Presentation on theme: " Authoritarian model- high degree of centralization of authority and decision making, the wardens limit the amount of authority to a few trusted subordinates."— Presentation transcript:
Authoritarian model- high degree of centralization of authority and decision making, the wardens limit the amount of authority to a few trusted subordinates and prisoners do not have a say in the decision making process. Bureaucratic model- elaborate chains of command may be found here, and control is key to maintaining order in the prison. Shared powers model- to some degree decision making power is extended to inmates as well as correctional officers and administrators. Inmate control model- under this model inmates from government councils and establish organizations.
The warden in most states oversee the fastest growing agency in the state, and are held accountable to such persons as the politicians of the state, auditors, the press, organized labor, and numerous other stakeholders. Survey: 641 prison wardens found the following demographic information: 86 percent were male, the mean age was 47 years, 80% were white, and about half had some sort of graduate degree. Also, 54% had been correctional officers at one time or another and had been in their current position for an average of 5.7 years. Sixty one percent stated they were very satisfied with their jobs and two thirds stated if they were free to go to any other kind of job they wanted, they would keep their current one.
Successful leaders focus, and inspire their subordinates to focus, on results rather than process, on performance rather than procedures, on ends rather than means. Professional staff members (doctors, nurses, psychiatrists, etc) receive some basic prison training and come to think of themselves as correctional officers first. Leaders of successful institutions follow the management by walking around principle, often always on the scene when trouble erupts.
Successful leaders make close alliances with politicians, judges, journalists, reformers, and other outsiders. Successful leaders rarely innovate, but the innovations they implemented were far reaching and the reasons for them are explained to staff and inmates well in advance. Successful leaders are in office long enough to understand and modify the organizations internal operations and external relations.
Quote from Peak text: that “We’re all doing time, some of us are just doin it in eight-hour shifts” (as cited in Peak, 2004, p. 239). Other studies have shown that compared officers to inmates found that both are likely to be drawn from lower and working class backgrounds. Both groups are largely invisible, both are closely watched and experience some depersonalization, and both develop dealings of powerlessness and are fighting for their individual rights.
The rule enforcer- this is about 43% of all officers and the most common type. These officers are rule bound and inflexible in discipline, are likely to be younger than 25 and have a baccalaureate degree, and tend to work the evening or night shift. They are more likely to have entered the field for extrinsic reasons, like job security, benefits, and job availability. The hard liner- these officers are hard, aggressive, power hungry and inflexible with rules and possess little interpersonal skills. They are likely to possess a high school education, be between the ages of 26-36, and tend to work the later shifts and in maximum security or segregation units. They can be abusive and aggressive toward inmates as well.
People workers- this group constitutes about 22% of officers and can be characterized as professionals trying to be social, responsible, and trying their very best. They have a more comfortable style with inmates, are flexible in rule enforcement and disciplinary measures, and try to gain compliance through interpersonal skills and relations with the inmates. They are concerned with conflict resolution, enjoy working with the inmates, and prefer the post with more inmate contact. Synthetic officers- this group constitutes about 14% of the officers. They are typically 37 or older and more experienced who work the regular inmate housing units on the day shift. They try and modify the formalized policies and procedures to emphasize organizational directives and interpersonal skills.
Loners- This is about 8% of the officers. These officers closely follow rules and regulations because they fear criticism of their performance. Female and black officers are more likely to be represented by this type. They are likely between the ages of 26 and 36 and many work on solitary posts. They do not feel accepted by other officers, nor do they identify with them. They are also wary of the inmates. The lax officer- are passive, apathetic, or timid. They are generally veteran male officers, who are just doing their time, wanting to get through the day with minimum effort.
Officer friendly- they want to be liked by all inmates and are easily manipulated by the inmates. They negotiate with inmates to gain compliance and may overlook minor violations of the rules. They usually have little loyalty to other officers. Wishy washy- they are unpredictable, moody, and inconsistent. They are likely to be accused of favoritism and are mistrusted by the inmates.
Acts of misfeasance- are criminal acts or acts of misconduct most likely committed by high ranking officials who knowingly allow contractual indiscretions that would undermine the public interest and benefit them personally. Acts of malfeasance- are criminal acts or acts of misconduct that officials knowingly commit in violation of state laws and/or agency rules and regulations. Acts of nonfeasance- are acts of omission or avoidance knowingly committed by officials who are responsible for carrying out such acts.
Heartbreakers- seek to form an emotional bond with a staff member, which could even lead to marriage. They generally act alone and may spend several months courting a staff member. Exploiters- they use an employee as a means of obtaining contraband or fun and excitement, they usually act with the help of other inmates, are very manipulative, and likely to use intimidation on a prison employees. Hell raisers- these inmates engage in a unique kind of psychological warfare and simply want to cause trouble and create hell for the prison system.
Approximately 785,000 persons are incarcerated in 3,316 local jails in the U.S. About 266,000 people are employed in the local jails. Jails typically hold people who have committed misdemeanor offenses or those awaiting trial for a court appearance if they cannot make bail. Most people who serve time in jails are incarcerated for one year or less.
The typical jail has not done enough organizationally to try and keep satisfied people in these positions and should in fact do more. More intrinsic and extrinsic rewards need to be given. According to studies done in the jails 60% of the respondents were either presently looking and planning to leave or seriously considered leaving in the near future. Thirteen percent reported that they probably or definitely will leave, and half indicated that they would quit as soon as they could find a better job.
Probation and parole officers must possess important skills similar to those of a prison caseworker, such as good interpersonal communication, decision-making, and writing skills. They operate independently, with less supervision than most prison staff. They are also trained in the techniques for supervising offenders and then assigned a case load. An often debated topic regarding probation and parole officers is whether to arm them are not, with the debate revolving around whether probation or parole officers can effectively perform traditional duties while armed.