2 TAKS Objective 1: (US1A)TAKS Objective 1: (US1A) identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics
3 Selected Government Reforms • Federal income tax• Direct election of senators• Child labor laws• Initiative, referendum, and recallAll of the reforms in the box were enacted during —A ReconstructionB the Progressive EraC the Great DepressionD World War IIWhich of the following best describes events in the United States during the Great Depression?F Japanese Americans were detained in internment camps.G The economy collapsed, and millions of people became unemployed.H Fears about communism led to the imprisonment of many people.J The government passed laws that eliminated poverty and discrimination.
4 We will not submit to the prosperity that is obtained by lowering the wages of working men and charging anexcessive price to consumers, nor to that other kind of prosperity obtained by swindling investors or getting unfairadvantages over business rivals.— President Theodore Roosevelt, August 6, 1912President Theodore Roosevelt made this statement during which historical period?F The Progressive EraG The Gilded AgeH ReconstructionJ The Great Depression
5 What is the best title for this diagram? F Events of the Cold WarG Events of the Great DepressionH Events of the Roaring TwentiesJ Events of the Civil Rights Era
6 Objective 1: H.1 (B)apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periodsWhich of the following lists is in the correct sequence?A Great DepressionCold WarGilded AgeWorld War IB World War IGreat DepressionC Gilded AgeWorld War IGreat DepressionCold WarD Cold WarGilded AgeWorld War
7 Which statement best completes the sequence of events listed below? A The Japanese suffer a major defeat at Midway.B The Japanese surrender on board a U.S. battleship.C The United States initiates an oil embargo against JapanD The U.S. government apologizes for the internment ofJapanese Americans.
8 1. Gilded Age2. Cold War3. Great Depression4. Roaring TwentiesWhich of the following lists the historical eras shown above in the correct chronological order?A 1, 3, 2, 4B 4, 1, 3, 2C 1, 4, 3, 2D 4, 2, 1, 3
9 Which event in October 1962 completes the sequence of events shown in this time line? A The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.B The Cuban Missile Crisis occurs.C The Korean War begins.
10 Which of the following best completes the time line? A Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected president.B The Teapot Dome scandal is exposed.C Women gain the right to vote.D The League of Nations is formed.
11 TAKS Objective 1: (US1C)explain the significance of the following dates: 1898, , 1929, , [and 1957]From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)1898The Spanish-American War was triggered by the explosion of the Maine on February 15, 1898, in Havana harbor.American officials refused to accept the Spanish report that the cause of the explosion was internal and accidental. On April 11, 1898, President William McKinley asked Congress to authorize armed intervention against Spain to free the oppressed Cubans. The Navy, commanded by Commodore George Dewey, sailed into Manila Bay in the Philippines on May 1 and with the assistance of military troops, captured it on August 13, a day after the armistice was signed. Hawaii was annexed by the United States on July 7 to secure a coaling and supply station in the Pacific Ocean. The "Rough Riders," led by Theodore Roosevelt, rushed San Juan Hill, Cuba, on July 1 and the American fleet destroyed Spanish ships in Santiago Harbor, Cuba, on July 3. Disease ravaged U.S. forces; 400 died in battle or due to injuries while more than 5,000 succumbed to malaria, typhoid, dysentery, and yellow fever. In peace negotiations late in 1898, the Cubans received their freedom from Spanish rule, and the United States acquired Puerto Rico, the island of Guam, and the Philippines.
12 In 1914 World War I began in Europe, triggered when a Serb assassinated the heir to the Austria-Hungary throne. The Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Turkey and Bulgaria faced off against the Allies including France, Britain, and later Japan and Italy. President Woodrow Wilson declared neutrality but both the Central Powers and the Allies sought U.S. support. England and France benefited from American products which aided their war efforts and businessmen in the United States prospered even as anti-German sentiment increased. Trade with the Central Powers was limited because Britain controlled shipping channels in the Atlantic and diverted U.S. ships toBritish ports. German U-boats (submarines) sank the British passenger liner Lusitania on May 7, 1915, at the cost of 128 American lives. Wilson won re-election in 1916 on the assumption that he would not ask Congress for a declaration of war but Germany announced its plan to wage unlimited submarine warfare in early 1917 and sank four U.S. merchant marine vessels in March. On April 2, 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war. After the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) arrived in France, the German threat increased, and the Allied forces united under French Marshal Foch. By September, General John J. Pershing demanded separate command. The U.S. troops under Pershingparticipated in the last major offensive of the war, the Meuse-Argonne which lasted 42 days and involved 1.2 million U.S. troops. In the battle of Argonne Forest, one-tenth of all U.S. troops died in the heavy fighting. Germans surrendered on November 11, Peace negotiations began late in 1918 and continued into 1919.1929The Great Depression began in President Herbert Hoover's efforts to slow the speculation in paper profits through the Federal Reserve Board had little effect. In October, U.S. and foreign investors began selling shares at a panic pace. The stock market fluctuated considerably during the Fall of Erratic sales on "Black Thursday,“ October 24, caused investors concern and on October 29, "Black Tuesday," 16,410,030 shares were sold on the stock exchange. By late 1929, investors lost $40 billion in paper values, an amount greater than total U.S. expenditures for World War I. The collapse of the stock market preceded a world-wide economic depression. All industrialized nationssuffered. By the end of 1930, more than 4 million workers were jobless in the United States and by 1932, 12 million were unemployed.
13 The United States entered World War II in 1941 on both the Pacific and European fronts. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, prompted the United States to declare war on Japan. Germany responded by declaring war on the United States. Nearly 15 million men and more than 200,000 women enlisted. More than six million women worked outside the home to keep the economy going. In 1942 U.S. troops invaded north Africa and in 1943 the Allied troops invaded Italy. Also in 1943 the Japanese were driven from Guadalcanal. On June 6, 1944, General Dwight D. Eisenhower led 3 million Allied troops in the cross-channel invasion of France, landing at Normandy and pushing German forces out of France, liberating Paris in August. Adolf Hitler countered with a concentrated attack on American forces in the Ardennes forest on December 16, Over ten days, the German advance was stalled and then repulsed in the Battle of the Bulge. Eisenhower's troops advanced through Germany, meeting Soviet troops at the river Elbe in April 1945 and pushed on to Berlin. President Franklin Roosevelt died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945, nearly a month before German officials surrendered unconditionally on May 7. May 8 is designatedV-E Day (Victory in Europe Day). War with Japan continued with the United States dropping fire bombs on Tokyo, March 9-10, 1945, in an effort to force its unconditional surrender. On August 6, 1945, the first atomic bomb wasdropped on the military-base city of Hiroshima. A total of 180,000 were killed or missing. A second bomb fell on the naval-base city of Nagasaki on August 9 with 80,000 killed or missing. The Japanese agreed to surrender on August 10 if their emperor Hirohito remained as head of state. The surrender ceremony occurred on the U.S.S. Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945.
14 In 1898 more than 200 Americans died when the battleship U. S. S In 1898 more than 200 Americans died when the battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana Harbor. This event prompted the beginning of the —A Mexican-American WarB Civil WarC Spanish-American WarD Russo-Japanese WarWhich of the following took place from 1914 to 1918?A The Great DepressionB World War IC The Populist movementD The Spanish-American War
15 TAKS Objective 1: (US3A)explain why significant events and individuals, including the Spanish-American War, U.S. expansionism, [Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Thayer Mahan,] and Theodore Roosevelt, moved the United States into the position of a world powerSpanish-American War (1898)The Spanish-American War began when the United States intervened in Cuban affairs in opposition to Spanish rule.The explosion of the U.S.S. Maine on February 15, 1898, in the harbor in Hanava, Cuba, contributed to the start of the war. President William McKinley urged Congress to approve armed intervention in Cuba in his message to Congress on April 11. Another factor which prompted the war was U.S. interest in another Spanish possession, the Philippines. Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt urged Commodore George Dewey to invade the Philippines in the event of war with Spain. Dewey acted on May 1, 1898, and quickly destroyed the Spanish navy in Manila Bay. Although limited fighting occurred on the two fronts, more than 5,000 U.S. troops died from disease. The United States emerged as a world power as the treaty ending the "splendid little war" ceded the Philippines and Guam in the Pacific, and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, to the United States.
16 U.S. ExpansionThe United States has always been involved in foreign affairs but the degree of involvement has changed over time. After the War of 1812, those involved in foreign commerce sought peaceful negotiations with trading partners but others looked inward, seeing national development as providing the greatest economic opportunity. In the 1850s this began to change. Interest in strategic ports of call and shorter routes from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans prompted diplomats to negotiate with foreign powers over access to routes and trade. Thus the United States began to change its foreign policy from one of isolationism, avoiding involvement with other countries, to one of imperialism or expansionism, seeking control of foreign trade to bolster the domestic economy. The effort to expand into foreign markets caused American diplomats to "look outward" in the 1890s. Islands in the South Pacific including Hawaii were important depots for ocean-going trade and military vessels. The perception of unfair treatment of the inhabitants of Cuba and the Philippines, two colonies of Spain, led to the Spanish-American War (1898). The territory secured in the treaty ending the "splendid little war" angered those who opposed imperialism. Regardless, U.S. officials continued to seek foreign markets and to support American investment abroad. Trade with China began in In an effort to protect that trade, Secretary of State John Hay opposed the increase of British, German, Russia, French, and Japanese trade with China because of the competition it posed to American interests. He wrote letters to these governments requesting that they support an Open Door Policy in China ( ). His policy stated that all nations would have equal trading rights in China. Many of these countries participated in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, an uprising of Chinese against foreign influences including business and missionary interests. Japan was another country strategically positioned as a supply stop for American trading and whaling vessels. Efforts to open it to foreign trade began in the 1850s. Securing a passage through Central America to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans also affected U.S. foreign policy beginning in the 1850s. Latin American relations involved negotiations with imperial powers controlling Latin American countries as well as the governments of countries which gained their independence. Dollar Diplomacy was a policy adopted by President Howard Taft (who served from ) to encourage investment by American banks and businesses in Latin America. He promised military protection to those who invested. World War I reoriented the priorities of the emerging world power and U.S. foreign policy makers returned to a goal of isolationism.
17 Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) Born in New York, Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th president. He graduated from Harvard, was elected to the New York legislature, wrote history and served as president of the New York police boards. He gained national attention as the leader of the "Rough Riders," a volunteer cavalry unit which served in the Spanish-American War. He served as governor of New York and then as McKinley's vice president. When McKinley was assassinated in 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the presidency and was later elected to a full term in He supported expansionism, the development of a canal across Central America, and a powerful navy. Under Roosevelt's direction the United States became the police of the western hemisphere and numerous reforms were enacted: he prosecuted big business for trust violations, supported passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act, and created national parks.
18 • Famous Rough Rider• First American to win the Nobel Peace Prize• Motto was “Speak softly and carry a big stick”• Strengthened the U.S. NavyWhich twentieth-century U.S. leader is described by the list above?A Henry Cabot LodgeB George MarshallC Theodore RooseveltD Harry S. Truman
19 President Theodore Roosevelt increased American involvement in world affairs by — A issuing the corollary to the Monroe DoctrineB campaigning against international trustsC urging Congress to declare war on GermanyD repealing federal tariff lawsAs a result of the events described in the headlines below, the United States —A became a world powerB remained an isolationist in world affairsC rejected imperialismD placed limitations on foreign travel
20 Much has been given us, and much will rightfully be expected from us Much has been given us, and much will rightfully be expected from us. We have duties to others and duties to ourselves; and we can shirk neither. We have become a great nation— Excerpt from Theodore Roosevelt’s Inaugural Address, March 4, 1905The excerpt above most likely suggests that the United States —A has moved into a position of world powerB needs to impose higher taxes on imported goodsC has accepted the role of isolationist nationD needs to concentrate on domestic issues
21 TAKS Objective 1: (US3B)identify the reasons for U.S. involvement in World War I, including unrestricted submarine warfareIt is a fearful thing to lead this great, peaceful people into war But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free.— President Woodrow Wilson, 1917According to the excerpt, President Woodrow Wilson supported involvement in World War I because he wanted to —A protect U.S. colonial interests around the worldB prevent communism from spreading outside the Soviet UnionC make the world safe for democracyD provide Germany with humanitarian aid
22 Reasons for the _________?____________ • Unrestricted submarine warfare• Zimmermann telegram• Cultural and political ties to Great Britain• Threat to democratic governmentsWhich of the following phrases best completes the title above?A Creation of the League of NationsB U.S. Entrance into World War IC Formation of the Allied PowersD U.S. Decision to Contain Communism
23 Which of the following most influenced President Woodrow Wilson’s decision to ask for a declaration of war against Germany?A The assassination of Archduke Franz FerdinandB Germany’s treatment of prisoners of warC The German use of aerial bombing raidsD The Zimmermann telegramWhich of the following actions by Germany led to the end of U.S. neutrality during World War I?A The invasion of RussiaB The use of unrestricted submarine warfareC Attacks on U.S. coloniesD The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
24 TAKS Objective 1: (US3D)analyze major issues raised by U.S. involvement in World War I, Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the Treaty of VersaillesFrom the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)World War IWorld War I was a global conflict which began in 1914 and continued into Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, and Russia) defeated the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). About 20 other countries assisted the Allied Powers including the United States, which entered the war in The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and Bulgaria supported the Central Powers. The war was triggered by the assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Slavic nationalist, but the central issue was the competing nationalism and imperialism among major European powers.
25 Wilson's Fourteen Points (1918) President Woodrow Wilson traveled to Europe to participate in treaty negotiations ending World War I. He sought to reduce the risk of war and believed several adjustments to the method of conducting foreign policy could accomplish this. His suggestions included open covenants of peace with no hidden agendas, absolute freedom of navigation, removal of all economic barriers and support of equal trade, reduction of national armaments, impartial adjustment of colonial claims in the best interest of resident populations, and mutual guarantees of political independence of great and small nations. He also supported the establishment of an association of nations to maintain peace, a world parliament he called the League of Nations. Many opposed his dreams including Americans who favored isolationism; those who lobbied for harsher treatment of the Central Powers; and German-Americans, Italian- Americans, and others who believed the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh on their native lands. All found reason to criticize the treaty. Wilson's pleas to adopt the League of Nations as the only hope for preventing future wars failed to sway the opposition. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge led the critics in the Senate. His reservations to the treaty along with Wilson's refusal to compromise prevented the treaty from garnering the two-third majority of votes needed for the United States to adopt the measure when it came up for a second senatorial vote on March 19, 1920.Treaty of Versailles (1919)Allied leaders wrote the Treaty of Versailles, the formal agreement to end World War I. Their challenge was todivide the territory contained in four empires which collapsed at the end of the war: Russia, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Germany. President Woodrow Wilson supported divisions which freed ethnic groups from foreign rule. The treaty established the League of Nations which obliged each country to defend the territory of other member countries. It also charged Germany with responsibility for the war, requiring it to pay reparations to the Allies and stripping the country of all colonies. Because Wilson was unable to secure the support of the U.S. Senate for the treaty, the League of Nations was formed without U.S. involvement.
26 Why did President Woodrow Wilson consider the last item in his Fourteen Points speech, the creation of a general association of nations, to be the most important?A Such an organization would provide a forum for addressing international problems.B It placed the United States in a leadership position among nations.C It excluded small colonial nations from the diplomatic process.D It guaranteed that Great Britain, France, and Italy would retain control of Europe• Voluntary rationing• Increased employment of women• Migration of African Americans• Higher taxes• Sale of Liberty BondsThe box above lists examples of —A the effects of U.S. involvement in the Spanish-American WarB the effects of U.S. imperialism on colonial territoriesC the U.S. economic policies that led to the Great DepressionD the domestic impact of World War I on U.S. society
27 The three points listed below support President Wilson’s belief that the Fourteen Points were — F arranged by private negotiationsG important to the United States’ supremacyH necessary to prevent future warsJ reasons for punishing Germany
28 TAKS Objective 1: (US5A)analyze causes and effects of significant issues such as immigration, the Red Scare, Prohibition, and the changing role of womenRed Scare ( )Paranoia regarding the threat of Bolsheviks to the United States was called the Red Scare. In the late 1910s citizens of the United States were concerned about political unrest in Europe. Capitalists believed that the Russian Revolution and rise of the Bolshevik power in 1917 threatened their world. The Bolsheviks called for workers to revolt. This threat, in the minds of Americans, did not disappear at the end of World War I, and strikes by workers contributed to the popular belief that a giant conspiracy was at work to destroy the U.S. government as it had overthrown Russia's. Radicals, immigrant laborers, and anyone who appeared to threaten the U.S. government were charged with crimes. They were often deported or executed depending on court verdicts.ProhibitionProhibition as enforced by the 18th Amendment emerged from the Progressive era's push for moral, social, andpolitical reform. Temperance leagues began working to reduce alcoholism and social problems resulting fromalcoholism as early as the 1820s. The Women's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1874 and laws to ban alcohol were adopted in states as early as These states were considered "dry." In 1919 it became illegal to manufacture, sell, or transport alcoholic beverages following the ratification of the 18th Amendment. This amendment was the first legislation to ban alcohol at the national scale and it had negative consequences. The ability to sell grapes and barley was reduced and this hurt farmers. Enforcement was difficult and many were openly defiant of prohibition. Gangs could make millions of dollars dealing in illegal liquor so crime actually increased. The amendment was repealed in Tax collected on the sale of liquor then became an important source of revenue.
29 Which of the following is the correct cause-and-effect pairing of events that occurred during the 1920s?A Victory in World War I and the outbreak of urban riotsB Labor strife and the downfall of unionsC Prohibition and the rise of organized crimeD Fear of foreigners and the closing of U.S. bordersDuring the 1920s, what was the most likely reason for the existence of illegal bars called speakeasies?A ConservationB ImmigrationC ProhibitionD UnionizationWhich of the following had the greatest impact on the role of women in U.S. politics?A The growth of the labor movementB The passage of the Prohibition amendmentC The creation of New Deal agenciesD The accomplishments of the suffrage movement
30 During the 1920s the nationwide prohibition of the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol in the United States contributed to the —F ratification of the women’s suffrage amendmentG growth of organized crimeH end of Progressive reformJ demand for stricter immigration policies
31 TAKS Objective 1: (US5B)analyze the impact of significant individuals such as Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan, Henry Ford, and Charles A. LindberghFrom the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)Clarence Darrow ( )The most renowned defense attorney of his time, Clarence Darrow was born in Ohio to a working-class family. He was admitted to the Ohio Bar in He and his family moved to Chicago in 1887 to further his law career. He defended Eugene V. Debs in 1894 against charges of criminal conspiracy in relation to the American Railway Union strikes. His attraction to social concerns prompted him to argue criminal conspiracy cases and cases involving union violence and labor rights. He opposed the death penalty and supported racial equality. In 1925, he defended John T. Scopes who was charged by fundamentalists for violating a Tennessee statute against teaching evolution in the schools. His closing arguments are models of expository speaking.William Jennings Bryan ( )A noted politician and orator, William Jennings Bryan supported reforms benefiting ordinary people. He served as arepresentative to the Illinois legislature where he favored income tax, prohibition, and women's suffrage. He earnedthe Democratic nomination for president in 1896 but lost the race. He also lost in 1900 and He served asWoodrow Wilson's secretary of state but resigned in 1915 because he did not support Wilson's aggressive stancetoward Germany. Bryan made a fortune in real estate deals in Florida. His last oration was as a spokesman for theprosecution in the Scopes trial in which he supported a literal interpretation of the Bible and denounced the teaching of evolution in the schools.
32 Henry Ford ( )Henry Ford helped create a mobile society by mass producing and marketing the Model T automobile, making it an indispensable part of American life. Through his efforts, the automotive industry became a world-wide phenomenon. Born on a farm near Detroit, Michigan, Ford worked on the farm, at a shipbuilding firm, and for a company which serviced steam engines. During the winters he experimented on building his own internal-combustion engines. He drove his first home-built automobile in The Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 and he developed the Model T by Ford used mass production to reduce the price of the Model T, and he worked to perfect the assembly line. He retained complete company control and used it to amass billions of dollars.Charles A. Lindbergh ( )Born in Detroit to a political family, Charles Lindbergh studied mechanical engineering and flying, gaining areputation as a mechanic and pilot. He completed the U.S. Army Air Cadet program in 1925 and was made second lieutenant. He set a record in aviation history when he flew the specially built monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, nonstop from St. Louis to Paris on May 20-21, Afterward he served as a technical advisor to commercial airlines, testing new aircraft and developing viable routes. He favored neutrality before the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, then he supported the war cause, testing military aircraft and sharing technical knowledge. His interest in nature led him to support conservation efforts and he directed the World Wildlife Fund.
33 Charles Lindbergh’s 1927 solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean was important to Americans because it —F allowed the United States to demonstrate new military technology to European alliesG helped Great Britain to develop new aviation technologyH embarrassed the fascist dictators of Germany and ItalyJ symbolized American ingenuity, courage, and abilityIn which of the following did attorney Clarence Darrow defend an instructor accused of teaching the theory of evolution?.F Plessy v. FergusonG The Scopes trialH The Alger Hiss spy trialJ United States v. Nixon
34 How did the person depicted in the image above most influence American cultureimmediately after his historic flight in 1927?F He helped negotiate the Treaty ofVersailles and end German militarism.G He promoted military spending duringWorld War II.H He was treated as a hero and inspired asense of hope.J He helped end nativism by spreadingEuropean traditions
35 Which title best completes the diagram above? A The Scopes TrialB The Espionage ActC The Palmer RaidsD The Bonus Army
36 TAKS Objective 1: (US6A)identify reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II, including the growth of dictatorships and the attack on Pearl HarborFrom the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)World War II ( )World War II was a global conflict which began in 1939 and continued into 1945, in which the Allies (Great Britain,Russia, the United States) defeated the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan). Economic and social crises followedWorld War I in much of central Europe. Political unrest and fear of communist revolutions comparable to that led byV. I. Lenin in Russia in 1917 triggered the rise of Benito Mussolini and the founding of the Fascist Party in Italy, andthe rise of Adolf Hitler and the founding of the Nazi Party in Germany. At the same time, extreme militarists inJapan exerted more control in the 1930s. Hitler's attempts to unite all German-speaking people in Europe led to hisinvasion of Czechoslovakia and then Poland in Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany.The United States declared war on Germany following the invasion of Russia in June 1941, and on Japan followingthe attack on Pearl Harbor in December The war remains the deadliest in history with between 40 and 60million dead from battle and acts of genocide perpetrated by Nazi officials.DictatorshipsA dictator is a ruler who wields absolute authority and controls the government within a state or nation. Prior to WorldWar II several men assumed the role of dictator in European countries including Adolf Hitler in Germany, BenitoMussolini in Italy, and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. Other countries such as Spain under Fascist Francisco Francoworked to overthrow republican governments and impose dictatorial rule. The League of Nations did not oppose theactions of dictators nor did nations such as Britain, France, or the United States intercede as the republican governmentof Spain fell to Franco. This encouraged the dictators as they organized and strengthened their control in Europe.
37 During World War II, the United States became an ally of which of the following European dictators? F Adolf HitlerG Joseph StalinH Benito MussoliniJ Francisco FrancoIn the 1930s, which countries were ruled by dictatorships that were widely regarded as threats to the safety and security of the world’s democracies?A Mexico, Brazil, and IndiaB France, Spain, and GreeceC Germany, Japan, and ItalyD Japan, Mexico, and Turkey
38 The factors shown in the diagram above contributed to U.S. involvement in —A the Cold WarB World War IC World War IID the Spanish-American War
39 TAKS Objective 1: (US6B)analyze major issues and events of World War II such as fighting the war on multiple fronts, the internment of Japanese-Americans, the Holocaust, the battle of Midway, the invasion of Normandy, and the development of and Harry Truman's decision to use the atomic bombFrom the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)World War II ( )World War II was a global conflict which began in 1939 and continued into 1945, in which the Allies (Great Britain, Russia, the United States) defeated the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan). Economic and social crises followed World War I in much of central Europe. Political unrest and fear of communist revolutions comparable to that led by V. I. Lenin in Russia in 1917 triggered the rise of Benito Mussolini and the founding of the Fascist Party in Italy, and the rise of Adolf Hitler and the founding of the Nazi Party in Germany. At the same time, extreme militarists in Japan exerted more control in the 1930s. Hitler's attempts to unite all German-speaking people in Europe led to his invasion of Czechoslovakia and then Poland in Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany. The United States declared war on Germany following the invasion of Russia in June 1941, and on Japan following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December The war remains the deadliest in history with between 40 and 60 million dead from battle and acts of genocide perpetrated by Nazi officials.
40 Harry S. Truman ( )Harry S. Truman assumed the presidency following the sudden death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Having served as a senator from Missouri, he knew little of the workings of the executive office. He had no time to learn. Within weeks he attended the founding of the United Nations; represented the U.S at the Potsdam conference where two European powers, the Soviets and the British, discussed post-war order; and authorized the use of the atomic bomb in Japan, first on Hiroshima on August 6 and then on Nagasaki on August 9. In response to the spread of Communism, Truman announced the Truman Doctrine on March 12, 1947, which pledged U.S. support to nations opposing Communism. The Cold War, characterized by the antagonistic conflict between two world powers, the Soviet Union and the United States, began during Truman's administration. When the Communist North Koreans invaded South Korea in June 1950, Truman appealed to the United Nations, which dispensed forces to support South Korea. Truman'srefusal to commit more effort to win the war frustrated voters and they elected Dwight D. Eisenhower as president in 1952.
41 The significance of the Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, was that it — A caused the Soviet Union to join the war against GermanyB liberated Paris from German controlC opened a second major front in the war in EuropeD forced Germany to surrender immediately to Allied forcesDuring World War II, the Soviet Union pressured the other Allies to open a second front in France in order to —A allow the Soviet Union to send troops to fight in North AfricaB help French communists resist the NazisC free the Soviet Union to concentrate on fighting JapanD Germany to move some of its troops away from the eastern frontWhy did President Harry Truman decide to use the atomic bomb in World War II?A To end the war quickly and save American livesB To make sure the Swiss remained neutralC To free prisoners of war in Europe and the Pacific
42 Japanese Americans were held in internment camps during World War II because they — A disobeyed the state laws of CaliforniaB disagreed with President Franklin Roosevelt’s war strategyC were labeled a threat to U.S. securityD were unwilling to serve in the U.S. militaryThe Battle of Midway was a crucial victory for the United States because it —A dealt a severe blow to the Japanese navyB was the last sea battle of the war with JapanC was fought on Japanese territoryD destroyed Japan’s will to continue fighting
43 TAKS Objective 1: (US6D)describe U.S. responses to Soviet aggression after World War II, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, [and the Berlin airlift]From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)Soviet AggressionBetween 1918 to 1920 communists defeated anti-communists in Russia. In 1922 the communists created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or the Soviet Union). European countries and the United States feared that communist expansion threatened established government, particularly democracy and freedom (see Red Scare). Following World War II, communists sought to take over Greece and establish an airbase in Turkey. President Harry S. Truman managed to persuade Congress that this was a global struggle of freedom over communism. Several policies of Truman's were directed at containing Soviet (communist) aggression. He believed that the United States should support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." This was the basis of his Truman Doctrine, which guided American foreign policy for years. Also in 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall proposed an economic program to contain communism. His Marshall Plan supported economic aid to Europe and generated increased trade between the United States and European nations. In 1948 Stalin attempted to eliminate involvement of the west in Berlin and enacted the Berlin blockade. This prompted the United States to join Canada, Iceland, and nine other Western European nations in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Each pledged loyalty to the other in case of attack. British and U.S. planes flew tons of supplies into Berlin in an operation called theBerlin Airlift.
44 One example of President Truman’s response to Communist aggression after World War II was the Marshall Plan. This plan —A created the House Committee on Un-American ActivitiesB provided funding for the economic reconstruction of Western EuropeC established an alliance with Great Britain and France to de-colonize AfricaD provided military training for Latin American soldiersOne of the primary goals of the Marshall Plan was to prevent the —F spread of democratic forms of governmentG collapse of the Soviet Union’s economyH collapse of communist governments in Eastern EuropeJ spread of communism in Western Europe
45 One reason for the large increase in defense spending between 1950 and 1960 was — F an unprecedented inflationary economyG funding for military involvement in South AmericaH the Cold War and the arms race with the Soviet UnionJ a large investment in supersonic military transports
46 Don’t be afraid to read every book, as long as any document does not offend our own ideas of decency. That should be the only censorship.How will we defeat communism unless we know what it is, what it teaches, and why does it have such an appeal for men, why are so many people swearing allegiance to it?— President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Speech at Dartmouth College, 1953In the excerpt above, President Eisenhower was responding to Senator Joseph McCarthy’s public attempts to —A promote religious toleranceB limit free speechC increase U.S. literacy ratesD restrict conservative political influence
47 • Created in 1949 as a mutual-defense alliance • Initially included 12 democratic nations• Prompted by the Berlin blockade• First commitment to a mutual-defense alliance by the United StatesThe information listed above describes which of the following agreements?A Warsaw PactB Strategic Arms Limitation TalksC Atlantic CharterD North Atlantic Treaty Organization
48 The Parties to this Treaty The Parties to this Treaty Are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples,founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area. They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the preservation of peace and security.The purpose of the organization formed by the 1949 treaty excerpted above was to —F create an alliance to protect against communist aggression in EuropeG provide military assistance to countries seeking independence in the AmericasH provide financial aid to rebuild countries in AfricaJ regulate economic ties with communist countries in Asia
49 What threat was President Truman referring to in the excerpt above? A Regional wars in South AmericaB The spread of communismC Civil disobedience in U.S. citiesD The formation of the United Nations
50 Which of the following statements best characterizes the purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which was created in 1949?A Each member nation is committed to the defense of all other member nations.B All member nations will cooperate in rebuilding war-torn nations.C Trade barriers between all member nations will be removed.D All member nations will enforce trade embargoes against communist countriesDuring the Cold War, nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) for the purpose of —F advancing communismG free tradeH mutual defenseJ terrorism control
51 TAKS Objective 1: (US6E)analyze the conflicts in Korea and Vietnam and describe their domestic and international effectsKoreaKorea is a nation in northern Asia divided following World War II between North Korea, which was occupied by Soviet troops, and South Korea, occupied by U. S. forces. Following the withdrawal of the Soviet and U.S. troops, communist North Korea invaded South Korea in President Harry S. Truman ordered General Douglas MacArthur to intervene in the civil war. Truman chose MacArthur because of his knowledge and experience in the region. MacArthur had commanded Allied forces in the Philippines when the Japanese invaded during World War II. In 1950 President Truman named MacArthur commander of United Nations forces and ordered him to lead troops in a "peace action" in Korea. Differences of opinion between Truman and MacArthur over the application of force in bringing about an end to the conflict, which ended in MacArthur's firing, mirrored public sentiment. Some felt theUnited States should not be involved in the war and others felt that the United States should intervene in a decisive way to bring an end to the conflict and to the expansion of communism. President Dwight D. Eisenhower negotiated peace in 1953 but communism continued as a presence in Asia.VietnamVietnam is a long, narrow country in southeast Asia with a spine of hills and a large river delta, the Mekong, one of the richest areas of rice production in the world. The Vietnamese sought to maintain their independence despite centuries of Chinese and French occupation. During World War II, Japan seized the country from the French but in 1941, communist leader Ho Chi Minh organized the independence movement. The United States supported Ho Chi Minh's opposition to Japan and he, in turn, expected support in independence. Instead, the United States, concerned about the communist threat in Vietnam, agreed to support Vietnam's return to France. The French Indochina War lasted from Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel with Ho Chi Minh designated as leader of North Vietnam with Hanoi as its capital. Saigon was capital of non-communist South Vietnam. The south was led by NgoDonh Diem, a corrupt politician who manipulated voting and repressed nonconformists to retain power. President Dwight D. Eisenhower supported Diem from 1954 to In 1961, President John F. Kennedy increased aid to South Vietnam in opposition to the Vietcong, communists who opposed Diem. In August 1964 U.S. Navy ships, cooperating with South Vietnamese gunboats, exchanged fire with North Vietnamese in the Tonkin Gulf. Particulars remain unclear, but Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution which empowered President Lyndon B. Johnson to direct military support to Southeast Asia. He first ordered American troops to land in 1965 following a Viet Cong raid on an American air base. By the end of 1965, 184,000 Americans troops were involved. Throughout the conflict, foreign policy officials presented the issue as an effort to protect the non-communist south from the Communist north. In reality, most problems arose from confrontations between the Viet Cong and Diem supporters in South Vietnam. As more American tax dollars and troops were expended on the military offensive, and as the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese countered every escalation with more manpower and guerrilla tactics, public support waned. The Vietnam War continued through January It was the longest military engagement in U.S. history and the United States' first defeat.
52 The photograph below depicts a demonstration during the Vietnam conflict. It reflects — F bitter opposition to U.S. foreign policyG popular sympathy for Soviet communismH widespread support for military buildupJ unanimous support for the president
53 During the late 1960s and early 1970s, U. S During the late 1960s and early 1970s, U.S. military involvement in Vietnam led to —A an outpouring of international support for the U.S. militaryB the reelection of President Lyndon B. JohnsonC a loss of public trust in the U.S. governmentD a worldwide condemnation of North VietnamWhich of the following was a cause of the Korean War?A South Korea would not trade with other Asian countries.B Taiwan attempted to seize control of South Korea.C The United States would not grant foreign aid to North Korea.D North Korea wanted to unify the peninsula under a communist regime.U.S. involvement in Korea and Vietnam reflected the U.S. government’s policy of preventing the spread of communism after World War II. Which of the following established this U.S. policy?F Alliance for ProgressG Open Door NotesH Truman DoctrineJ Patriot Act
54 TAKS Objective 1: (US6F)describe the impact of the GI Bill, [the election of 1948,] McCarthyism, and Sputnik IGI BillIn 1944 Congress passed the Servicemen's Readjustment Act, known as the GI Bill. Part of the strategy to avoideconomic downturn after World War II, the GI Bill allotted funds to send former soldiers to school. In the ten yearsafter the war, more than eight million veterans went to school at government expense. Most sought vocational andtechnical training, but many also attended colleges and universities. In addition, the act allowed the Veteran'sAdministration to guarantee $16 billion in loans to veterans so they could purchase homes, farms, or small businesses.The bill did contribute to economic stability after the war.McCarthyismDuring the Cold War, Americans viewed the Soviets as a threat to national security and cultural survival. The fear ofcommunism increased throughout the 1950s as Americans became sensitized to the threat through publicizedinvestigations of critics of the government. Extreme opposition to communism gained the name "McCarthyism" fromthe efforts of Joseph R. McCarthy, a senator from Wisconsin elected in In 1950 he announced that communistsworked in the State Department. He and his followers worked to identify known communists and accused others basedon association. McCarthyism resulted in the ruin of many public figures who were unable to find work because theywere blacklisted. Employers refused to hire those suspected of communist activities because McCarthy's tactic of guiltby association made the employee suspect. In 1954 through 35 days of televised hearings before a Senate investigatingcommittee, McCarthy failed to substantiate his claims of communist collusion and lost favor with the Senate, and withthe American public.Sputnik ISputnik was the first space satellite. Launched in 1957 by the Soviet Union government under Nikita Khrushchev, itstarted the space race with the United States
55 The actions of Joseph McCarthy in the early 1950s led many Americans to — A suspect that some government officials had communist sympathiesB demand more rights for organized laborC support U.S. involvement in the United NationsD organize to protect the rights of African AmericansHow did the United States initially respond to the event described in the headline above?A The president ordered the construction of the Berlin Wall.B Congress appropriated additional money to develop a hydrogen bomb.C Congress emphasized science and math education as a matter of national security.D The president created a national committee on physical fitness.
56 The United States formed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in response to —F the Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik 1G North Korea’s invasion of South KoreaH the Soviet Union’s placement of missiles in CubaJ China’s development of an atomic bombThe launch of Sputnik I and Sputnik II by the Soviet Union in 1957 led the United States to —F form an alliance with communist ChinaG reduce its defense spendingH reinstate the military draftJ accelerate its space program
57 • Gave military veterans money for tuition, books, fees, and other training costs for education • Gave military veterans home, farm, and business loans• Gave military veterans unemployment payments for one yearWhich is the best title for this box?F Advantages of the Good Neighbor PolicyG Conditions of the Marshall PlanH Benefits of the GI Bill of Rights
58 OBJECTIVE 2 From TAKS Information Booklet (revised 2004) Objective 2 is the geography objective and consists of TEKS from three social studies courses: Grade 8 Social Studies, World Geography Studies, and World History Studies. The knowledge and skills statements and student expectations in this objective examine the movement of people and ideas as well as the patterns and processes of settlement. When teaching the student expectations in this objective, teachers should focus on the ways that processes such as trade can spread ideas ,material goods, and even diseases such as bubonic plague. Students should understand how to read and recognize patterns on maps, charts, and other graphic models from a geographic standpoint. Students who gain this kind of knowledge and understanding will recognize and appreciate the geographic issues that affect their daily lives. Examples of these issues at a local level are the development of traffic routes in towns orcities; debates regarding land use, such as agriculture versus real estate development; the effects of drought on water use; and the movement of migrant workers in search of work. On a global level, students who gain geographic knowledge and understanding will recognize and appreciate how events and issues in other parts of the world affect their daily lives. An example is the production in other countries of energy sources and material goods to be used inthe United States. A solid understanding of geography concepts from both the past and present enables students to participate in and make informed decisions about local, regional, and international geographic issues.
59 TAKS Objective 2: (US8B)[pose and] answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, [and databasesAccording to the table, the northern city that experienced the largest percentage growth of African American population from 1910 to 1930 was —A ClevelandB New York CityC PittsburghD Detroit
60 Based on the graph below, most people 65 and older who migrated to different states moved to states —F in warmer climatesG along the Great LakesH in the Rocky MountainsJ along northern coastlines
61 According to the table above, which area experienced continued growth in its percentage of the world’s population from 1750 to 1999?A AfricaB AsiaC Latin America and the CaribbeanD Northern America
62 According to the table above, which is the most accurate statement? F Immigration from Italy increased from 1880 to 1909.G Southern European immigrants faced immigration restrictions prior to 1900.H Immigration from Russia decreased from 1880 to 1919.J Northern European immigrants met with hostility prior to 1900.
63 According to the information on the map, in 1850 the population density was the greatest — F along the Pacific CoastG east of the Mississippi RiverH along the Gulf CoastJ in the areas bordering Mexico
64 TAKS Objective 2: (US9Aanalyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors on major events including the building of the Panama CanalPanama CanalIn 1901 the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty gave the United States the right to construct and defend a canal through Central America. The idea to build a canal was not new in Many nations sought quicker, safer access to the east fromthe west, and the narrow isthmus of Panama offered a link. Once the 50-mile long canal was completed in 1914, it changed the world's systems of transportation, communication, and economics
65 Many U.S. farmers from the Great Plains left their farms and migrated to California in the 1930s because of —A the excessively high cost of new farm machineryB federal and state assistance programs available to farmers in CaliforniaC drought and dust storms that destroyed their cropsD the availability of factory jobs in CaliforniaWhich of the following best completes the diagramF Hoover DamG Golden Gate BridgeH Panama CanalJ Transcontinental railroad
66 Difficulty in navigating the Drake Passage contributed to the U. S Difficulty in navigating the Drake Passage contributed to the U.S. decision to —F declare war on SpainG build a canal in PanamaH enact the Teller AmendmentJ announce the Open Door policy
67 ???? Overproduction of Crops + Lack of Soil-Conservation PracticesDrought and WindstormsCrop FailureRise in Farm Foreclosures????Which of the following best completes the diagram above?A Growth of the Banking IndustryB Suspension of Government AssistanceC Increase in Farm Production on the Great PlainsD Mass Migration of Farmers from the Dust Bowl
68 In the early 1900s President Theodore Roosevelt used the Big Stick policy to involve the United States in the building of the Panama Canal. Which of the following benefits was accomplished with this construction?A Political alliances with European governments were created.B Colonies in West Africa were acquired.C Shipping time for world trade was decreased.D European colonies in Latin America were granted immediate independence.
69 Which was a lasting effect of the activities shown in this drawing? F Native Americans of the Great Plains lost a natural resource that was important to their culture.G Settlers in the West started ranches instead of farms.H Native Americans of the Great Plains lost their influence on eastern markets.
70 TAKS Objective 2: (US10A)analyze the effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from migration within the United StatesTAKS Information BookletObjective 2 —For Your InformationThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 2:1. how population movement patterns have caused an exchange and diffusion of ideas, material goods
71 One social effect of the large migration of African Americans to U. S One social effect of the large migration of African Americans to U.S. industrial centers between 1940 and 1950 was —F increased racial tensionsG the peaceful integration of southern schoolsH a 20th-century renaissance in the artsJ improved public transportation systemsWhat was one result of the rapid growth of U.S. cities in the early 20th century?A Fewer educational opportunities were available.B Prices for consumer goods became unstable.C Farm production declined significantly.D The population in slums increased.The migration of thousands of African Americans to the North in the early 20th century can best be explained by —A the availability of cheap farmland in the NorthB the closing of factories in southern statesC decreased availability of government land for sharecropping in the SouthD greater job opportunities in northern cities
72 The migration of Americans to western territories following the Civil War led to — A the admission of new states to the nationB improved relations with Native AmericansC the abandonment of the U.S. policy of Manifest DestinyD fewer conservation measures by the federal government• Racial violence and discrimination• Mechanization of cotton production• Demand for labor in citiesThe box above lists some reasons for the twentieth-century Great Migration, which involved —A Dust Bowl farmers migrating from the Midwest to CaliforniaB African Americans migrating from the South to the NorthC Rust Belt workers migrating from the Northeast to TexasD Mexican Americans migrating from border states to the Northeast
73 TAKS Objective 2: (US10B)analyze the effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from immigration to the United StatesTAKS Information BookletObjective 2 —For Your InformationThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 2:10. how questions about geography can be answered by studying maps, graphs, and charts;11. how population movement patterns have caused an exchange and diffusion of ideas, material goods, and diseasesbetween the Old and New Worlds;12. how various technological innovations have affected the ways in which people interact with the physical environment.Demographic PatternsDemography is the study of population and the forces which affect change within the population. These includechanges in birth (fertility) and death (mortality) rates, and the redistribution of a population (migration). Certainpatterns are evident in the redistribution of population over time and space. Settlement occurred first in areas alongtransportation corridors including the coastline and interior waterways. Transportation routes funneled the populationinto the interior of the country. Throughout the history of the United States the population became increasinglyconcentrated in and around urban areas. The United States shifted from being a rural nation to an urban nation in 1920when the majority of the population no longer lived in the country. Demographic shifts rearrange patterns of thepopulation which change the human landscape. These include increased fertility, factors contributing to increasedmortality such as famine and disease, and political factors such as war. Cultural factors such as language and traditionalso influence how people move and where they settle. Thus several factors influence the patterns of populationdistribution.
74 Which of the following themes does the photograph above illustrate? A The United States closes its borders to immigrants.B Americans are resistant to Asian businesses.C Immigration leads to ethnic neighborhoods in U.S. cities.D The United States experiences a decline in Asian immigration.
75 Which of the following best completes the diagram below? A IntegrationB ProgressivismC ImperialismD Immigration
76 The act below assists individuals who leave their homeland as a result of — F severe discriminationG poor economic conditionsH few educational opportunitiesJ extreme weather conditionsDuring the mid-1800s Chinese immigrants to the United States were an important source of labor for which of the following industries?A Railroad constructionB Steel manufacturingC Oil productionD Ship construction
77 TAKS Objective 2: (US11A)identify the effects of population growth [and distribution and predict future effects] onthe physical environmentTAKS Information BookletObjective 2 —For Your InformationThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questionsrelated to Objective 2:13. how questions about geography can be answered by studying maps, graphs, and charts;14. how population movement patterns have caused an exchange and diffusion of ideas, material goods, and diseasesbetween the Old and New Worlds;15. how different regions of the world possess distinct physical and human characteristics and how16. these characteristics help shape world societies
78 Which of the following best completes the diagram above? A Population GrowthB U.S. Trade PoliciesC Supply-Side EconomicsD Immigration RestrictionsPopulation growth in coastal regions has contributed to the problems described above by —F creating a need for more highwaysG causing an increase in flooding and soil erosionH creating a demand for more clean waterJ producing increasing amounts of sewage and other waste products
79 As a result of the passage of the Homestead Act in 1862, the Great Plains — A became the most populated region of the United StatesB became the location of the country’s largest urban centersC preserved through conservation measuresD was developed into a major agricultural areaWhich of the following best completes the chart above?A Poor sanitary conditionsB Public education abolishedC Breakup of ethnic communitiesD Unemployment decreases
80 The federal lands shown above were set aside as a response to concerns about — F border conflictsG community developmentH environmental conservationJ property values
81 Other Geography TAKS Tested SE’s WG1A analyze the effects of physical and human geographic patterns and processes on events in the past [and describe their effects on present conditions, including significant physical features and environmentalconditions that influenced migration patterns in the past and shaped the distribution of culture groups today] (correlates with WH12BWG1B trace the spatial diffusion of a phenomenon and describe its effects on regions of contact such as the spread of bubonic plague, the diffusion and exchange of foods between the New and Old Worlds, [or the diffusion of American slang] (correlates with WH11B)WG6A [locate settlements and] observe patterns in the size and distribution of cities using maps, graphics, and other information (correlates with WH26C)WH23A give examples of [major mathematical and scientific discoveries and] technological innovations that occurred at different periods in history and describe the changes produced by these discoveries and innovations (correlates with WG19A and WG20A)WH23A give examples of [major mathematical and scientific discoveries and] technological innovations that occurred at different periods in history and describe the changes produced by these discoveries and innovations (correlates with WG19A and WG20A)
82 The invention of the light bulb contributed to industrial growth in the United States by making it possible for —A production to continue at nightB workers to light their homesC electric companies to raise their pricesD cities to reduce crime by lighting city streetsHow did the introduction of the assembly line affect the U.S. automobile industry in the early 20th century?A There was an increase in federal regulation of automobile production.B The United States began to import large numbers of cars.C There was a decrease in demand for unskilled labor.D The demand for cars increased as they became affordable for the average person.How did the invention of the elevator affect cities in the United States?A Assembly-line production could be increased.B Factories relocated to rural areas.C Taller buildings could be built.D New forms of mass transit were developed.
83 The map above shows that the placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba by the Soviet Union was unacceptable to U.S. leaders primarily because —F the presence of missiles in Cuba would make a U.S. invasion of the island impossibleG the physical location of Cuba made large areas of the United States vulnerable to attackH the physical location of the United States obligated it to protect Canada from attackJ the presence of missiles in Cuba would result in an arms race among Caribbean countriesWG1A
84 The table above lists exchanges between which areas? F Europe, Asia, and AfricaG Africa, Australia, and the AmericasH Europe, Africa, and the AmericasJ Australia, Antarctica, and AfricaWG1B
85 The map above shows the spread of which type of music through cultural diffusion? F OperaG BluegrassH ClassicalJ Jazz WG1B
86 Ten years ago the place where we gathered was an unpeopled, forbidding desert We arehere to celebrate the completion of the greatestdam in the world Beautiful and great as thisstructure is, it must also be considered in itsrelationship to the agricultural and industrialdevelopment and in its contribution to thehealth and comfort of the people who live inthe southwest.— Excerpt from Franklin D. Roosevelt’sDedication Day speech, 1935In the dedication of the Hoover Dam described above, President Roosevelt suggested that —F water would now be available for irrigationG missing soil nutrients would be replacedH trees lost in the clearing of farmland would be replantedJ contour plowing would prevent soil erosionW11a
87 4Which numbered area on the map made it more difficult to build theTranscontinental Railroad in the late 1860s?A 1B 2C 3D WG1A
88 • Travel time reduced• Western migration encouraged• Open range closed• Native Americans forced off their landWhich technological advance from the nineteenth century resulted in all the effects listed above?A Cotton ginB CanalsC RailroadsD Telephone WG23A
89 TAKS Objective 3: (US2B)analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the growth of labor unions, farm issues, and the rise of big businessTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questionsRelated to Objective 3:26. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction;27. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction….From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)Growth of Labor UnionsAs industrialization increased in the United States following the Civil War, the rights of laborers were undermined by the emphasis of employers to increase production and profits. Workers unionized to effect change. However, laborers were not united in the efforts because established workers rarely cooperated with immigrant or black workers who were willing to work for less. The majority of laborers, particularly the unskilled, did not join the early unions and their interests were not defended. In the late 1800s, two out of three working Americans depended on wages instead of self-employment. Laborers organized, forming unions to oppose unfair treatment but corporations continued to wield more power than labor. The first union was the National Labor Union (1866). By 1872, 32 national unions existed serving the special interests of bricklayers, typesetters, and shoemakers. In 1886 Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL) as an association of several national unions. Gompers sought better wages and hours and general improvement in the conditions under which laborers worked. He supported boycotts and walkouts and focused on the issues concerning skilled workers. He did not represent the interests of the unskilled, of women, or blacks. Between 1881 and 1900 there were 23,000 strikes involving 6,610,000 workers and employers lost $450 million. But this labor agitation still reflected the interests of only a small percentage of all laborers. Public support for labor increased during the period as people recognized the rights of laborers to organize, practice collective bargaining, and strike. In 1894, the federal government declared Labor Day as a legal holiday in tribute to laborers. This occurred the same year the federal government broke the strike of laborers for the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago
90 Industrialization during the late 1800s contributed to the development of organized labor because it —F created low-wage, low-skill jobs that made employees easy to replaceG allowed individuals to accumulate huge fortunesH reduced the demand for hourly wage earnersJ contributed to the growth of college business programsWhy were labor strikes in the late 19th century not as effective in industries that depended largely on unskilled workers?A Most unskilled workers were paid high wages.B Unskilled workers could be replaced more easily than skilled workers.C Unskilled workers were not allowed to join unions.D Many unskilled workers were deported for supporting unions.The labor movement grew rapidly during the late 1800s because of —F an increase in agricultural productionG a significant fall in stock pricesH an increase in wages for unskilled laborJ a significant growth in industry
91 • Unhealthy working conditions • Unequal distribution of wealth• Long working hours for little pay• Growing incidence of wage cutsThe conditions listed above best explain the growth of —A farmer alliancesB urban areasC national railroadsD labor unions
92 TAKS Objective 3: (US2C)analyze social issues such as the treatment of minorities, child labor, growth of cities, and problems of immigrantsTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questionsrelated to Objective 3:28. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction;29. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction; andChild LaborChildren were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. They worked with their families on farms and in small businesses starting at a young age. Children also worked in mills and factories from the start of industrialization in the late 1700s. In 1789 at the first spinning mill built in America in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, nine children between the ages of 7 to 12 composed the work force. The number increased to over 100 by Though several bills were introduced throughout the 19th century to reduce the employment of children or at least improve the conditions under which they labored, business opposition remained strong because children often performed the same work as men but earned less. In many families the mother and children in addition to the father worked aslaborers to earn enough to survive. In 1880 at least one-fifth of the children in the United States between 10 and 14 years of age held jobs. Many were immigrants. In the 1890s and early 1900s many states passed anti-child labor bills. In 1916 the Keatings-Owen Child Labor Bill prohibited the interstate commerce of items produced using child labor. This marked the first time the federal government used the economic leverage of interstate commerce to prompt change. The bill was later declared unconstitutional but it paved the way for future legislation.
93 The illustration above demonstrates one problem associated with —F overcrowding in urban tenementsG the growth of political machinesH the overproduction of consumer goodsJ labor union activism in urban areas
94 Which of these terms best completes the diagram? A ReconstructionB ImmigrationC PopulismD Women’s suffrage
95 During the late 19th century, factory owners often hired child workers because children — F required little supervisionG could be paid low wagesH were able to work after schoolJ had received job training at schoolIn the early 20th century, the increase in ethnic diversity in the United States because of immigration from southern and eastern Europe contributed to —A increased social tensionB a decrease in urban populationsC increased religious toleranceD an extended economic decline
96 In the late 1800s many Americans resented the arrival of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe primarily because the immigrants —A lived in the most desirable sections of citiesB refused to accept new political beliefsC accepted less pay than most workersD joined unions to improve work conditions
97 TAKS Objective 3: (US4B)evaluate the impact of reform leaders such as Susan B. Anthony, W.E.B. DuBois, [and Robert LaFollette] on American societyTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:30. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century.Susan B. Anthony ( )Susan B. Anthony was a leading force in the women's suffrage movement for 50 years. Born in Massachusetts to a Quaker family, she taught school and became convinced that society needed to be reformed and freed from slavery and alcoholism. She was president of the Canojoharie Daughters of Temperance in the 1840s. She met Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1851 at an antislavery rally. They organized the Women's State Temperance Society of New York. Not until 1853 did Anthony support the cause of women's suffrage and equal rights, but she remained committed to the cause for the remainder of her life, contributing significantly to the effort to attain equal rights for women.
98 William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868-1963) W. E. B. Du Bois was a leading African-American intellectual. Born in Massachusetts, Du Bois entered FiskUniversity in 1885, his first involvement with other African-Americans his own age and his first exposure tosouthern racism. He entered Harvard in 1888, and became the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. Hisdissertation, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States, was published by Harvard in It was the first in a long career of scholarship and writing. He believed in the ability of the Talented Tenth, the intellectual black elites, to advance the cause for all blacks. From 1897 to 1910 he headed the economic and history programs at Atlanta University. In 1903 he published The Souls of Black Folk, his best-known work, and was already challenging the ideas of Booker T. Washington. In contrast to Du Bois' radical ideas calling for immediate extension of rights to blacks so they could vote, take advantage of education, and use public facilities, Washington's conservative approach was called accommodationism. Washington supported industrial education and improved personal habits as a way to earn political and social equality. Washington remained the most influential black spokesman until his death in Du Bois was active in the formation of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He served as director of publicity and research and edited The Crisis until 1934 when he broke with the organization. He increasingly favored black separatism. From 1934 to 1944 he pursued teaching at Atlanta University and writing. In 1961 he joined the Communist Party and moved to Ghana where he died at age 95.
99 W.E.B. Du Bois was one of the founders of the NAACP, an organization dedicated to — A preserving racial segregation in the United StatesB achieving racial equality for African AmericansC promoting landownership as the key to economic equalityD using force to gain equal rightsThe efforts of Susan B. Anthony and other leaders of the women’s suffrage movement led to women —A gaining the right to voteB earning the same wages as menC gaining the right to attend state universitiesD becoming property owners in some stateSusan B. Anthony worked for a constitutional amendment that would —A end slaveryB give women the right to voteC protect the rights of African AmericansD allow women to serve in the military
100 It is a downright mockery to talk to women of their enjoyment of the blessings of liberty while they are denied the use of the only means of securing them provided by this democraticrepublican government— Susan B. Anthony, 1872According to the excerpt above, Susan B. Anthony believed the only way for women to acquire the “blessings of liberty” was by —F voting in electionsG working in factoriesH becoming missionariesJ studying economicsBy setting aside millions of acres of land under public domain during the early 1900s, Theodore Roosevelt promoted which of the following concepts?A Political reformB ConservationismC Collective bargainingD Agribusiness
101 TAKS Objective 3: (US7B)identify significant leaders of the civil rights movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr.TAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questionsrelated to Objective 3:31. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, andeconomic life in the United States during the 20th century.From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ( )A noted leader, Martin Luther King was one of several African-Americans concerned with reforming Americansociety and gaining equal rights by using civil disobedience or non-violent action. He earned his Ph.D. from theSchool of Theology at Boston University. He was called to minister at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Despite opposition from his father who urged him to return to Atlanta, King moved toMontgomery in 1955, settling in just before Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger. King assisted in coordinating the bus boycott which gained national and international attention. He gained visibility as a black leader, and experience in organization and leadership as a result. In 1957 he was instrumental in organizing the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a consortium of churches and civic groups which supported activities to parallel those of the NAACP. The SCLC supported sit-ins, boycotts, and protest marches in Birmingham, Alabama beginning in In August, during the March on Washington in support of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, King set aside his prepared speech and rallied the 250,000 in attendance with "I have a dream today!“ He was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee
102 there comes a time when people get tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression I want it to be known that we’re going to work with grim and bold determination to gain justice on the buses in this city. And we are not wrong— Martin Luther King, Jr., 1955Martin Luther King, Jr., gained prominence in the Civil Rights movement by leading the struggle against —F limited city bus routes for African American ridersG higher fees charged to African American bus ridersH restrictions on the hiring of minority bus driversJ segregated seating on busesThe actions of which of the following individuals led to a boycott of public transportation that lasted over a year, until segregated buses were declared unconstitutional?A Elizabeth EckfordB James FarmerC Rosa ParksD Medgar Evers
103 Which of the following completes the diagram? A Representatives of the American Indian movementB Founders of the American Civil Liberties UnionC Leaders of the Civil Rights movementD Leaders of the U.S. labor movement
104 Which of the following best completes the diagram below? A Favored extensive limits on free speechB Supported stricter immigration lawsC Used nonviolent protest strategiesD Effected little social change
105 The Civil Rights movement’s strategy of nonviolent resistance was most widely advocated throughout the 1960s by —F Stokely Carmichael’s Black Power movementG Malcolm X’s Organization of Afro- American UnityH Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceJ Huey P. Newton’s Black Panther PartyWhy was Martin Luther King, Jr., chosen as Time magazine’s 1963 “Man of the Year”?F He supported the unionization of farmworkers.G He had become the symbol of the Civil Rights movement.H He traveled to India to talk to the followers of Mohandas Gandhi.J He became the first African American Supreme Court justice.
106 TAKS Objective 3: (US13A)analyze causes of economic growth and prosperity in the 1920sTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:32. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century; and33. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction
107 The automobile industry helped stimulate the U. S The automobile industry helped stimulate the U.S. economy in the 1920s because it —A increased demand for products such as steel, rubber, and gasolineB started the Industrial Revolution in the United StatesC ended U.S. dependence on foreign-made carsD increased employment opportunities for female engineersDuring the 1920s, the growth of which of the following industries had the greatest effect on the expansion of the steel, rubber, and petroleum industries?A AirplaneB Farm productsC AutomobileD Sewing machine
108 Which of the following best completes the diagram above? F Causes of U.S. participation in World War IG Results of the completion of the Panama CanalH Causes of the economic boom of the 1920sJ Effects of early-20th-century political reforms
109 TAKS Objective 3: (US13B)analyze the causes of the Great Depression, including the decline in worldwide trade, the stock market crash, and bank failuresTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:34. how to read maps, graphs, and other demographic data to compare and contrast or determine the level of development or standard of living of different groups of people;35. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century.From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)Great DepressionIn the United States, a period of severe economic hardship called the Great Depression began in 1929 and continued until World War II. The Stock Market Crash of October 1929 contributed to the start of the depression but many other factors affected economics in the 1930s. Wealth was not distributed equally among the population. Too many people had too little money and they could not keep enough money in circulation to keep the economy running. High tariffs limited foreign trade and investment and prevented European countries from repaying the debts they owed the United States following World War I. Banks were not secure and the money in them was not insured if banks failed. Americans bought too much on credit and the demand could not keep up with the supply of goods in an era of overproduction. The depression extended beyond the boundaries of the United States, affecting European countriesand others which relied on trade with the United States.
110 Which of the following historical periods belongs in the center box? A The Progressive EraB World War IC The Great DepressionD The Cold War
111 Which of the following best completes the diagram as a cause of the Great Depression? F Decreased income-tax rateG Decline of agricultural pricesH Increased savings by consumersJ Expansion of foreign markets
112 One reason people overextended their use of credit in the stock market during the late 1920s was that they believed —A debts would not have to be repaid for many yearsB federal government would assume their debtsC they would make quick profits and be able to repay their debtsD overspending would bolster the weak economyWhich of the following was a cause of the Great Depression?F Consumers were buying crops grown in other countries.G The industrial sector was not producing enough goods.H Natural resources were becoming less available.J The stock market was not sufficiently regulated.
113 Which of the following was an underlying cause of the Great Depression? F Increased government regulation of the stock marketG Low tariffs to increase international tradeH Overproduction of consumer goodsJ Economically strong farm sectorWhich of the following events helped trigger the start of the Great Depression?F Palmer RaidsG Bonus Army marchH World War IJ Stock market crash
114 TAKS Objective 3: (US13C)analyze the effects of the Great Depression on the U.S. economy and governmentTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:36. how to read maps, graphs, and other demographic data to compare and contrast or determine the level of development or standard of living of different groups of people;37. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century;38. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction
115 President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal was a program designed to — A prevent the onset of the Great DepressionB control big businessC combat the effects of the Great DepressionD restore the gold standardThe primary purpose for the creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was to —A oversee a system of pensions for the elderlyB stabilize financial institutions of the United StatesC establish relief agencies for the needyD pay subsidies to American farmers
116 Which of the following best completes the diagram? A Great Society programsB New Deal programsC World War I treaty articlesD Roosevelt Corollary
117 TAKS Objective 3: (US13E)analyze how various New Deal agencies and programs such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, [the Securities and Exchange Commission,] and Social Security to affect the lives of U.S. citizensTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:39. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century;40. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction
118 Which New Deal agency continues to protect against the loss of savings in personal accounts? F Works Progress AdministrationG Tennessee Valley AuthorityH Social Security AdministrationJ Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationWhich New Deal agency established a pension program that contributes to the income of retired workers?A Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationB Social Security AdministrationC Securities and Exchange CommissionD Agricultural Adjustment Administration
119 TAKS Objective 3: (US14A)describe the economic effects of World War II on the home front, including rationing, female employment, and the end of the Great DepressionTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:41. how to read maps, graphs, and other demographic data to compare and contrast or determine the level of development or standard of living of different groups of people;42. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century;43. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction;44. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century.
120 This photograph shows a female factory worker during World War II This photograph shows a female factory worker during World War II. It demonstrates that during the war, many women —A were not recognized for contributing to the war effortB were leaders in the labor movementC achieved economic equality in the workplaceD were employed in nontraditional occupations
121 This World War II poster shows that — A the government tried to recruit women to fight in the warB the government sought women to fill jobs left vacant by menC women refused to volunteer to help in the war effortD female military officers commanded both male and female troops
122 U.S. citizens at home were directly affected during World War II by the — A government rationing of essential goodsB rise in the unemployment rateC worsening of the economic depressionD government ending the military draft
123 What was responsible for the economic conditions shown in the diagram? A Cold WarB New DealC World War IID Great Society
124 The photograph above demonstrates that during World War II, women —A expressed opposition to involvement inthe conflictB risked their lives by serving in combatrolesC performed duties that historically hadbeen assigned to menD trained men to conduct air raids on theenemy
125 TAKS Objective 3: (US14E)describe the dynamic relationship between U.S. international trade policies and the U.S. free enterprise systemTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questionsrelated to Objective 3:45. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century;46. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction.From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED)U.S. Free Enterprise SystemThe U.S. free enterprise system is an economic system in which individuals depend on supply and demand and the profit margin to determine the answers to the four basic economic questions of "what to produce," "how to produce,“ "how many to produce," and "for whom to produce." Profit is an improved situation, usually measured in dollars. The quest for improvement financially and materially motivates producers and consumers in the free enterprise system. Government regulation is kept to a minimum. Competition between companies makes it more difficult to answer the questions of what and how much to produce and for whom, but it also makes it harder for one company to monopolize the market.
126 The purpose of the Open Door policy proposed by the United States in 1899 was to — A protect U.S. interests by establishing equal trading rights in ChinaB establish a trade embargo against Japan until the Japanese withdrew from KoreaC form a military alliance with countries opposed to Russian expansionD encourage Asian nations to form an economic coalitionThe Open Door policy was implemented as a result of attempts by foreign nations to restrict trade with —F JapanG IndiaH KoreaJ China
127 Which event most contributed to the large number of trucks coming into the United States, as shown in the map above?F The establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)G The implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)H The implementation of the Kyoto ProtocolJ The signing of the World Trade Agreement
128 Which of the following most likely resulted in economic cooperation between nations on a global level?A Fordney-McCumber TariffB Smoot-Hawley TariffC General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeD North American Free Trade Agreement
129 TAKS Objective 3: (US21A)explain actions taken by people from racial, ethnic, and religious groups to expand economic opportunities and political rights in American societyTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:47. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century
130 In the 1960s César Chávez organized the United Farm Workers to — A assist farm workers in securing loans to buy homesB demand disaster relief for farmers in the MidwestC guarantee government subsidies for U.S. fruit growersD improve working conditions for migrant farm laborersThe actions of César Chávez in the 1960s led to improved working conditions for —A disabled citizensB steel industry workersC migrant farmworkersD civil servants
131 • Lunch-counter sit-ins • Montgomery bus boycott• March on Washington• Freedom SummerThe events listed above occurred as part of the —A women’s rights movementB Progressive movementC antiwar movementD Civil Rights movement
132 In the photo above, Freedom Marchers in Mississippi demonstrate in order to expand — A the political right to voteB religious freedomC the legal status of immigrantsD the opportunity to earn a minimum wage
133 All of these were examples of demonstrations that occurred to — A end the Vietnam WarB focus on environmental issuesC obtain equal rights for African AmericansD lower the voting age
134 • 500,000 Hispanics served in the armed forces during World War II. • The Naval Air Station at Corpus Christi refused to treat sick Hispanic veterans.• Dr. Hector P. García founded the American GI Forum in 1948.Dr. Hector P. García founded the American GI Forum to ensure that Hispanic veterans received —A the same honorary rank as other veterans who servedB lifetime employment in the militaryC job placement in medical professionsD the same benefits provided to other veterans
135 TAKS Objective 3: (US21D)TAKS Objective 3: (US21D) identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American societyTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:48. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century.
136 Which of these made it possible for women to become full participants in American political life? A Appointment of women to the U.S. Supreme CourtB Passage of the 19th Amendment granting women voting rightsC Creation of the National Organization for Women (NOW)D Equal pay for female factory workers
137 Which of the following issues was the most likely reason for the creation of the National Woman’s Party, shown in the photograph below?F Promoting conservation legislationG Ending gender discrimination in votingH Promoting the growth of big businessJ Ending immigration restrictions
138 TAKS Objective 3: (US22A)explain the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as electric power, the telegraph and telephone, petroleum-based products, medical vaccinations, and computers on the development of the United StatesTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:49. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction….
139 The invention of the telegraph aided the economic development of the United States by — A protecting the growth of the Pony ExpressB reducing the cost of electric powerC increasing the speed of communication between peopleD eliminating the need for railroad transportationSome recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future.— Albert Einstein, letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, August 2, 1939The development referred to in Einstein’s letter led directly to —F a government program to develop the atomic bombG the first funding of scientific research by the federal governmentH the delivery of inexpensive electricity to U.S. consumersJ the creation of a new cabinet department
140 The development of both the telegraph and telephone contributed to the economic expansion of the United States by increasing the —A willingness of communications companies to share technologyB price and durability of communications equipmentC scale and speed of nationwide communicationsD importation of foreign communications productsWhich technological innovation most directly enabled the construction of skyscrapers throughout U.S. cities in the late nineteenth century?A Whitney’s interchangeable partsB Fulton’s steam engineC Taylor’s scientific managementD Bessemer’s steel processThe invention of the electric elevator contributed to the growth of cities in theUnited States by —F reducing the need for large industrial complexesG making the construction of taller buildings practicalH leading to federal regulation of all urban constructionJ eliminating the need to build tenement housing
141 TAKS Objective 3: (US22C)TAKS Objective 3: (US22C) analyze the impact of technological innovations on the nature of work, the American labor movement, and businessesTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:50. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction….
142 The author of the excerpt describes a condition that resulted from industrialization and criticizes the —A wealthy for taking advantage of workersB workers for not joining trade unionsC workers for not supporting managementD government for protecting workersWhich of the following is a primary result of twentieth-century technological innovations such as computers and robots?F Fewer assembly-line jobs for workersG More people working in agricultureH Fewer people living in suburbsJ More safety hazards for factory workers
143 TAKS Objective 3: (US23A)analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations, including those in transportation and communication, have changed the standard of living in the United StatesTAKS Information BookletThe following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3:51. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction…The expansion of America’s railroad networkin the late 1800s changed the standard ofliving by —A creating employment opportunities forwomen and childrenB establishing an example for ethicalbusiness practicesC increasing the availability and variety ofconsumer goodsD discouraging economic competition withforeign countries
144 Which of the following is an accurate statement about the impact of the automobile on American life? A The automobile has improved air quality because fossil fuels are clean-burning.B The automobile has led to the growth of suburbs because cars allow people to commute to work.C The automobile has reduced personal freedom because people must obtain licenses to drive.D The automobile has helped U.S. businesses grow because people are reluctant to buy foreign cars• Rapid growth of suburbs• Passage of the U.S. Interstate Highway Act• Popularity of drive-in theatersWhich of the following is the best title for the list above?F Effects of the Baby Boom During the 1940sG Impact of the Automobile During the 1950sH Growth of the Service Industry During the 1960sJ Results of Gasoline Shortages During the 1970s
145 The expansion of America’s railroad network in the late 1800s changed the standard of living by — A creating employment opportunities for women and childrenB establishing an example for ethical business practicesC increasing the availability and variety of consumer goodsD discouraging economic competition with foreign countries
146 TAKS Objective 3: (WG5B)analyze political, economic, social, and demographic data to determine the level of development and standard of living in nations (correlates with WH14C)Level of DevelopmentCountries with high levels of urbanization and industrialization that enjoy high material standards of living are referred to as developed countries. Countries with lower levels of progress and prosperity are considered less developed or underdeveloped countries. Countries showing evidence of economic, social, and political progress are termed developing countries. Some measures of development include: national product per person, e.g., the sum total of all the goods and services produced in a nation in one year divided by the total population; occupational structure of the workforce, e.g., percentage of the labor force employed in manufacturing (developed) vs. agriculture (less developed); consumption of energy per person; transportation and communication facilities per person, e.g., the per capita index of telephones, railroads, roads, radios; standard of living, e.g., literacy rates, caloric intake per person, infant mortality, life expectancy.Standard of LivingStandard of living is a function of the level of development in a country, measured by factors such as the amount of personal income, levels of education, food consumption, life expectancy, availability of health care, ways natural resources are used, level of technology, and others.
147 The best title for the diagram above is — A Characteristics of Developing NationsB Characteristics of Industrialized NationsC Characteristics of a Free-Enterprise SystemD Characteristics of a Command Economic System
148 Ethnic conflict in Yugoslavia led to its breakup into five republics Ethnic conflict in Yugoslavia led to its breakup into five republics. According to the information in the table, which of the five republics has the highest level of economic development?A Bosnia and HerzegovinaB CroatiaC Serbia and MontenegroD Slovenia
149 TAKS Objective 3: (WG10C)compare the ways people satisfy their basic needs through the production of goods and services such as subsistence agriculture versus market-oriented agriculture or cottage industries versus commercial industries (correlates with WH14C)Subsistence AgricultureSubsistence agriculture is the kind of agriculture practiced most widely around the world, especially in the less developed economies of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. Foods and other goods and services are produced by a family for its own consumption. Subsistence agriculture is usually very small-scale and uses a low level of technology. It often requires a very intensive use of small plots of land to support a dense population. What a family raises is what it has available to eat. Because there is little surplus, there is very little trade.Market-Oriented AgricultureAgriculture in a market economy responds to the forces of the market and involves off-farm sales of goods. Farmers in a market economy (free enterprise system) produce crops and other foodstuffs based on what the market demands. The price of agricultural products depends upon supply and demand. Farmers specialize in producing the goods that they can raise most profitably. This type of agriculture is most common in the developed economies of the world. However, in less developed regions of the world, market-oriented agriculture in the form of plantation agriculture was established to supply the developed world with raw materials such as sugar, rubber, cacao, coffee, and bananas.Patterns of agricultural production have changed over time in response to improvements in transportation technology. A model used to explain the location of different types of agriculture in a market economy is von Thunen's spatial model of farming. The value of land is highest closest to urban areas and declines as one moves away from the city. The most intensive forms of agriculture, which generate the most profit on the smallest plots of land, are located closer to urban areas. Less intensive agricultural activities, which require large amounts of land tobe profitable, take place farther away from cities. In areas adjacent to urban centers, intensive agriculture such as dairying and market gardening are common; in areas farthest from urban areas, extensive agriculture activities such as ranching and large-scale grain farming are profitable in a market economy.Cottage IndustryIn a subsistence economic system, small-scale production of goods for sale in markets is termed cottage industry. It usually involves producing a good by hand or with low technology at home or in a small village cooperative.Commercial IndustryThe production of manufactured goods in a market economic system is termed commercial industry. There are four major industrial regions in the world today: western and central Europe, eastern North America, Russia-Ukraine, and East Asia. All are linked and competing for commercial dominance in a world-wide economic system.
150 Compared to a market-oriented economy, a subsistence-based economy has a higher percentage of agricultural output that is —A sold for profitB produced for personal useC collected for payment of taxesD distributed to the poor by the governmentSmall tracts of landFamily-based workforceCrops mainly grown for personal consumptionWhat type of economy is described by the information above?F Subsistence agricultureG Cottage industryH Commercial agricultureJ Command economyWhich of the following is the most likely motive for market-oriented agriculture?A Organic farmingB Recreational farmingC Subsistence farmingD Farming for profit
151 TAKS Objective 4 (8th Grade) 8.3A :explain the reasons for the growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period8.16A identify the influence of ideas from historic documents including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, [the Mayflower Compact,] the Declaration of Independence, the Federalist Papers, [and selectedanti-federalist writings] on the U.S. system of government8.16D analyze how the U.S. Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights8.17B describe the impact of 19th-century amendments including the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments on life in the United States8.18B describe historical conflicts arising over the issue of states' rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War8.20A define and give examples of unalienable rights8.20B summarize rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights8.22B describe the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society
152 Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall willfully utter [speak], print,write, or publish any disloyal orabusive language about the form ofgovernment of the United States shallbe punished by a fine of not more than$10,000 or imprisonment for not morethan twenty years, or both— from the 1918 amendment tothe Espionage Act of 1917Which civil liberty was most seriously threatened by the act shown in this box?F Right to an attorneyG Freedom of religionH Freedom of speechI Trail by jury
153 TAKS Objective 4: (US4A)evaluate the impact of Progressive Era reforms including [initiative, referendum, recall, and] the passage of the 16th and 17th amendmentsProgressive EraProgressivism was a political movement of the early 1900s, first called progressive by President Woodrow Wilson in1911. Progressivism was not a united movement. Instead it occurred over a period of time from the late 1890s to theGreat Depression. It began in local and city politics and spread to influence state and national politics duringWilson's administration. Features of the era in which the progressive movement occurred included a decrease invoter participation and an increase in special interest groups striving to reform society, the economy, and politics.The movement coincided with the rise of big business and increased interest in scientific engineering andorganization. Progressives were generally more interested in a predictable society than in individual or localinitiative. Reform was concentrated in urban areas and in industry because that was where the majority of thecorporations and those versed in social engineering were located. Reform efforts of the era did foster change. Forinstance, following the Galveston Hurricane in 1900, people were hired to rebuild the city based on their knowledgeof city planning, not because of political connections. Drug inspection and labeling began, child labor laws andminimum wage measures were considered, and women's rights gained attention. However, efforts to make societymore efficient and regulated also led to increased segregation and discrimination. In the early 1900s a series ofpolitical reforms was enacted to improve the efficiency and response of city and state government. These includedinitiative and referendum which served to give voters a greater role in the lawmaking process and recall whichincreased a voter's ability to eject an elected official from office.16th and 17th AmendmentsThe 16th Amendment (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income. The 17th Amendment (1913) guaranteed thedirect election of senators by the voters. In the case of a vacancy in a Senate seat, the amendment authorized a specialelection to fill the vacancy.
154 Objective 4: (US4A)evaluate the impact of Progressive Era reforms including [initiative, referendum, recall, and] the passage of the 16th and 17th amendments
155 Which group benefited most from the reforms shown in this diagram? F Political partiesG Industrial laborersH Religious institutionsI Big BusinessThe 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution provided for U.S. senators to be elected directly by the people. This amendment is significant because it —F allowed for the election of more experienced senatorsG gave citizens more control of the governmentH discouraged people from voting in state and local electionsJ lessened the importance of political parties
156 What was the immediate effect of the Progressive reforms listed in the box? A Shareholders began to elect corporate officers.B Big business came under greater government control.C Citizens had a larger role in selecting their elected representatives.D Political bosses in large cities gained greater control over local governmentsRatification of the 17th Amendment gave the people a greater voice in government by providing for —F direct election of U.S. senatorsG federal funding of local and state governmentsH equal voting rights for African AmericansJ equal representation in the Senate and House
157 If you were a sociable person, he [the government inspector] was quite willing to enter into conversation with you, and to explain to you the deadly nature of the ptomaines which are found in tubercular pork; and while he was talking with you you could hardly be so ungrateful as to notice that a dozen carcasses were passing him untouched.— Upton Sinclair, 1906After reading the book excerpted above, President Theodore Roosevelt asked the U.S. Congress to —F halt production at meatpacking plantsG pass a law calling for closer regulation of food qualityH fund research to find a cure for tuberculosisJ pass a law to limit work hours in meatpacking plants
158 TAKS Objective 4: (US7A)trace the historical development of the civil rights movement in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, including the 13th, 14th, 15th amendmentsCivil Rights MovementCivil rights are legal and political rights enjoyed by the inhabitants of a country, especially the rights guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The struggle for equal rights was never easy. For nearly 100 years, from the ratification of the 15th Amendment to the adoption of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, African Americans and women sought equality before the law and protection of their rights by the Constitution. Some states passed measures which extended equality to blacks and women, but most did not. Beginning in the 1940s, nonviolent tactics were adopted in an effort to unify protest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made racial, religious, and sex discrimination in public places by employers illegal. It also gave the federal government power to enforce all lawsgoverning civil rights. The March on Washington was an early and important step for the black community in gathering national attention to its plight. Black activists, often affiliated with church groups, continued to offer passive resistance to the unjust civil laws. This form of protest is called civil disobedience. The effort of women to secure equal rights was also frustrating. In the early 1970s, the Equal Rights Amendment was accepted by Congress after more than 130 years of effort on the part of women. However, after ten years, two-thirds of the state legislatures had not ratified the measure and it died in 1982.
159 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States—14th Amendment to the U.S. ConstitutionThe 14th Amendment was important to the Civil Rights movement because it provided constitutional justification for —A passage of hate-crimes legislationB the end of racial segregationC legal recognition of the NAACPD the creation of affirmative-action programsThe Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin. The act also established —A legal consequences for discriminationB exceptions for job-related discriminationC an official definition of housing discriminationD criminal penalties for those practicing affirmative action
160 The U.S. Civil Rights movement had its roots in the late 18th and early 19th centuries with the work of —A carpetbaggersB the Know-NothingsC abolitionistsD the PopulistsThe information in the box describes William Lloyd Garrison, who became a leading advocate for abolishing —A child laborB monopoliesC slavery Correct AnswerD direct taxes
161 TAKS Objective 4: (US7C)evaluate government efforts, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to achieve equality in the United StatesCivil Rights Act of 1964The Civil Rights Act of 1964, signed by President Lyndon Baines Johnson, made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal. It also gave the federal government the power to enforce all laws governing civilrights including the desegregation of schools and public places.
162 1896The U.S. Supreme Courtestablishes theseparate-but-equal doctrinein Plessy v. Ferguson.1964supports the Civil Rights Actof 1964 inHeart of Atlanta Motel v.United StatesThis change happened because of efforts to —F end racial discrimination in public placesG keep citizens who fail a reading and writing test from votingH improve voter participation in large citiesI segregate people of different races
163 As a result of the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, segregation was outlawed in — A public facilitiesB the armed forcesC religious institutionsD private universitiesIn 1963 the Birmingham, Alabama, police shocked the nation byusing fire hoses and attack dogs in their response to civil rightsprotestors. Shortly after the violence in Birmingham, President John F.Kennedy declared it was time to —A increase the government’s commitment to civil rightsB enforce voting restrictions that discriminate based on raceC decrease the government’s involvement in states’ rights issuesD limit access to the media by civil rights protestors
164 • Outlawed discrimination in hotels, motels, restaurants, theaters, and all other public accommodations engaged in interstate commerce• Prohibited discrimination by government agencies that receive federal funding • Prohibited discrimination in hiring on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin• Established the Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionWhich of the following is described by the list above?A The Voting Rights Act of 1965B Brown v. Board of EducationC The Civil Rights Act of 1964D Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
165 It ought to be possible for American consumers of any color to receive equal service in places of public accommodation, such as hotelsand restaurants and theaters and retail stores, without being forced to resort to demonstrations in the street— President John F. Kennedy, Address to the NationWhich of the following legislative acts addressed the issue referred to in this statement by President Kennedy?F Economic Opportunity Act of 1964G Equal Access ActH Equal Pay ActJ Civil Rights Act of 1964
166 TAKS Objective 4: (US17A)analyze the effects of 20th-century landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education,[ Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, Reynolds v. Sims].Brown v. Board of EducationReferencing the 14th Amendment's equal protection clause, the Supreme Court, in 1954, outlawed racial segregation in public schools in this landmark case. It reversed the 1896 decision, Plessy v. Ferguson, which held that states could segregate public facilities as long as all facilities were equal. In winning Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas), Thurgood Marshall and other NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) lawyers proved that separate schools were not equal and never would be because the segregation implied inequality.Regents of the University of California v. BakkeIn 1978, in a two-part decision, the Supreme Court ruled first that Allan Bakke was a victim of reversediscrimination. Bakke, a white applicant, was twice denied admission into the University of California-Davis (UC-D)medical school even though his test scores were higher than the average of minority students who were admitted tocomply with a UC-D special admissions program. But the Supreme Court also upheld the right of a school to adoptan admission program which included race or ethnic background as an element. Thus, the court did not overturn"affirmative action," preferring to take discrimination questions on a case-by-case basis.Reynolds v. SimsIn the early 1960s President John F. Kennedy sought to balance the representation of rural and urban areas in the U.S.House of Representatives by gaining judicial support to reorganize voting districts. Some districts with a few thousandresidents had representation equal to cities with hundreds of thousands of residents. Attorney General Robert Kennedy was influential in bringing two cases before the Supreme Court, Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964). In landmark decisions, the Supreme Court ruled that the national House of Representatives and all state and local legislative bodies had to be apportioned on a "one-man to one-vote" principle, further supporting equal representation in American government.
167 Which of the following was the immediate result of the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)?A The all-white primary was declared unconstitutional.B States were permitted to adopt Jim Crow laws.C Poll taxes were upheld as a legitimate restriction on voting.D Public schools were ordered to desegregate.Which of the following court cases is directly related to the scenario described above?A Gideon v. Wainwright: The accused has the right to an attorney in state felonycases.B Escobedo v. Illinois: The accused has the right to an attorney during policeinterrogation.C Reynolds v. Sims: Congressional districts should be equal in population.D Mapp v. Ohio: Evidence seized illegally cannot be used in a court of law.
168 Words can be weapons The question in every case is whether the words are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congresshas a right to prevent.— U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Schenck v. U.S., 1919Based on the excerpt above from Holmes’s opinion of the Court, it can be concluded that the —A federal government can place limitations on basic individual rightsB legislative branch has final authority concerning issues of civil rightsC protection of individual rights is the responsibility of state governmentsD Supreme Court does not have the authority to interpret the U.S. Constitution
169 Which headline reports the result of the U. S Which headline reports the result of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education?
170 TAKS Objective 4: (US18B)evaluate various means of achieving equality of political rights, including the 19th, 24th, and 26th amendmentsAmendment 19, 24 and 26The first step in the process to create equal rights for women was to seek suffrage, or the right to vote. In the 1840s women spoke in public meetings calling for equal rights for women. Suffrage was extended to women in the Wyoming territory in 1869, and when it became a state in 1890 it was the first which allowed women the vote. Three other states which joined the United States in the 1890s likewise granted suffrage to women. These were Colorado, Idaho, and Utah. Yet, the 19th Amendment which extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections was not ratified until The 24th Amendment, ratified in 1964, eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections. The 26th Amendment, ratified in 1971, lowered the official voting age to 18, thereby allowing a greater percentage of U.S. citizens to participate in the process of government.
171 The movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s to lower the voting age to 18 was prompted by the — A National Defense Education ActB election of John F. Kennedy as presidentC debate over the Vietnam WarD successes of the Persian Gulf WarWhich of the following events prompted the ratification of the 26th Amendment, which gave 18-year-olds the right to vote?A The Watergate scandalB The election of Richard M. NixonC The energy crisisD The Vietnam WarWhich of the following conflicts resolved the issue of slavery and ended states’ efforts to declare a law of Congress null and void?A The Revolutionary WarB The War of 1812C The Mexican WarD The Civil War
172 By ratifying the 24th Amendment, which eliminated the poll tax, the federal government acted to — A force state officials to revise their income tax schedulesB provide a more equal opportunity for citizens to voteC encourage members of the armed services to voteD remove all racial barriers to employment opportunitiesThe 24th Amendment to the Constitution said that no state can keep a person from voting because the person failed to pay a poll tax. Before the 24th Amendment was passed, what was the poll tax used for in the South?F To increase the number of citizens votingG To limit the rights of statesH To discourage minority citizens from votingI to raise money for public education
173 TAKS Objective 5:US24A [locate and] use primary and secondary sources [such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts] to acquire information about the United StatesUS24B analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations [and predictions],and drawing inferences and conclusionsH.24 C explain and apply different methods that historians use to interpret the past, including the use of primary and secondary sources, points of view, frames of reference, and historical contextUS24 F identify bias in written, [oral,] and visual material (G.8 B compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment using [local,] state, national, and international human activities in a variety of cultural and technological contextsWG21C [construct and] interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and analyze geographic change
174 [We must protect] not free thought for those who agree with us, but freedom for the thought that we hate.— Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., 1929In this excerpt, Justice Holmes suggests that allowing free speech in a democratic society includes —F developing new ideasG endorsing popular viewpointsH tolerating unpopular viewsJ silencing vocal dissentersEvery piece of work in the shops moves; it may move on hooks on overhead chains it may travel on a moving platform or it may go by gravity, but the point is that there is no lifting or trucking of anything other than materials.— Henry Ford, 1924What revolutionary manufacturing method is Henry Ford describing in this excerpt?A Assembly lineB Micro-managementC Quality assuranceD Cottage industry
175 According to the graph, during which of the following 10 year periods did the greatest changein agricultural labor take place?A 1860–1870B 1880–1890C 1920–1930D 1940–1950
176 Both of these photographs were taken in the South in the mid-1900s Both of these photographs were taken in the South in the mid-1900s. What conclusion can be drawn by comparing them?A Because of differences in the facilities, white students most likely received a better education than African Americans.B Despite differences in the facilities, African American students most likely received a better education than white students.C Southern state governments provided equal funding for both African American and white students.D Segregation of southern schools had no impact on the quality of education.
177 Which of the following would be the best example of what President Kennedy asked Americans to do in the excerpt above?A Conserve energyB Support his reelectionC Perform civil serviceD Oppose Supreme Court rulingsWhich of the following would be a primary source for a historian writing an account of the Battle of Wounded Knee?A A biography of a battle participantB A diary of a cavalry officer who participated in the battleC A history book on the Indian WarsD An interview with a descendant of Sitting Bull
178 In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.— President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address, 1961The warning in President Eisenhower’s speech is about the —A growing aerospace industryB high level of defense spendingC number of retired military leaders in CongressD collaboration between arms producers and the governmentAll free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words“Ich bin ein Berliner [I am a Berliner].”— President John F. Kennedy, June 26, 1963According to the excerpt, what did Berlin symbolize to the West?F An ideal location for peace conferencesG A strategic international outpost for the U.S. militaryH A place of freedom surrounded by a totalitarian stateJ A prime location from which to sell U.S. products to Europe
179 This photograph portrays an important historical event in the — A 1992 Los Angeles riotsB Vietnam WarC Civil Rights movementD 1960 presidential election
180 The point of view expressed in this poster is that if Americans failed to support the war effort by purchasing government bonds, then —A freedom would be threatenedB the government would increase rationingC more soldiers would have to be draftedD the United States would be expelled from the Allied powers
181 Which of these statements best identifies why the Anasazi lived in the type of dwellings described above?A They adapted to their environment by using available resources.B Their economy required family dwellings to be temporary.C There was an abundance of lumber for constructing their houses.D The design of their buildings depended on the growing season
182 It can be concluded from the map that one purpose of the Lewis Clark expedition was to – A gain information about Spanish possessions in the SouthwestB explore Canadian territoryC explore areas west of the MississippiD lay claim to the Rio Grande
183 Which of these nations controlled the greatest number of territories shown on the map below? F FranceG United StatesH PortugalJ Great Britain
184 According to the map, which of the following cities fell under German occupation in 1939? F KönigsbergG BialystokH BreslauJ Krakow
185 According to the map, which city was least likely to suffer the immediate effects of Soviet missiles fired from Cuba?F San AntonioG DallasH Los AngelesJ Seattle
186 Which of the following questions can be answered from the map below?F How many people in Texas voted in the 1924 presidential election?G What percentage of the population in California voted Republican?H Which candidate won the electoral vote in North Carolina?J How many people in New York voted for the Democratic candidate
187 Which of the following statements is supported by the information on the map below? A The territory of the thirteen original states included present-day FloridaB The United States ceased to expand after 1803.C The United States acquired territory from several different nations.D The territory ceded by Mexico included Texas and New Mexico.
188 According to the map above, the nations that emit the most carbon dioxide are — A less-developed nationsB located in the Northern HemisphereC countries with small populationsD located in the Southern Hemisphere
189 We are glad to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities [compensation] for ourselves— President Woodrow Wilson, 1917President Wilson’s speech asking for a declaration of war in 1917 implies that —A imperialism should be a major goal of the United StatesB the United States wishes only to protect itselfC the United States should enter the war for moral reasonsD other countries will have to repay the United States for the cost of war
190 Statement 1: Many American families faced financial struggles during the Great Depression.Statement 2: Environmental conditions such as the Dust Bowl contributed to the Great Depression.Statement 3: The actions of ruthless businessmen and greedy bankerscaused the Great Depression.Statement 4: Government agencies were created to address the problems of the Great DepressionWhich of these statements shows bias?A Statement 1B Statement 2C Statement 3D Statement 4
191 The photograph above shows how farmers on the Great Plains — A utilized irrigation techniquesB adapted to their environmentC developed new agricultural technologyD maintained contact with their neighborsWG8B
192 We are there because we have a promise to keep We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1954 every American president has offered support to the people of South Vietnam. We have helped to build, and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. And I intend to keep that promise. To dishonor that pledge, to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemies, and to the terror that must follow, would be an unforgivable wrong.— Lyndon B. Johnson, 1965In our opinion and from our experience, there is nothing in South Vietnam which could happen that realistically threatens the United States of America. And to attempt to justify the loss of one American life in Vietnam, Cambodia or Laos by linking such loss to the preservation of freedom, which those misfits supposedlyabuse, is to us the height of criminal hypocrisy, and it is that kind of hypocrisy which we feel has torn this country apart.— John Kerry, 1971What phrase best describes the excerpts above?F Secondary sourcesG Factual accountsH Differing points of viewJ Newspaper reports C
193 Which conclusion is supported by the information in the heat-island profile above? A Rural activity is the dominant cause of global warming.B Suburban residential areas experience the greatest heat-island effect.C Dense urban areas are a significant cause of regional warming.D City parks increase the heat-island effect WG8B
194 Statement 1: Many immigrants of the early 1900s lived in ethnic neighborhoods in large cities. Statement 2: Schools, churches, and businesses were built and supported by the immigrants of the early 1900s.Statement 3: The immigrants of the early 1900s often had to live in poorly built, overcrowded tenements.Statement 4: Most of the immigrants of the early 1900s were criminals from the old country who couldn’t be trusted.Which of the statements above most clearly demonstrates a negative bias?F Statement 1G Statement 2H Statement 3J Statement F
195 The 1932 cartoon above suggests that when Franklin Roosevelt became president — F agriculture and mining were the main issuesG voter turnout in local elections increasedH domestic and international issues needed to be resolvedJ the federal government had reduced powers24A
196 The type of housing shown above was necessary because many Native Americans living on the Great Plains —F needed easy access to railroad linesG wanted to hide their identity from the U.S. ArmyH were always on the move in search of buffaloJ needed permanent residences in order to practice agriculture24A
197 Here they are become men: in Europe they were as so many useless plants They withered, and were mowed down by want, hunger, and war; but now by the power of transplantation, like all other plants they have taken root—Excerpt from Letters from an American Farmer,J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, 1782Which of the following does de Crevecoeur suggest happens when people immigrate to the United States?A They pay taxes.B They work in factories.C They start families.D They improve their lives.24B
198 Based on this map, it can be concluded that the purpose of the Ho Chi Minh Trail was to —A create a physical boundary between Laos and ThailandB send troops and supplies from North Vietnam to South VietnamC move Vietnamese refugees to camps in Thailand
199 The view expressed in this cartoon is that — F Native Americans were treated fairly by the U.S. governmentG government officials grew rich at the expense of Native AmericansH Native Americans led comfortable lives on reservationsI Native Americans should attack American settlers24F