Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Contributions of Islam to Civilization Bashar A. Shala March 14, 2004.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Contributions of Islam to Civilization Bashar A. Shala March 14, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contributions of Islam to Civilization Bashar A. Shala March 14, 2004

2 Human Civilization Collective sum of different contributions throughout the ages.Collective sum of different contributions throughout the ages. Usually led by dominant leading cultures at any certain point in historyUsually led by dominant leading cultures at any certain point in history

3 Human Civilization Exchange and development of knowledge, an Islamic principle: that you may know each other (exchange knowledge). O mankind! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other (exchange knowledge). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. And Allah has full Knowledge and is well-acquainted with all things. لِتَعَارَفُوايَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خبير ( الحجرات 13(

4 Human Civilization No one culture has a “monopoly” on civilization.No one culture has a “monopoly” on civilization. وَتِلْكَ الأيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَتِلْكَ الأيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ آل عمران 140 “..Such days (of varying fortunes) we give to people by turns..”

5 Human Civilization Greek Chinese Western Islamic Indian Roman Byzantine Persian

6 Culture LanguageLanguage ReligionsReligions Social CustomsSocial Customs ArchitectureArchitecture Science and InnovationsScience and Innovations CuisineCuisine TransportationTransportation Industry and AgricultureIndustry and Agriculture

7 Islamic Influence on Western and Modern Civilization Undeniable Contribution of Islamic Culture on today’s daily livingUndeniable Contribution of Islamic Culture on today’s daily living Great contributions to Science.Great contributions to Science. Transfer and preservations of Civilization in the “Dark Ages” of Europe.Transfer and preservations of Civilization in the “Dark Ages” of Europe.

8 Arabic Words Arabic Words (Words introduced to English by Muslims) Coffee:Coffee: Etymology: Italian & Turkish; Italian caffè, from Turkish kahve, from Arabic qahwa From Yemen Best Coffee “Arabica”

9 Arabic Words Arabic Words Words introduced to English by Muslims Orange:Orange: Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French, from Old Provençal auranja, from Arabic nAranj, from Persian nArang, from Sanskrit nAranga orange tree From Persia to Spain

10 Arabic Words Arabic Words Words introduced to English by Muslims Soda:Soda: Etymology: Italian, from Arabic suwwAd, any of several saltworts from the ashes of which sodium carbonate is obtained Carbonated drinks started in the Arab world and Cola was brought by West African slaves to the South, the birth place of Coca-ColaCarbonated drinks started in the Arab world and Cola was brought by West African slaves to the South, the birth place of Coca-Cola

11 Arabic Words Arabic Words Words introduced to English by Muslims Candy:Candy: Etymology: Middle English sugre candy, part translation of Middle French sucre candi, part translation of Old Italian zucchero candi, from zucchero sugar + Arabic qandI candied, from qand cane sugar First Sugar Factory in Muslim Cypress Al-Quandi

12 Arabic Words Arabic Words Words introduced to English by Muslims Cotton:Cotton: Etymology: Middle English coton, from Middle French, from Arabic qutun Spanish: Algodon

13 Arabic Words Sofa:Sofa: Etymology: Arabic suffah long bench

14 Arabic Words Alcohol:Etymology: New Latin, from Medieval Latin, powdered antimony, from Old Spanish, from Arabic al- kuhulAlcohol: Etymology: New Latin, from Medieval Latin, powdered antimony, from Old Spanish, from Arabic al- kuhul Algebra:Etymology: Medieval Latin, from Arabic al-jabr, literally, the reductionAlgebra: Etymology: Medieval Latin, from Arabic al-jabr, literally, the reduction Algorithm:Etymology: alteration of Middle English algorisme, from Old French & Medieval Latin; Old French, from Medieval Latin algorismus, from Arabic al- khuwArizmi, from al-Khwarizmi fl A.D. 825 Arabian mathematicianAlgorithm: Etymology: alteration of Middle English algorisme, from Old French & Medieval Latin; Old French, from Medieval Latin algorismus, from Arabic al- khuwArizmi, from al-Khwarizmi fl A.D. 825 Arabian mathematician

15 Mathematics Arabic Numerals: 1,2,3,4,5... Use of “Zero” (from Arabic sifr) Algebra: –Al-Khwarizmi (c.780-c.850) –Al-Karaji of Baghdad (953-c.1029) Algorithm

16 ASTRONOMY The Astrolabe: It was used to chart the precise time of sunrises and sunsets, and to determine the period for fasting during the month of RamadanThe Astrolabe: It was used to chart the precise time of sunrises and sunsets, and to determine the period for fasting during the month of Ramadan Navigational tools: Compass and Astrolabe. Enabled long journey navigation. Eventually discovery of the new world.Navigational tools: Compass and Astrolabe. Enabled long journey navigation. Eventually discovery of the new world. Al-Biruni, discussed the possibility of the earth’s rotation on its own axis – a theory proven by Galileo six centuries later.Al-Biruni, discussed the possibility of the earth’s rotation on its own axis – a theory proven by Galileo six centuries later.

17 NAVIGATION AND GEOGRAPHY Al-Idrisi, a twelfth century scientist living in Sicily. Idrisi’s work was considered the best geographical guide of its time.

18 NAVIGATION AND GEOGRAPHY Ibn Battuta ( CE), an Arab, covered over seventy five thousand miles. His wanderings, over a period of decades at a time, took him to Turkey, Bulgaria, Russia, Persia, and central Asia. He spent several years in India, and from there was appointed ambassador to the emperor of China. Ibn Battuta’s book, Rihla (journey), is filled with information on the politics, social conditions, and economics of the places he visited.

19 MEDICINE Muslims had many achievements in this field including: 1) The use of anesthesia in surgery. 2) The cauterizing of wounds. 3) The discovery that epidemics arise from contagion through touch and air.

20 MEDICINE Al-Razi “Rhazes” (c. 865-c. 930), : was the first to diagnose smallpox and measles, to associate these diseases and others with human contamination.Al-Razi “Rhazes” (c. 865-c. 930), : was the first to diagnose smallpox and measles, to associate these diseases and others with human contamination. His extensive medical treatise in nine volumes, "Hawi" was used as a textbook in the Sorbonne as late as 1395.His extensive medical treatise in nine volumes, "Hawi" was used as a textbook in the Sorbonne as late as Promoted psychotherapy and warned patient of changing doctors.Promoted psychotherapy and warned patient of changing doctors. Stressed importance of a balanced diet for good health. Built a hospital in Baghdad.

21 MEDICINE Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Wrote a famous medical encyclopedia in Arabic (Kanun) described every known disease: Al-Kanun became the basic medical text in the west for five centuries - Mastered the natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy and law. - His major work includes both philosophy and medicine, and were fundamental contributions to the renaissance in Europe.

22 MEDICINE Az-Zahrawi “Albucasis” (died 1013)Az-Zahrawi “Albucasis” (died 1013) - Born in Spain- Born in Spain - Known in Europe as Chief of all surgeons.- Known in Europe as Chief of all surgeons. - His books on medicine was used in Europe till 16th century.- His books on medicine was used in Europe till 16th century. - His writings illustrate the use of surgical instruments.- His writings illustrate the use of surgical instruments.

23 Social Sciences Ibn Khaldun ( ) - Father of modem sociology - Did his work in Economy, Anthropology and Political Science. - Al-Muqaddamah or Introduction: His book on the "Science of Civilization" was the greatest in studying the nature of society, and he proved the cause and effect pattern of events. and he proved the cause and effect pattern of events.

24 PHYSICS Ibn al Haytham (d 1039) “Alhazen” - Suggest the damming of Nile River. - Explain the rainbow scientifically. - Founder of optics. - Excellent studies on the reflection & refraction of light.

25 EDUCATION Bayt al Hikmah (House of Wisdom) was the intellectual center and university that translated hundreds of books from all languages.Bayt al Hikmah (House of Wisdom) was the intellectual center and university that translated hundreds of books from all languages. First known Universities in Damascus, Cordoba, Tunisia and Morocco.First known Universities in Damascus, Cordoba, Tunisia and Morocco.

26 HORTICULTURE Peach, apricot, lemon and orange trees were transplanted in southern Europe by Muslim soldiers.Peach, apricot, lemon and orange trees were transplanted in southern Europe by Muslim soldiers. Olive was encouraged to grow in the sandy soil of Greece, Spain, and Sicily.Olive was encouraged to grow in the sandy soil of Greece, Spain, and Sicily. CoffeeCoffee CottonCotton

27 CUISINE Crusaders Crusaders carried spices with them home from Palestine to western Europe. Rice, Sesame, pepper, ginger, cloves, melons and shallots, as well as dates, figs, oranges, lemons, and other citrus fruits, were introduced into European cuisine via the Crusaders and the trade caravans of Eastern merchants.

28 COSMETICS Perfumes, from Roses and JasminesPerfumes, from Roses and Jasmines Kohl: eye shadow, eye liner, mascara.Kohl: eye shadow, eye liner, mascara. Henna: hair dyesHenna: hair dyes Body OilsBody Oils

29 MUSIC Guitar: Al-’UdGuitar: Al-’Ud Kanun: Prelude to the Piano, which is two Kanuns put together.Kanun: Prelude to the Piano, which is two Kanuns put together. Percussion.Percussion.

30 ARCHITECTURE

31

32

33 Cordoba Damascus

34 ARCHITECTURE Al-Hambra

35 ARCHITECTURE Istanbul

36 Crafts Fabrics: Silk, Damask.Fabrics: Silk, Damask. Glass: influenced the famous Venetian Glass industry. Transferred to Europe during the Crusades.Glass: influenced the famous Venetian Glass industry. Transferred to Europe during the Crusades. MosaicMosaic RugsRugs

37 ART Calligraphy

38 Religious Tolerance Human Rights, equality guaranteed by religion. No ethnic or racial discrimination.Human Rights, equality guaranteed by religion. No ethnic or racial discrimination. Freedom of Religion (The Muslim world was the sanctuary for Jews during centuries of persecution)Freedom of Religion (The Muslim world was the sanctuary for Jews during centuries of persecution)

39 Islamic Law Napoleon did recognize the superiority of the Islamic (Shari'ah) Law - and did attempt to implement this in his Empire. Some aspects of the Islamic (Shari'ah) Law do currently exist in French constitution as the basis for some of their laws from the “Code Napoleone”, which is taken from the Shari'ah Law of Imam Malik." (David M. Pidcock, 1998 C.E.)Napoleon did recognize the superiority of the Islamic (Shari'ah) Law - and did attempt to implement this in his Empire. Some aspects of the Islamic (Shari'ah) Law do currently exist in French constitution as the basis for some of their laws from the “Code Napoleone”, which is taken from the Shari'ah Law of Imam Malik." (David M. Pidcock, 1998 C.E.) Further detailed accounts of this can be found in the book 'Napoleon And Islam' by C. Cherfils. ISBN:

40 Quotations " I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of Qur'an which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness."" I hope the time is not far off when I shall be able to unite all the wise and educated men of all the countries and establish a uniform regime based on the principles of Qur'an which alone are true and which alone can lead men to happiness." Napolean Bonaparte (Napoleonic Code was based on Maliki School) Napolean Bonaparte as Quoted in Christian Cherfils, ‘Bonaparte et Islam,’ Pedone Ed., Paris, France, 1914, pp. 105, 125. Original References: "Correspondence de Napoléon Ier Tome V pièce n° 4287 du 17/07/ "Napolean Bonaparte as Quoted in Christian Cherfils, ‘Bonaparte et Islam,’ Pedone Ed., Paris, France, 1914, pp. 105, 125. Original References: "Correspondence de Napoléon Ier Tome V pièce n° 4287 du 17/07/ "

41 Quotations "From India to Spain, the brilliant civilization of Islam flourished. What was lost to Christendom at this time was not lost to civilization, but quite the contrary... "To us it seems that West-European civilization is civilization, but this is a narrow view.“ Bertrand Russel in ‘History of Western Philosophy,’ London, 1948, p. 419.

42 Quotations "The Islamic teachings have left great traditions for equitable and gentle dealings and behavior, and inspire people with nobility and tolerance. These are human teachings of the highest order and at the same time practicable. These teachings brought into existence a society in which hard-heartedness and collective oppression and injustice were the least as compared with all other societies preceding it....Islam is replete with gentleness, courtesy, and fraternity.“ H.G. Wells

43 Quotations "If any religion had the chance of ruling over England, nay Europe within the next hundred years, it could be Islam." "I have always held the religion of Muhammad in high estimation because of its wonderful vitality. It is the only religion which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make itself appeal to every age. I have studied him - the wonderful man and in my opinion far from being an anti- Christ, he must be called the Savior of Humanity." "I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness: I have prophesied about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of today.“ Sir George Bernard Shaw in 'The Genuine Islam,' Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936.

44 Islamic Principles that promoted advancing Civilization Seeking knowledge continuously. “From the cradle to the grave”Seeking knowledge continuously. “From the cradle to the grave” Sincerity in performing work.Sincerity in performing work. Always aspiring to achieve the best in whatever one does.Always aspiring to achieve the best in whatever one does. Justice and Equality.Justice and Equality.

45 Summary Islamic culture played an important and undeniable role in advancing world civilization. Muslim carried the civilization torch during the “Dark Ages”; preserved and advanced the treasure of culture and knowledge for humanity. In all aspects of our daily lives, then – in our homes, offices and universities; in religion, philosophy, science and the arts – we are indebted to Muslim creativity, insight and scientific perseverance.


Download ppt "Contributions of Islam to Civilization Bashar A. Shala March 14, 2004."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google