Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 MARINE FUELS. 2 ENGINE HISTORY YearNameEngineFuel  1860Jean Lenoir 2 Stroke Petroleum4% 1867Otto & Eugene Langen2 StrokeGas14% 1876Otto4 StrokePetrol14%

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 MARINE FUELS. 2 ENGINE HISTORY YearNameEngineFuel  1860Jean Lenoir 2 Stroke Petroleum4% 1867Otto & Eugene Langen2 StrokeGas14% 1876Otto4 StrokePetrol14%"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MARINE FUELS

2 2 ENGINE HISTORY YearNameEngineFuel  1860Jean Lenoir 2 Stroke Petroleum4% 1867Otto & Eugene Langen2 StrokeGas14% 1876Otto4 StrokePetrol14% 1886Bentz4 StrokeGas7% 1890Herbert Akroyd Stuart4 StrokePoor Quality14% 1896Rudolf Diesel4 StrokePoor Quality25%

3 3 CORE VALUES Real Reliability Low fuel consumption Low lube oil consumption Low NOx emission Low maintenance cost State of the art Technology

4 4 ENGINE – CRITICAL CONSUMABLES Air Water Lube Oil Fuel Engine Design Electricity

5 5 BUNKER FUELS

6 6 FUEL Thermal Cracking v/s Catalytic Cracking

7 7 FUEL - CHARACTERISTICS Density Typical value : 940 kg/m3 to 991 kg/m3 Influence : Measurement of fuel - Specific fuel consumption Centrifuging efficiency Indicates fuel ignition quality (when fuel viscosity is known) Viscosity Typical value : 160 cst to 730 cst Influence : Fuel handling - unloading, pumping, separating Fuel handling - heat input - auxiliary consumption Maximum temperature limitations Fuel atomization Loading on fuel injection equipments, camshaft Indicates fuel ignition quality (when fuel density is known)

8 8 FUEL - CHARACTERISTICS Ash Non-combustible, un burnt inorganic material Consists of iron, vanadium, sodium, nickel,aluminium, silicon, zinc Max. permissible - 0.2% by mass Influence : Vanadium & Sodium cause hot corrosionhot corrosion Most affected parts - exhaust valve, piston crown,valve guide Carbon residue Carbon content in fuel - left out after complete combustion of fuel. Max. permissible - 22% wt. Influence : Fouling & deposits on piston crown, exhaust passages, turbocharger nozzle ring Faster deterioration of lubricating oil.

9 9 Fuel – Sulphur effect Cold Corrosion Cold corrosion by formation of sulphuric acid S+O 2 +2H 2 O = H 2 SO 4 +H 2 Piston Ring Surface Temperature Most affected parts - cylinder liner, inlet valve, valve guide Accelerates hot corrosion Faster depletion of lube oil TBN Less calorific value - high fuel consumption

10 10 FUEL - CHARACTERISTICS Ashphaltenes Highly aromatic hydrocarbon molecules High Carbon-Hydrogen ratio, High molecular weight Very poor ignition quality - longer ignition time Occurs in fuel due to - Incompatibility caused by blending residual fuel with distillate fuel. Excessive sludge - Fuel loss Large size particles will not completely vaporize, leading to incomplete combustion Deposits in engine exhaust ducts, nozzle ring and rotor blades Restricted exhaust gas flow due to deposits and leads to under performance of turbocharger and vibrations Major Effect - High fuel consumption

11 11 FUEL - CHARACTERISTICS Aluminium & Silicon Highly abrasive Max. permissible - Al+Si – 80/ 30 ppm Influence : Abrasive wear of piston rings, piston ring grooves, cylinder linersAbrasive wear Abrasive wear - mostly on fuel injection pump elements, fuel injector nozzles. Water Water normally comes during handling &transportation Max. permissible - 1% in storage & 0.3% at engine inlet Lower calorific value of fuel Cavitations in pumps Vapour lock in system, pressure fluctuation Fuel ignition quality Larger ignition delay Sudden pressure rise - excess loading Late burning

12 12 FUEL - CHARACTERISTICS Pour point- Storing / Handling of fuel Sp. Gravity- Fuel consumption - economy Viscosity- Heating - auxilliary consumption - Atomization CCAI value- Starting trouble, Knocking - Fuel consumption, Deposits Sulphur- Cold Corrosion, TBN depletion Water- Corrosion, Cavitation, Wear

13 13 Al + Si- Abrasive wear Na + V- Hot Corrosion Ash - Excessive deposits, - Nozzle blocking Contamination- FIP sticking, Deposits Asphaltenes - Stability, Precipitation Fuel Treatment- Separation temperature Fuel pr. & flow- System adjustment FUEL - CHARACTERISTICS

14 14 Hot Corrosion Exhaust ValvePiston Crown

15 15 Sulphur in Fuel For every 1 % increase of sulphur in the fuel you loose 1 % in net heat value : 2.1 g/kWh EXAMPLE: Output5000 kW Operating hours per year6000 h Fuel consumption kg/kWh kg/kWh x 5000kW x 6000 = 63,000 kg/year LOSS OF FUEL: 63,000 kg/year

16 16 Ash in Fuel For every 0.10 % increase of ASH content in the fuel you loose 0.04 MJ/kg in net heat value : 0.21 g/kWh Output5000 kw Operating hours per year6000 h Fuel consumption0.21 g/kWh kg/kWh x 5000kW x 6000 = 6300 kg/year EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUEL: 6300 kg/year

17 17 Fuel CharacteristicsUnit Max. Limits RME 180 RMG 380 deg Ckg/m deg Ccst Flash pointdeg C60 60 Pour pointdeg C30 30 Carbon residue % Ash %wt Water % vol Classification of Heavy Fuel ( ISO 8217)

18 18 Fuel CharacteristicsUnit Max. Limits RME 180 RMG 380 Sulphur% mass TSP % mass Vanadiummg/kg Sodiummg/kg Aluminium + Siliconmg/kg80 80 CCAI Classification of Heavy Fuel ( ISO 8217)

19 19 Fuel CharacteristicsUnit DMB/DMC (LDO) DMA (HFHSD) deg Ckg/m deg C,maxcst – 6.0 Flash pointdeg C60 60 Pour pointdeg C 0W/6S -6W/0S Carbon residue % Ash %wt Sulphur % wt Total Sediments % vol Al + Si ppm 25 - Classification of Distillate fuel ( ISO 8217)

20 20 Revision of annex VI of MARPOL 10 october 2008 Reduction of NOx emissions Tier III stands for :  ECAs  newbuilds  after 2016 IMO also formally accepted « scrubber » technology on a principle of equivalence to the use of low S fuel (EGCS = exhaust gas cleaning system) into a SECA area Global cap % 1.0 % 0.1 % (  distillate) 1.5 % 3.5 % 0.5 % (90% distillate ?) In october 2008, IMO [1] has decided to modify sulphur levels in (S)ECAs [2] and worldwide (2020 or 2025) [1] IMO : International Maritime Organisation, part of UNO, in charge of preparing future regulations on international maritime traffic [2] (S)ECA : « (SOx) Emissions Control Area", maritime area where vessels are obliged to burn low S fuels or limit emissions of NOx. ECA areas are adopted by IMO after submission by memberstates showing an environmental benefit (on cost/health criteria)

21 21 (Sulphur) Emission Control Areas 2 nd SECA North Sea + English Channel started in st SECA Baltic Sea started in 2006 Existing SECAs (2) Possible ECAs (US-Canada) most likely to start 2012 or 2013 ; distance 200 miles from the coast Other :  Mediterranean ?  Japan ?  ???

22 22 Mid next year ISO should issue the next revision under the pressure of IMO who wants some «improvements» specially on health & safety issues What will change? metal content (Al+Si) 80 ppm  60 ppm HFT (stability)  change method H2S = new ! (what level still questionnable ; 2 ppm?) ignition/combustion characteristic (method ?) + some other minor changes When ? Expected mid-2010 Revision of ISO 8217

23 23 Total Marine Fuels - COP RF - Mai The Sulphur Issue : existing SECA areas 1 st SECA = Baltics > August nd SECA = North Sea + Channel > August 2007 Le Havre Rotterdam Brunsbuttel Dunkerque Immingham Antwerp IMO Glossary IMO = UN agency MARPOL handles pollution of ships Marpol Annexe VI handles air pollution SECA = SOx Emission Control Area %S Global = 4.5%S SEAC = 1.5%S

24 24 Total Marine Fuels - COP RF - Mai MARPOL Annex VI – Options Option 1 - (theoretically admits fuel or distillate)  1.00% Sulphur in [2012…?] everywhere  0.50% S in [2015…?] everywhere  this option means distillate because there will be not enough low S fuel  available (~300 Mt fuel  300 Mt gasoil) Option 2 – (best scenario for oil industry)  Global S level unchanged = 4.50%  But 0.10% in [2012…?]  this option means distillate in SECAs (or scrubbers) Option 3 « intermediate »  Global S level lower = 3.00% in [2010…?]  SECAs lowered to 1.00% in [2010…?]  SECAs lowered to 0.50% in [2015…?]  Micro-SECAs (in ports) may be established with 0.10% The Sulphur Issue : before London MEPC 57 meeting april 2008

25 25 Cat Fines 1 (Al+Si) on pistons

26 26 Functions of lube oil : Lubricate piston cylinder liner all bearings gears cooling water & lube oil pumps fuel injection pumps LUBE OIL

27 27 Cool piston crown all bearings gears Clean carbon deposits dirt sulphated deposits Functions of lube oil :

28 28 Oxidation Due to very high temperature increased viscosity thermal cracking deposits in hot zone weak acids - bearing corrosion Lube oil quality - Deterioration

29 29 Contamination Soot blow-by sludge in cold zone Fuel decreased flash point Water leakage, condensation, separator malfunctioning Lube oil quality - Deterioration

30 30 Thickness 0.3 to 2.0 mm Piston Crown Deposits

31 31 PossibleMost Probable Results Interpretation - Elements in LO Analysis Interpretation of analysis reports by trend monitoring

32 32 HPCL MARINE LUBES RANGE : MAIN GRADES MARINE LUBES – MAIN RANGE


Download ppt "1 MARINE FUELS. 2 ENGINE HISTORY YearNameEngineFuel  1860Jean Lenoir 2 Stroke Petroleum4% 1867Otto & Eugene Langen2 StrokeGas14% 1876Otto4 StrokePetrol14%"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google