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What were the concerns of war and why did some question neutrality? Map Quiz Americans Question Neutrality The War Hits Home Homework: Section 2 Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "What were the concerns of war and why did some question neutrality? Map Quiz Americans Question Neutrality The War Hits Home Homework: Section 2 Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 What were the concerns of war and why did some question neutrality? Map Quiz Americans Question Neutrality The War Hits Home Homework: Section 2 Notes and the Zimmerman Note

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5 Marne Ypres Verdun Somme Tennenburg

6 September 5–9, 1914 Marne River, East of Paris Stopped Germany’s rapid advance Prevented the fall of Paris Set the stage for trench warfare

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8 Battle of Ypres: The first time Germany used chemical weapons on a large scale on the Western Front

9 Feb. 21–Dec. 18, 1916 Verdun, France, 120 miles east of Paris Demoralized both sides First extensive use of the flamethrower Longest Battle

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11 July 1–Nov. 18, 1916 Somme River, France Drew Germans away from Verdun Tactics became more sophisticated and supply lines became more efficient First use of tanks (British)

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13 Russian Empire Versus German Empire 17 August and 2 September The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Germans Series of battles keeping stalemate on Eastern Front.

14 Long strip of land pounded by artillery (the space between the trenches Armies dug rat infested trenches Soldiers charge enemy to be attacked by machine gun fire fighting for yards of land for 3 years

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16 Why not go to war: no reason to go to war 3,000 miles away American lives or property not threatened indifferent to who won the war

17 Socialists: War is capitalist & imperialist struggle between Germany & England Pacifists: (William Jennings Bryan) war was evil & the U.S. should set an example of peace to the world Many Americans simply did not want their sons to experience the horrors of warfare

18 Naturalized U.S. citizens followed war b/c of ties to home nations Americans felt close to Britain (common ancestry & language as well as similar democratic institutions & legal systems) Germany’s aggressive sweep through Belgium increased American sympathy for Allied Powers

19 America had closer economic (trading) ties with Allies American trade with Britain & France was 2X more than with Germany Allies flooded American orders for war supplies By 1915, U.S. was experiencing labor shortage for war items

20 British Propaganda

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24 Americans support Allies but don’t want to go to war. 1917, American get ready for war for 2 reasons: ensure repayment of debts to the U.S. prevent Germans from threatening U.S. shipping.

25 Britain makes use of navy power blockaded German coast to prevent weapons & other military supplies from getting through Extended blockades and Mined the North Sea

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28 American ships refused to challenge the blockade & seldom reached their destination (Germany) Germany couldn’t import foodstuffs & fertilizers for crops(famine strikes)

29 Americans angry about the blockade, which threatened freedom of the seas

30 Germany responded to the British blockade with counter blockade by U- Boat Any British or Allied ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk

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33 May 7, 1915, U-Boat sank the Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland 128 of the victims were Americans Germans defended action saying the liner carried ammunition Americans outraged with Germany b/c of loss of life, but Wilson still ruled out military response

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36 August 1915, a U-Boat sank another British liner, the Arabic, drowning 2 Americans Again the U.S. protested Germany agreed not to sink any more passenger ships

37 March 1916 – Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmed French passenger steamer, the Sussex 80 were killed or injured (including Americans)

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39 U.S. warned it would break all diplomatic ties with Germany unless they changed their tactics Germany agrees, with a condition: if the U.S. couldn’t persuade Britain to lift the blockade against food & fertilizers, Germany would renew unrestricted submarine warfare

40 Woodrow Wilson v/s Charles Evans Hughes (Supreme Court Justice) Wilson: “I kept us out of war” Hughes: “Fight for freedom of the seas” Wilson wins in close race

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42 Wilson wanted to set up “league of peace” and end the war by talking and laying down weapons.

43 German’s ignored Wilson’s calls for peace Kaiser announced that U-Boats would sink all ships in British waters (unrestricted submarine warfare)

44 The U.S. now has to join the war BUT are still waiting for a direct attack

45 The Zimmerman note was intercepted by British agents Proposed alliance b/w Mexico and Germany & German support of Mexico in recovering “lost territory”

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47 Russian monarch was replaced with a representative government War is now democracy versus brutal monarchy

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50 April 2, 1917, president Wilson addressed Congress U.S. Troops and Munitions go to war against Central Powers. Wilson & many Americans believed the U.S. needed to make the world safe for democracy

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