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1 Transportation Vehicles & Society. 2 Overview Pre-1600 –Primitive transport 1600-1800 –Rise of the horse 1800-1900 –Rail, steam, electricity 1900-1950.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Transportation Vehicles & Society. 2 Overview Pre-1600 –Primitive transport 1600-1800 –Rise of the horse 1800-1900 –Rail, steam, electricity 1900-1950."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Transportation Vehicles & Society

2 2 Overview Pre-1600 –Primitive transport –Rise of the horse –Rail, steam, electricity –Rise of the automobile 1950-present –Freeways, containers & air Major themes –Time –Economics –Accessibility

3 3 Pre-1600: Primitive Transport Primary modes of transport –Foot –Cart –Horse Pre-industrial cities –Few open spaces –Inverse class segregation from today

4 4 Firenze, Italy

5 – 1800: Rise of the Horse Additional transport modes: –Carriage –Wagon Major issues –More mobility –More safety issues –More pollution

6 6 Major Events 1603Wooden rails used in coal mines 1605Hackney carriage introduced in England 1670Tempered steel springs for coaches 1690Rim brakes for coaches 1699Parkway introduced in Virginia 1625First street paving in North America 1712First steam engine 1767First iron rails in use 1769Iron hoop tire developed 1800Canada requires convicted drunks to work on roads

7 7 Detroit

8 8 Intracity Transport Horse power dominates Charging for rides –Hackney coaches (hacks) –Cabriolet (cab) and hansom carriages –Omnibus (1820s) –Expensive: $0.25/mile

9 9 Frank La Roche Photograph Collection UW Digital Collections Omnibus on North Beach Peninsula, WA (ca. 1892)

10 Greenlake Ave. N & 85 th St. N

11 – 1800: State of Transport Commuting Speed 30-Min. CommuteAccessible Land Walk 2 mph 1 miles 4 sq. miles Carriage 4 mph 2 miles 12 sq. miles Travel/Freight Speed 1-Day TravelComments Walk 2 mph 24 milesA necessity Wagon 4 mph 48 miles Sailing ship 10 mph 250 milesRelies on wind

12 – 1900: Rail, Steam & Electricity Additional transport modes: –Steam powered vehicles –Cable cars –Electric trolley Major issues –Steam power –Safety (higher speeds, steam power) –Suburbanization

13 13 Major Events 1804Elliptical springs invented 1807First horse-drawn passenger railway 1815 First steerable bicycle 1839Goodyear vulcanizes rubber 1852First trolley with flush rails 1814First steam powered ferry 1862First practical IC powered vehicle 1879Electric trolley invented 1888Pneumatic tire 1872Cable car system invented 1891First IC truck 1896First car accident in the U.S. 1825First steam railway for passengers

14 14 The “Pull” of Rail Surface TypePull-to-Weight Ratio Sand, deep and loose1/7 Dry earth, gravel on earth1/15 Macadam, badly worn or little used1/20 Broken stone on earth, cobblestones1/35 Solid rubber wheels on reasonable surfaces1/45 Broken stone on paved foundation, asphalt, wood1/50 Pneumatic tire on reasonable surfaces1/60 Well-made pavement, dry macadam1/70 Brick1/90 Best pavement1/180 Steel plate or stone trackway1/250 From M.G. Lay, Ways of the World (1992)

15 15 Focus: Pavements Seattle Photograph Collection, UW Digital Collections

16 Washington Localities Collection, UW Digital Collections Dirt Road Olympic Peninsula (ca. 1924)

17 UW Digital Collections Muddy Dirt Road County Road near Index, WA (1911)

18 Cobblestone Road E Republican St., Seattle

19 19 Macadam

20 20 UW Digital Collections Laying Planks for a Plank Road Kirkland Ave., Kirkland (ca. 1910)

21 21 Asahel Curtis Photo Company Collection, UW Digital Collections Plank Road Front St., Port Angeles (1914)

22 22 From the City of Sydney's Sydney Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets) Woodblock Paving Macquarie St., Sydney, Australia (1925)

23 23 Seattle Photograph Collection, UW Digital Collections Brick Road James St. from 4 th Ave., Seattle (ca. 1922)

24 24 From the City of Sydney's Sydney Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets) Woodblock Paving Overlaid with Hot Mix Asphalt Park St., Sydney, Australia (1929)

25 25 Industries and Occupations Photographs, UW Digital Collections Warrenite Pavement Bothell Rd. (1912)

26 26 Industries and Occupations Photographs, UW Digital Collections Warrenite Pavement Bothell Rd. (1912)

27 27 Seattle Photograph Collection, UW Digital Collections Independent Asphalt Paving Co. Seattle (ca. 1907)

28 28 Types of Pavement in Major U.S. Cities From Clay McShane, Down the Asphalt Path, the Automobile and the American City (1994)

29 29 Sydney, Australia Pavements From the City of Sydney's Sydney Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets)

30 30 Steam Vehicles First tried on vehicles in 1830s –Many cities prohibited due to high speeds and boiler explosion fears Relegated to separate ROW for safety –Gave rise to Elevated (“Els”) in 1860s Steam vehicles associated with rail in U.S. Commuter rail (1830s – 1900s) –Creates “suburbs” around rail lines –Grooved rail

31 De Dion-Bouton Steam Car (ca. 1890)

32 32 From Discover Live Steam (www.discoverlivesteam.com) Ally “L” on Indiana Ave. stop Chicago (n.d.)

33 33 Photo from Brian Doberstein, photos.abberation.org

34 Horse Drawn Trolley 1 st Ave. and James St. (1884) Seattle Photograph Collection UW Digital Collections

35 35 Focus: the Trouble with Horses Lots of horses –1 per 23 people (in large cities) –Teamsters  328% (1870 – 1900) Filthy –NYC sanitation removed 15,000 carcasses annually in the 1880s –Each horse dropped 10 – 20 lbs of manure daily –NYC manure 800,000 to 1,300,000 lbs daily (150,000 tons annually) –NYC Central Park stable had a 30,000 ft 3 pile of manure next to it

36 36 Focus: the Trouble with Horses Unhealthy –Tuberculosis (TB) leading cause of death in the 1890s –TB death rate  as number of autos  (probable correlation with horse filth/dust) Expensive –$1,200 for a tandem in 1850 –Freight costs: Chicago to NYC = $7.50/ton (railroads) NYC local delivery = $5.00/ton (horse power) Dangerous –Traffic fatalities were higher for wagons and carriages than for streetcars

37 37 From the City of Sydney's Sydney Streets exhibition (www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/history/SydneyStreets) Block Boys and Horse Manure Pitt St., Sydney, Australia (n.d.)

38 38 From Clay McShane’s Down the Asphalt Path, The Automobile and the American City (1994)

39 Asahel Curtis Photo Company Collection UW Digital Collections Cable Car on Viaduct in front of Power House Near Yesler Wy. (ca. 1910)

40 Electric Trolley Seattle Consolidated Street Railway Co., Green Lake Line (1891) Seattle Photograph Collection UW Digital Collections

41 41 Contemporary Electric Trolley King County Metro (2005)

42 42 Trolley Track Ties University Ave. (2002)

43 : State of Transport Commuting Speed 30-Min. CommuteAccessible Land Walk 2 mph 1 miles 4 sq. miles Omnibus 4 mph 2 miles 12 sq. miles Horse Car 6 mph 3 miles 28 sq. miles Cable Car 10 mph 5 miles 78 sq. miles Electric Trolley 12 mph 6 miles113 sq. miles Travel/Freight Speed 1-Day TravelComments Walk 2 mph 24 milesStill a necessity Wagon 4 mph 48 milesBeing phased out Steam ship 15 mph 300 miles5-day Atlantic crossing Railroad 20 mph 300 milesPrincipal long-distance

44 – 1950: Rise of the Automobile Additional transport modes: –Internal combustion automobile Major issues –Affordability –Independence

45 45 Major Events 1902First mass-produced car (Oldsmobile) 1906First gas station opened 1912 Fist pneumatic truck tire 1929Autobahn construction begins (Germany) 1921Autostrada construction begins (Italy) 1908Model T Ford begins production 1932First drive-in movie 1911Electric starters begin common use 1922Pneumatic tire begins common use 1944Interstate highway system first recommended 1920Motor vehicles = horse-drawn vehicles in U.S Fist scheduled air transport (St. Petersburg-Tampa) 1903First flight

46 46 Major Issues Shaping the Auto Low population densities Pavements Prejudice against fast vehicles wanes Unresponsiveness & monopolistic trolleys Influence of the bicycle Social demand –New middle class status symbol –Allows for suburban living Pollution

47 47 Development of the American Car YearEventRegistered CarsAdults/Car 1900Forward engine, steering wheel8, Shocks, acetylene headlights77, Model T Ford, steering wheel on left194, Electric starters619, Windshields common944, st all-steel body2,332, Pneumatic tires10,448, Bumpers are standard17,481, Heating, safety glass ,800,0001.3

48 48 Cost (Model T) Model T’s Sold per Year

49 49 Values Associated with Autos Independence Freedom Status Liberation Strength Reliability Conquest Romance

50 1919 Ford Touring Sedan 1914 Ford Model T

51 1920 Hudson Race Car 1928 Automobiles Unic Art Deco

52 1920 Studebaker Six Touring 1929 Packard Phaeton

53 1929 Dodge Brothers Brougham 1929 Fisher Body

54 1939 Studebaker 1946 Ford Convertible

55 1947 Studebaker

56 : State of Transport Commuting Speed 30-Min. CommuteAccessible Land Walk 2 mph 1 miles 4 sq. miles Omnibus 4 mph 2 miles 12 sq. miles Horse Car 6 mph 3 miles 28 sq. miles Cable Car 10 mph 5 miles 78 sq. miles Electric Trolley 12 mph 6 miles 113 sq. miles Automobile 30 mph15 miles 706 sq. miles Travel/Freight Speed 1-Day TravelComments Walk 2 mph 24 milesStill necessary Wagon 4 mph 48 milesPhasing out Steam Ship 15 mph 300 milesOverseas transport Railroad 60 mph 1000 milesPassenger & freight Automobile 40 mph 350 milesSome highways Airplane200 mph 4000 milesStill expensive

57 : Freeways, Containers & Air Additional transport modes: –Freight trucking –Container shipping –Air Major issues –Mobility –Speed –Cost –Environmental justice

58 58 Major Events 1973 Federal Express opens for business 1975Original design year for Interstates 1955Shipping containers first used 1978Airline deregulation 1956Federal-Aid Highway Act 1993Interstate Highway system finished (I-105, Century Freeway in LA) 1958Boeing enters service for Pan Am (1 st commercial jet liner)

59 Seattle Photograph Collection UW Digital Collections Lake Washington Blvd. (n.d.)

60 60

61 61 Arroyo Seco Parkway (Pasadena Freeway)

62 62 Intercity Travel –Initial impetus for limited access highways –Jobs program (Autobahn, Interstate) –Connect major urban areas and states –Defense Intracity travel –Not an original reason for Interstates –20% of Interstate mileage in urban areas –Still somewhat uniquely American

63 63 Seattle

64 64 Vancouver

65 65 Santa Monica and Harbor Freeway Interchange, Los Angeles

66 66 Chicago Circle (I-90, I-290), Chicago

67 67 Mousetrap (I-70, I-25), Denver

68 68 The Stack (US 101, CA-110), Los Angeles

69 69 Spaghetti Bowl (US 95,I-15, I-515), Las Vegas

70 1950s Plan for Seattle freeways

71 71 Freeway Revolts Boston New Orleans San Francisco

72 72 Trucking Freight Movement in the U.S.

73 73 From the U.S. DOT Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Study (2000) Truck Flow on the National Highway System

74 74 Photo from Frasier River Port, Vancouver, B.C.

75 75 Container Freight 95% of world cargo volume moves by ship 1955: Modern container invented Containers –1972: 6.3 million TEU –1997: 163 million TEU –2003: 220 million TEU Cost of shipping: 1% of total cost of goods

76 76

77 77 Air Travel

78 : State of Transport Commuting Speed 30-Min. CommuteAccessible Land Walk 2 mph 1 miles 4 sq. miles Omnibus 4 mph 2 miles 12 sq. miles Horse Car 6 mph 3 miles 28 sq. miles Cable Car 10 mph 5 miles 78 sq. miles Electric Trolley 12 mph 6 miles 113 sq. miles Automobile 60 mph30 miles2800 sq. miles Travel/Freight Speed 1-Day TravelComments Walk 2 mph 24 milesReclassified “exercise” Wagon 4 mph 48 milesNot Available Gas Turb. Ship 15 mph 300 milesCruise ships Railroad 60 mph 1000 milesPrincipally freight Automobile 70 mph 500 milesFreeways Airplane500 mph10000 milesAffordable

79 79 Suburban Living Cause and effect “Our property seems to me to be the most beautiful in the world: It is so close to Babylon that we enjoy all the advantages of the city, and yet when we come home we are away from all the noise and the dust. -Quote from a clay tablet dated 539 B.C.

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