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Transportation Vehicles & Society

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Presentation on theme: "Transportation Vehicles & Society"— Presentation transcript:

1 Transportation Vehicles & Society

2 Overview Pre-1600 1600-1800 1800-1900 1900-1950 1950-present
Primitive transport Rise of the horse Rail, steam, electricity Rise of the automobile 1950-present Freeways, containers & air Major themes Time Economics Accessibility

3 Pre-1600: Primitive Transport
Primary modes of transport Foot Cart Horse Pre-industrial cities Few open spaces Inverse class segregation from today

4 Firenze, Italy

5 1600 – 1800: Rise of the Horse Additional transport modes:
Carriage Wagon Major issues More mobility More safety issues More pollution

6 Major Events 1603 Wooden rails used in coal mines 1605
Hackney carriage introduced in England 1625 First street paving in North America 1670 Tempered steel springs for coaches 1690 Rim brakes for coaches 1699 Parkway introduced in Virginia 1712 First steam engine 1767 First iron rails in use 1769 Iron hoop tire developed 1800 Canada requires convicted drunks to work on roads

7 Detroit

8 Intracity Transport Horse power dominates Charging for rides
Hackney coaches (hacks) Cabriolet (cab) and hansom carriages Omnibus (1820s) Expensive: $0.25/mile

9 Omnibus on North Beach Peninsula, WA (ca. 1892)
Frank La Roche Photograph Collection UW Digital Collections

10 Greenlake Ave. N & 85th St. N

11 1600 – 1800: State of Transport Commuting Speed 30-Min. Commute
Accessible Land Walk 2 mph 1 miles 4 sq. miles Carriage 4 mph 2 miles 12 sq. miles Travel/Freight 1-Day Travel Comments 24 miles A necessity Wagon 48 miles Sailing ship 10 mph 250 miles Relies on wind

12 1800 – 1900: Rail, Steam & Electricity
Additional transport modes: Steam powered vehicles Cable cars Electric trolley Major issues Steam power Safety (higher speeds, steam power) Suburbanization

13 Major Events 1804 Elliptical springs invented 1807
First horse-drawn passenger railway 1814 First steam powered ferry 1815 First steerable bicycle 1825 First steam railway for passengers 1839 Goodyear vulcanizes rubber 1852 First trolley with flush rails 1862 First practical IC powered vehicle 1872 Cable car system invented 1879 Electric trolley invented 1888 Pneumatic tire 1891 First IC truck 1896 First car accident in the U.S.

14 The “Pull” of Rail Surface Type Pull-to-Weight Ratio
Sand, deep and loose 1/7 Dry earth, gravel on earth 1/15 Macadam, badly worn or little used 1/20 Broken stone on earth, cobblestones 1/35 Solid rubber wheels on reasonable surfaces 1/45 Broken stone on paved foundation, asphalt, wood 1/50 Pneumatic tire on reasonable surfaces 1/60 Well-made pavement, dry macadam 1/70 Brick 1/90 Best pavement 1/180 Steel plate or stone trackway 1/250 From M.G. Lay, Ways of the World (1992)

15 Focus: Pavements Seattle Photograph Collection, UW Digital Collections

16 Olympic Peninsula (ca. 1924)
Dirt Road Olympic Peninsula (ca. 1924) Washington Localities Collection, UW Digital Collections

17 County Road near Index, WA (1911)
Muddy Dirt Road County Road near Index, WA (1911) UW Digital Collections

18 E Republican St., Seattle
Cobblestone Road E Republican St., Seattle

19 Macadam

20 Laying Planks for a Plank Road
Kirkland Ave., Kirkland (ca. 1910) Plank and Corduroy pavements were popular in the Pacific Northwest because wood was easier to come by than stone. UW Digital Collections

21 Front St., Port Angeles (1914)
Plank Road Front St., Port Angeles (1914) Notice the relatively high quality of this plank pavement in Port Angeles Asahel Curtis Photo Company Collection, UW Digital Collections

22 Macquarie St., Sydney, Australia (1925)
Woodblock Paving Macquarie St., Sydney, Australia (1925) City pavements required some roughness so that horses could get a foothold and traction. Wood blocks were considered ideas (for a while) because they could mimic the foothold of cobblestone or block pavement, but the wood muffled the sound of the horseshoes. Problem was, wood deteriorated quickly (3 to 5 years for a plank pavement). Wood blocks treated with creosote to make them last upwards of 10 to 15 years (likely an exaggerated claim). Wood blocks lost popularity in the U.S. partly because of a couple of: Chicago Fire (1871). Streets with creosote soaked wood blocks served to spread the fire rather than serve as fire barriers. They didn’t last in may places, especially Washington, D.C. (1878) – lasted 5 years and city spent 20 years paying off bonds for a pavement that no longer existed. Introduction of asphalt pavements and concrete foundations. From the City of Sydney's Sydney Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets)

23 James St. from 4th Ave., Seattle (ca. 1922)
Brick Road James St. from 4th Ave., Seattle (ca. 1922) Seattle Photograph Collection, UW Digital Collections

24 Woodblock Paving Overlaid with Hot Mix Asphalt
Park St., Sydney, Australia (1929) Many streets were overlaid with a thin layer of “sheet asphalt”. Concrete was often used as a base and then surfaced with asphalt. Concrete shattered under iron horseshoe loads but could withstand more loads without deforming. Solution was to pave concrete and then surface with softer, smoother asphalt. From the City of Sydney's Sydney Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets)

25 Warrenite Pavement Bothell Rd. (1912)
Industries and Occupations Photographs, UW Digital Collections

26 Warrenite Pavement Bothell Rd. (1912)
Industries and Occupations Photographs, UW Digital Collections

27 Independent Asphalt Paving Co.
Seattle (ca. 1907) Paying for Roads/Pavement Generally abutters paid for improvements. Originally they paid for roads and pavements independent of the City. Later, special assessments became common, although the only thing the City really did was provide engineering advice and coercive and borrowing power. Often, quality of pavement was bad as abutters sought cheapest fix. Parking was sometimes included between sidewalk and abutters. People were allowed to plant there but not build (still have vestiges of this today). Seattle Photograph Collection, UW Digital Collections

28 Types of Pavement in Major U.S. Cities
We were generally 20 years behind European innovation in the U.S. as far as pavements went. From Clay McShane, Down the Asphalt Path, the Automobile and the American City (1994)

29 Sydney, Australia Pavements
From the City of Sydney's Sydney Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets)

30 Steam Vehicles First tried on vehicles in 1830s
Many cities prohibited due to high speeds and boiler explosion fears Relegated to separate ROW for safety Gave rise to Elevated (“Els”) in 1860s Steam vehicles associated with rail in U.S. Commuter rail (1830s – 1900s) Creates “suburbs” around rail lines Grooved rail Boston commuters: 6% in 1850, 1/3 by rail, 18% by 1860 Alphonse Loubat invented grooved rail NYC 1852

31 De Dion-Bouton Steam Car (ca. 1890)

32 Ally “L” on Indiana Ave. stop
Chicago (n.d.) From Discover Live Steam (www.discoverlivesteam.com)

33 Photo from Brian Doberstein, photos.abberation.org

34 Horse Drawn Trolley 1st Ave. and James St. (1884)
Horse-drawn trolley’s come along after invention of rail with a groove so it can lay at grade with rest of pavement More efficient to travel on rail than on crappy pavement Seattle Photograph Collection UW Digital Collections

35 Focus: the Trouble with Horses
Lots of horses 1 per 23 people (in large cities) Teamsters  328% (1870 – 1900) Filthy NYC sanitation removed 15,000 carcasses annually in the 1880s Each horse dropped 10 – 20 lbs of manure daily NYC manure 800,000 to 1,300,000 lbs daily (150,000 tons annually) NYC Central Park stable had a 30,000 ft3 pile of manure next to it Filth quotes of p. 51 second-to-last paragraph

36 Focus: the Trouble with Horses
Unhealthy Tuberculosis (TB) leading cause of death in the 1890s TB death rate  as number of autos  (probable correlation with horse filth/dust) Expensive $1,200 for a tandem in 1850 Freight costs: Chicago to NYC = $7.50/ton (railroads) NYC local delivery = $5.00/ton (horse power) Dangerous Traffic fatalities were higher for wagons and carriages than for streetcars

37 Block Boys and Horse Manure
Pitt St., Sydney, Australia (n.d.) From the City of Sydney's Sydney Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets)

38 From Clay McShane’s Down the Asphalt Path, The Automobile and the American City (1994)

39 Cable Car on Viaduct in front of Power House
Near Yesler Wy. (ca. 1910) Yesler St. Cable car line opened in September 1888 and ran until At time of opening, it was the 7th in the world and first in the Pacific NW. Cable cars are expensive: installation could run $100,000/mile About 10 mph is top speed Asahel Curtis Photo Company Collection UW Digital Collections

40 Seattle Consolidated Street Railway Co., Green Lake Line (1891)
Electric Trolley Seattle Consolidated Street Railway Co., Green Lake Line (1891) Became feasible after the invention of the electric generator in 1870 Werner von Siemens built first system in Berlin in 1879 but 3rd rail was on ground and unsafe (system fenced off from public). He built an overhead wire system in Paris in 1881. Cost 1/3 of cable cars, making fares more affordable. This gave rise to true urban “mass transit”. Allows for city areas to grow (nearly double in 10 years) because streetcar allows you to still reach the CBD. Seattle Photograph Collection UW Digital Collections

41 Contemporary Electric Trolley
King County Metro (2005)

42 Trolley Track Ties University Ave. (2002)

43 1800-1900: State of Transport Commuting Speed 30-Min. Commute
Accessible Land Walk 2 mph 1 miles 4 sq. miles Omnibus 4 mph 2 miles 12 sq. miles Horse Car 6 mph 3 miles 28 sq. miles Cable Car 10 mph 5 miles 78 sq. miles Electric Trolley 12 mph 6 miles 113 sq. miles Travel/Freight 1-Day Travel Comments 24 miles Still a necessity Wagon 48 miles Being phased out Steam ship 15 mph 300 miles 5-day Atlantic crossing Railroad 20 mph Principal long-distance

44 1900 – 1950: Rise of the Automobile
Additional transport modes: Internal combustion automobile Major issues Affordability Independence

45 Major Events 1902 First mass-produced car (Oldsmobile) 1903
First flight 1906 First gas station opened 1908 Model T Ford begins production 1911 Electric starters begin common use 1912 Fist pneumatic truck tire 1914 Fist scheduled air transport (St. Petersburg-Tampa) 1920 Motor vehicles = horse-drawn vehicles in U.S. 1921 Autostrada construction begins (Italy) 1922 Pneumatic tire begins common use 1929 Autobahn construction begins (Germany) 1932 First drive-in movie 1944 Interstate highway system first recommended

46 Major Issues Shaping the Auto
Low population densities Pavements Prejudice against fast vehicles wanes Unresponsiveness & monopolistic trolleys Influence of the bicycle Social demand New middle class status symbol Allows for suburban living Pollution Auto developed first in urban European cities with the best pavement infrastructrure Bicycle opened minds to longer distance independent travel, practical use of the pneumatic tire, drive trains

47 Development of the American Car
Year Event Registered Cars Adults/Car 1900 Forward engine, steering wheel 8,000 - 1905 Shocks, acetylene headlights 77,000 1908 Model T Ford, steering wheel on left 194,000 1911 Electric starters 619,000 44 1912 Windshields common 944,000 1915 1st all-steel body 2,332,000 10 1922 Pneumatic tires 10,448,000 3 1925 Bumpers are standard 17,481,000 1.6 1926 Heating, safety glass 1.5 1930 22,800,000 1.3

48 Cost (Model T) Model T’s Sold per Year

49 Values Associated with Autos
Independence Freedom Status Liberation Strength Reliability Conquest Romance Mr. Toad’s Wild Ride was from the Wind in the Willows (1908) Tracy Chapman’s Fast Car You got a fast car I want a ticket to anywhere Maybe we make a deal Maybe together we can get somewhere Anyplace is better Starting from zero got nothing to lose Maybe we’ll make something But me myself I got nothing to prove You got a fast car And I got a plan to get us out of here I been working at the convenience store Managed to save just a little bit of money We won’t have to drive too far Just ’cross the border and into the city You and I can both get jobs And finally see what it means to be living You see my old man’s got a problem He live with the bottle that’s the way it is He says his body’s too old for working I say his body’s too young to look like his My mama went off and left him She wanted more from life than he could give I said somebody’s got to take care of him So I quit school and that’s what I did You got a fast car But is it fast enough so we can fly away We gotta make a decision We leave tonight or live and die this way I remember we were driving driving in your car The speed so fast I felt like I was drunk City lights lay out before us And your arm felt nice wrapped ’round my shoulder And I had a feeling that I belonged And I had a feeling I could be someone, be someone, be someone You got a fast car And we go cruising to entertain ourselves You still ain’t got a job And I work in a market as a checkout girl I know things will get better You’ll find work and I’ll get promoted We’ll move out of the shelter Buy a big house and live in the suburbs You got a fast car And I got a job that pays all our bills You stay out drinking late at the bar See more of your friends than you do of your kids I’d always hoped for better Thought maybe together you and me would find it I got no plans I ain’t going nowhere So take your fast car and keep on driving You got a fast car But is it fast enough so you can fly away You gotta make a decision You leave tonight or live and die this way

50 1914 Ford Model T 1919 Ford Touring Sedan

51 1928 Automobiles Unic Art Deco
1920 Hudson Race Car

52 1920 Studebaker Six Touring
1929 Packard Phaeton

53 1929 Dodge Brothers Brougham
1929 Fisher Body

54 1939 Studebaker 1946 Ford Convertible

55                                                              1947 Studebaker

56 1900-1950: State of Transport Commuting Speed 30-Min. Commute
Accessible Land Walk 2 mph 1 miles 4 sq. miles Omnibus 4 mph 2 miles 12 sq. miles Horse Car 6 mph 3 miles 28 sq. miles Cable Car 10 mph 5 miles 78 sq. miles Electric Trolley 12 mph 6 miles 113 sq. miles Automobile 30 mph 15 miles 706 sq. miles Travel/Freight 1-Day Travel Comments 24 miles Still necessary Wagon 48 miles Phasing out Steam Ship 15 mph 300 miles Overseas transport Railroad 60 mph 1000 miles Passenger & freight 40 mph 350 miles Some highways Airplane 200 mph 4000 miles Still expensive

57 1950+: Freeways, Containers & Air
Additional transport modes: Freight trucking Container shipping Air Major issues Mobility Speed Cost Environmental justice Funding: 90% comes from the federal government To be built and maintained by the states

58 Major Events 1955 Shipping containers first used 1956
Federal-Aid Highway Act 1958 Boeing enters service for Pan Am (1st commercial jet liner) 1973 Federal Express opens for business 1975 Original design year for Interstates 1978 Airline deregulation 1993 Interstate Highway system finished (I-105, Century Freeway in LA)

59 Lake Washington Blvd. (n.d.)
Seattle Photograph Collection UW Digital Collections

60

61 Arroyo Seco Parkway (Pasadena Freeway)
Dedicated, December 30, 1940

62 Intercity Travel Intercity Travel Intracity travel
Initial impetus for limited access highways Jobs program (Autobahn, Interstate) Connect major urban areas and states Defense Intracity travel Not an original reason for Interstates 20% of Interstate mileage in urban areas Still somewhat uniquely American

63 Seattle

64 Vancouver

65 Santa Monica and Harbor Freeway Interchange, Los Angeles

66 Chicago Circle (I-90, I-290), Chicago

67 Mousetrap (I-70, I-25), Denver

68 The Stack (US 101, CA-110), Los Angeles

69 Spaghetti Bowl (US 95,I-15, I-515), Las Vegas

70 1950s Plan for Seattle freeways

71 Freeway Revolts Boston New Orleans San Francisco

72 Trucking Freight Movement in the U.S.

73 Truck Flow on the National Highway System
From the U.S. DOT Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Study (2000)

74 Photo from Frasier River Port, Vancouver, B.C.

75 Container Freight 95% of world cargo volume moves by ship
1955: Modern container invented Containers 1972: 6.3 million TEU 1997: 163 million TEU 2003: 220 million TEU Cost of shipping: 1% of total cost of goods Ship size 1966: 600 TEUs 2000: 6,600 TEUs

76

77 Air Travel

78 Reclassified “exercise”
1950+: State of Transport Commuting Speed 30-Min. Commute Accessible Land Walk 2 mph 1 miles 4 sq. miles Omnibus 4 mph 2 miles 12 sq. miles Horse Car 6 mph 3 miles 28 sq. miles Cable Car 10 mph 5 miles 78 sq. miles Electric Trolley 12 mph 6 miles 113 sq. miles Automobile 60 mph 30 miles 2800 sq. miles Travel/Freight 1-Day Travel Comments 24 miles Reclassified “exercise” Wagon 48 miles Not Available Gas Turb. Ship 15 mph 300 miles Cruise ships Railroad 1000 miles Principally freight 70 mph 500 miles Freeways Airplane 500 mph 10000 miles Affordable

79 Suburban Living Cause and effect
“Our property seems to me to be the most beautiful in the world: It is so close to Babylon that we enjoy all the advantages of the city, and yet when we come home we are away from all the noise and the dust. -Quote from a clay tablet dated 539 B.C. Intrinsic reasons for expansion into suburbia: Seek country-like surroundings commensurate with American rural life style values Reaction to close quarters housing of the early Industrial Revolution Urban fringe land is cheaper Transportation helped realize existing demands – it did not create them Trade off poor accessibility for lower housing costs then demand governments compensate them for poor accessibility by building or improving transportation systems

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