as a “flue”
52Vent Connector to Chimney The vent connector is a single wall metal pipe connecting the heating appliance to the masonry chimney.The vent connector must have a minimum of ¼” rise per foot!
533 Types of Heating Appliances Natural draft - has no fans to assist with exhaust (uses a draft diverter to create draft)Induced draft – metal B-vent flue (80%)Power-vent – PVC flue not sealed combustion- Power-vent – PVC flue sealed combustion
54Natural Draft FurnaceThis type of furnace relies on stack-effect (convection) to vent the flue gases out of the home through the B-Vent or chimney. Stopped manufacturing in 1978.
5580% Induced Draft Furnace This type of furnace utilizes an induced draft fan to start the venting process then relies on stack-effect (convection) to vent the flue gases out of the home through the B-Vent or chimney. Started manufacturing in 1978.
56Induced Draft FanInduced draft fan pulls the gases out of the heat exchanger and gets the flue gases flowing into the vent connector. Once the flue starts warming, stack-effect takes over and draws the gases.
57High Efficiency / Power-Vent Furnace Often called “Condensing Furnaces”. These furnaces have a second heat exchanger to extract more heat from the flue gases. The cool gases (115° max) condense in the flue pipe requiring PVC pipe for a flue.Positive Pressure flue!
59Hummmm…The power-vented furnace (positive pressure vent) and natural draft water heater (negative pressure vent) can not be vented into the same flue! Homeowners!
60What is Back Drafting?The spilling of flue gases from natural draft or induced draft heating appliances into the home High concentrations of CO flue gases going up the flue do not pose an immediate health problem?
61What Allows Gas to Flow Up & Out?? Answer: Convection / stack effect Important: Until the vent is purged of the cold air from the flue or chimney the appliance will spill!
62The Flue is a “Vacuum Generator” Negative CAZ pressureNegative CAZ pressure
63Causes for Appliances to Back Drafting? Excessive negative pressure in the CAZPoor flue designNo flue liner in masonry chimneysBlockage in the flueOrphaned water heaterMinimal rise of the flue“Spillage”The definitive test for pass or fail
64Max. Vent Connector Length The maximum horizontal vent connector length equals 1.5’ of run for each inch of connector diameter. Example: 3”(dia. vent) x 1.5’ = 4.5’ length of vent connector Never install a smaller diameter vent connector than the draft diverter outlet!
65Calculation for an Oversize Flue… The flow area of the largest section of vertical vent or chimney shall not exceed 7 times the smallest listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet area. Example: DWH with a 3” diameter draft hood Formula: R x R x ⫪ = area of a circle 1.5”(R) x 1.5”(R) x 3.14(⫪) = 7 sq” 7sq” x 7(7 times draft hood dia.) = 49 sq”
66Vent Pipe Area ChartVent pipe diameters4” – ” – ” – ” – ” – ” – ” – 78.549 sq” is the max. area7” max. dia. vent
67Why Installation of a Flue Liner? Correctly sized flue liner heats up quickly and starts drafting almost immediately!Installation of a flue liner run from the top down into the basement connecting the heating appliance to outside.Oversized masonry chimney hard to draft, cold and condensation on the inside, rotting of mortar joints, ect…
68Furnace Heat Exchanger (all furnaces) A heat exchanger allows the transfer of heat (btu’s) from burning gases into the air stream flowing across the outside of the heat exchanger and into the home. The flue gases and the warmed air cannot mix.
69Cracked Heat Exchanger This cracked heat exchanger can allow flue gases into the air stream flowing into the home. This condition is usually caused by lack of air flowing across the heat exchanger overheating the heat exchanger due to an air flow restriction to the furnace blower.
70Look for Flame Interference At the time the blower turns on observe the burners for flame for interference. Higher pressure air from the blower blows in through a crack in the heat exchanger and changes the normal appearance of the flame. Have the assumed cracked heat exchanger verified by a professional!!
73CGD (Combustible Gas Detector) BPI refers to a gas leak detector as a “CGD”. This is the same CGD you will be using.Visual lighted sensitivity scaleFlexible wandOn/Off – sensitivity adjustmentLocation of the sensor. It takes about a minute to warm upBatteries
74Combustible Gas Leak Detection In the absence of manufacturer instructions, perform gas leak testing as follows:Hold the wand of the CGD within an inch of the line, starting at the first joint closest to the outlet of the LP tank or natural gas meter outlet.Move the wand in a 360-degree circle around the entire joint at a rate of 1” per second.All connections thereafter shall be tested in the same manner.
75Combustible Gas Leak Detection The gas leakage inspection shall include the following components:All accessible gas piping fittings from the outlet of the natural gas meter or LP tank to a point where the supply line connects to the gas valve of all appliances. Do not move appliances.
76Gas Leak Detection Check the gas meter and outdoor gas pipes for leaks.Note:Natural gas is lighter than air. Hold the tip of your sniffer near the top of the pipe.Propane is heavier than air. Holder your sniffer near the bottom of the pipeTo pinpoint gas leaks use soap and water.
78Combustion Safety – 4 Tests Combustible Gas DetectionCAZ worst case test – entire houseSpillage – use smoke or mirror at diverterCO – measured before dilution
79Safe Entry & Working Conditions Immediately upon entering the building, a sample of the ambient air shall be taken to determine the level of CO in the building by conducting measurements in the occupied space and including utility rooms.Gas leak detection: Indoor air shall be sampled in at least one location per floor of occupied space upon entering the home.
80Personal CO MonitorsThe auditor shall comply with CO exposure action levels specified in the manufacturer’s instructions and, in any case, shall not proceed with work when time weighted average CO concentrations in the work environment exceed 50 ppm for one hour and/or 200 ppm for eight hours.
81Time Weighted Average (TWA) The time weighted average (TWA) is the accumulated reading of the gas concentration since the monitor was turned on, divided by 8 hours.
82Indoor Ambient CO Levels The following slides will state certain indoor ambient CO levels measured within the home. This is not be confused with the CO levels measured in the ambient air at the time of testing heating appliances. The Stop Work level is 35 ppm
83Ambient CO Below 9 ppmIf the CO instrument indicates ambient CO below 9 ppm, the auditor shall proceed with the audit.
84Ambient CO 9 – 35 ppmIf the instrument indicates an ambient reading between 9 ppm and 35 ppm, the auditor shall advise the occupant that CO has been detected and recommend that all possible sources of CO be checked and windows and doors opened. Where it appears that the source of CO is a permanently installed appliance, the appliance shall be inspected and the owner shall be advised to contact a qualified servicing agent.
85Ambient CO 36 – 69 ppmIf the instrument indicates an ambient reading between 36 ppm and 69 ppm, the auditor shall advise the occupant that elevated levels of ambient CO have been detected and recommend that all possible sources of CO be turned off immediately and windows and doors opened. Where it appears that the source of CO is a permanently installed appliance, the appliance shall be turned off and the owner shall be advised to contact a qualified servicing agent.
86Ambient CO 70 ppm or Greater 220.127.116.11.2.1 If the instrument indicates an ambient carbon monoxide level of 70 ppm or greater, the auditor shall immediately terminate the inspection, notify the occupant of the need for all building occupants to evacuate the building; the auditor shall immediately leave the building.
88Monitor Your Breathing Zone Abort if CO goes over 35 ppm!Ambient CO shall be monitored at all times during the test. If measured CO levels exceed 35 ppm as measured at any time during the test, testing shall stop.You breath with your nose andmouth not your butt!
89Condensed BPI Standards Version… Close exterior doors & windows, turn off all exhaust fans and air handlersClose all interior doors except doors to rooms with an exhaust fan or a returnMeasure CAZ pressure WRT outside Record PressureTurn on dryer (clean lint trap) and exhaust Record PressureTurn on air handler Record PressureOpen CAZ doors (check with smoke) Record PressurePut CAZ into worst case condition for testing
90My Interpretation with BPI’s Input Water heaterFurnace-1.8-3.5-3.915560340105485532222004003118Kitchen range hood flow rating is 400 cfm
94Water Heater SpillageFire appliance and check for spillage at the draft diverter in two places (min.) with smoke or a mirror starting with the smallest btu appliance firstAppliance has 60 seconds to prove draft
95Check for Spillage Here Vent ConnectorCheck for spillage hereCheck for spillage hereWater HeaterDraft HoodChimneyWater Heater
96Spillage Testing – (Water Heater) Starting with the appliance with smallest BTU input rating, follow lighting instructions and place in operation. Adjust the thermostat or control so the appliance will operate continuously.Abort if CO goes over 35 ppm!
97Spillage Testing – (Water Heater) Domestic Water Heater or Warm VentSpillage shall be assessed and CO Air Free measurement of undiluted flue gas shall be taken at 1 minute of main burner operation and again at 2 minutes. CO Air-Free measurement of undiluted flue gas shall continue be taken at 1 minute intervals for a total of 5 minutes.
98Action Levels – (Water Heater) If spillage ends at 1 minute of main burner operation and CO Air Free level is at or below the CO thresholds established in Section 7.8.5, Table G.6 throughout testing period, no action is required.
99Action Levels – (Water Heater) If spillage occurs at 1 minute of main burner operation, but spillage stops at 2 minutes and the CO Air Free level falls to a point at or below the CO threshold established in Section 7.8.5, Table G-6 at the 5 minute interval, recommend that the appliance be serviced by a qualified professional.
100Action Levels – (Water Heater) If spillage occurs at 2 minutes and/or the CO Air Free level is above the CO thresholds established in Section 7.8.5, Table G.6 at 5 minutes of main burner operation, the auditor shall notify the homeowner that it is imperative the appliance be serviced immediately by a qualified professional.
102Test Next Bigger Appliance Cool the vent before testing the next higher btu applianceLet the Worst Case depressurization cool the vent or, turn the Blower Door on for a few minutesTest appliance for: spillage & CO under Worst Case conditions
104Test here for CO in each chamber Natural Draft FurnaceMeasure CO in each port. Record highest level to compare to BPI Action LevelsTest for spillage hereTest here for CO in each chamber
10580% Induced Draft Furnace Where do you test for spillage and CO with this configuration of heating equipment?80% FurnaceSpillageCO
106Direct Vent & Power-Vented CO Test 7.9 - If the outlet of the exhaust is accessible, include a CO test on all direct vented and power-vented appliances (without atmospheric chimneys). No spillage test.
107Spillage & CO Testing – (Furnace) Cold Vent (Except Domestic Water Heaters)Spillage shall be assessed and CO Air Free measurement of undiluted flue gas shall be taken at 1 minute of main burner operation and again at 1 minute intervals for 5 minutes.
108Action Levels – (Furnace) If spillage ends and CO Air Free level is at or below the CO thresholds established in Section 7.8.5, Table G-6: at 1 minute of main burner operation and remains at or below the CO threshold at 1 minute intervals for 5 minutes of main burner operation, no action is required. Note: If CO measurements continue to rise after 5 minutes of operation, the auditor shall advise the homeowner that the appliance must be serviced by a qualified professional.
109Action Levels – (Furnace) If spillage occurs and/or CO Air Free level is above the CO thresholds established in Section 7.8.5, Table G.6 at 1 minute of main burner operation, but spillage stops and CO Air Free level falls to a point at or below the CO threshold by the 5-minute interval of main burner operation, recommend that the appliance be serviced by a qualified professional.
110Action Levels – (Furnace) If spillage continues and/or CO Air Free level is above the CO thresholds established in Section 7.8.5, Table G.6 at 5 minutes of main burner operation, the auditor shall notify the homeowner that it is imperative the appliance be serviced immediately by a qualified professional.
114What If Appliance Fails Spillage? “If” an appliance fails the 60 second spillage, test again under “Natural Conditions”If the appliance fails in Worst Case, but passes under Natural Conditions what could be the problem?If the appliance fails under both conditions what could be the problemNot a BPI requirement!
119Gas Oven COCombustion cooking appliances shall be tested for ambient and vented CO using the testing procedures and action levels specified in the procedure detailed in Section **The following standard mentions how to measure of the stovetop burners. You do NOT have to do that.
120Gas Oven COWith appliance off, inspect oven cavity and range-top exhaust vent for blockage with aluminum foil or other materials.With appliance off, inspect cooktop is free from grease build-up.With appliance on, measure CO above each burner and at the oven exhaust vents after 5 minutes of main burner operation. The CO should not exceed the threshold in Section 7.8.5, Table G.6.
125Test the Garage to House Connection With the home depressurized to Pascals while standing in the garage test with smoke for possible connections to the house.No supply or return ducts allowed in the garage! Use a separate heating system for the garage.High priority air sealing!!