2 Introduction This module defines the differences between confinement, containment andspill recovery.MethodsAdvantagesDisadvantagesMaterials that could be utilized at anincident involving a HazMat/WMD
3 Enabling Learning Objectives 13-1 Define the difference betweenconfinement and containment13-2 Identify the basic methods for confiningsubstance spills on land and explain theiradvantages and limitations13-3 Identify the basic methods for confiningspills of sinking, floating, and solublesubstance spills on water and explain their
4 Enabling Learning Objectives 13-4 Define the purpose for and theprocedures, equipment, and safetyprecautions used with each of thesemethods, and demonstrate the ability toselect methods appropriate for a givenHazMat/WMD incident.
5 Enabling Learning Objectives Diking and dammingPneumatic equipmentExcavationSealed boomsOverflow damDiversionWeir damDiversion channelsUnderflow dam/weirRetentionBoomsSorbentsNaturalSynthetic13-5 Demonstrate the proper use of themethods listed above
7 Confinement vs. Containment Confinement Method ExampleDiking/DammingUse soil, sand, or clay to stop or divert flowExcavationDig trench, pit, or ponds to collect or treat the productBoomingUse straw or commercial booms to collect the productPumpingPump the product to a container or pit to collect or treat itVapor suppressionUse foam or water fog to reduce or redirect vaporsContainment Method/SituationExamplePluggingHole, tear in containerWedges, plugs, screws, etc.PatchingPatch kit, epoxy, vetter bag, etc.Capping/repairingLeaking valveValves, safety devicesChlorine or Midland kitReplace/repair
8 Confinement Main purpose reduce the area of contamination Processes vary withlocationCompatibilityIncompatibility
9 Confinement on Land Product spills on land can move in several directions at the same time The material movement depends on manyother factors, such as:Soil type, such as how porous it isSoil condition, dry, wet, snow covered,covered with ice or frozenSlopeProximity of manholes, drains, culvertsPresence of asphalt, concrete, or tilePresence of obstructions.
10 General Confinement Operations Responders must stay clear of theHazMat/WMDResponders using hand tools may need somelevel of protectionHeavy equipment - ignition for a flammableliquid or gas.Equipment operators-OSHA "Skilled SupportPersonnel" and their required levels ofprotection and training in CFR 29(q)(4).
11 Materials Compatibility Fire hose (effective on a flat surface.)Foams (these do not absorb spilled material andthus add less contaminated material to disposeof later.)Bucket, recovery drum, or other similar open topcontainerSorbents socksPumps or vacuums
12 Diking/Damming Diking/damming will increase the volume of contaminated materialrequiring cleanup.Equipment needed may include:Shovels and other hand toolsFront-end loaderBackhoeDump truckMan-way coversVetter bags, to block culverts
13 Recovery Operations Recovery Operations for confinement is an offensiveaction which seals productinside an outer container.A "containment" action,such as patching orplugging, is usuallyrequired to keep much ofthe product in its originalcontainer as possible.
14 Recovery Operations Make sure that the recovery container is compatible with theproduct and originalcontainer.It also must be largeenough to hold thecontainer easily, withoutdamaging it.
15 Overflow Dam An insoluble product with a specific gravity > 1.0 sink Overflow damA weir damSubstance, or simply hold the substance backPlastic Sheeting to protect damUp stream side
17 Underflow Dam An insoluble HazMat/WMD with a specific gravity <1.0 will float.Spills of over 5,000 gallons impractical ininclement weather.Rainfall can wash away an earthen dam.Plastic Sheeting to protect damUp stream side
19 Booms Containment booms have four basic elements: An above-water freeboardA flotation deviceA below-water "skirt”A "longitudinal support”
20 Basic Types of Booms Fence booms Round or curtain booms Non-rigid or inflatableboomsFloating booms
21 Using Booms Perform well in gentle seas or moving water Rough and choppy water is likely tocontribute to boom failure.Lengthening a boom's skirt or freeboard canaid in containment.Will not operate properly waves are higherthan one meter or 39” or currents faster thanone knot per hour or 1.15 miles per hour.
22 SorbentsSorbents – Found in two basic typesAbsorbentsAdsorbents
23 Sorbents Natural organic sorbents - organic products Peat moss or strawCellulose fibers or corkCorn cobsChicken or duck feathersAdsorb between 3 and 15 times weight inwaterDifficult to collect after spread on the waterCan overcome the sinking issue
24 Sorbents Natural inorganic sorbents Mineral compounds Volcanic ash or perlite;Vermiculite or zeoliteAdsorb from 4 to 20 times their weightin oil or HazMat/WMD are inexpensiveThese types of sorbents are not usedon the water's surface.
25 Synthetic Sorbents Designed to adsorb liquids onto their surfaces Include cross-linked polymers and rubbermaterials absorb liquids into solid structure,causing material to swell.Absorb up 70 times their own weightPolypropylenePolyethylenePolyurethanePolyester
26 Sorbents Characteristics Rate of absorptionRate of adsorptionRetentionEase of application
28 Containment Maximum potential gains must be worth the risk. Even under thebest of circumstances,containment involves risk Minimal potential risksChoose the best chance ofsuccess with the least amountof risk.Plan the procedure
29 Containment Container Condition Considerations: Are all the closures really closed?Will the weight of the product tear a larger hole inan already weakened container?Can you move the container? How much doesthe container weigh?Will the lifting or moving devices cause additionaldamage to the container?
30 Containment Do the simplest safest fix Upright the container Close the valveCan you stop the leak simply by reorienting thebreech toward vapor space?If the container is damaged, what caused it?Is this the correct container for the product?Is the product eating through the container'swalls?Has the container deteriorated?Is there more than one hole?
31 Plugging Techniques Non-reactive wedges, cones and devices Magnetic patchesMechanical patchesFoam plugsBladder wrapsAdhesive patches
33 Plug and Patch Compatibility After compatibilityhas beendetermined, theonly limitation isyour imagination.A hardware store isa great place toshop for pluggingand patchingequipment.
34 Plugging and PatchingIs the hole in the liner at the same location as theleak?Is the product leaking between the liner and theshell?Does the container require more than one plug orpatch?Any repair you make must not damage the liner.A leaking container over-packing or transfer toanother container.
35 Plugging and Patching Plugging or patching may make the breach worse. Lower the container pressure, if possibleChoose plugging or patching compatible with theproductMake sure the patch or plug is larger than theopeningThink through each step of the procedure beforeyou begin.
36 Plug and Patch Materials Materials for plugging and patching are almost limitless:Is the materialcompatible with thematerial in thecontainer?available in sufficientquantity to do the job?
37 Plug and Patch Materials Is more than one typeof material required?How much time fromapplication until thecontainer can be moved?How long will the pluggingand patching material lastonce applied?
38 ConclusionParticipants were given information to provide the ability to:Define confinement and containmentIdentify the basic methods for confining spills and explaintheir advantages and limitationsIdentify the basic methods for confining spills of sinking,floating, and soluble substance spills on water and explainParticipants were able to practice various procedures onsimulated leaking container, releases, and spills.Define the purpose for and the procedures, equipment, andsafety precautionsDemonstrate the proper use of the methods listed above.