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U.S. History.  TAKS Objective 1: (US1A) identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. History.  TAKS Objective 1: (US1A) identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. History

2  TAKS Objective 1: (US1A) identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics

3 Selected Government Reforms Federal income tax Direct election of senators Child labor laws Initiative, referendum, and recall All of the reforms in the box were enacted during — A Reconstruction B the Progressive Era C the Great Depression D World War II Which of the following best describes events in the United States during the Great Depression? F Japanese Americans were detained in internment camps. G The economy collapsed, and millions of people became unemployed. H Fears about communism led to the imprisonment of many people. J The government passed laws that eliminated poverty and discrimination.

4 We will not submit to the prosperity that is obtained by lowering the wages of working men and charging an excessive price to consumers, nor to that other kind of prosperity obtained by swindling investors or getting unfair advantages over business rivals. — President Theodore Roosevelt, August 6, 1912 President Theodore Roosevelt made this statement during which historical period? F The Progressive Era G The Gilded Age H Reconstruction J The Great Depression

5 What is the best title for this diagram? F Events of the Cold War G Events of the Great Depression H Events of the Roaring Twenties J Events of the Civil Rights Era

6 apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods Which of the following lists is in the correct sequence? A Great Depression Cold War Gilded Age World War I B World War I Cold War Great Depression Gilded Age C Gilded Age World War I Great Depression Cold War D Cold War Great Depression Gilded Age World War

7 Which statement best completes the sequence of events listed below? A The Japanese suffer a major defeat at Midway. B The Japanese surrender on board a U.S. battleship. C The United States initiates an oil embargo against Japan D The U.S. government apologizes for the internment of Japanese Americans.

8 Which of the following lists the historical eras shown above in the correct chronological order? A 1, 3, 2, 4 B 4, 1, 3, 2 C 1, 4, 3, 2 D 4, 2, 1, 3 1. Gilded Age 2. Cold War 3. Great Depression 4. Roaring Twenties

9 Which event in October 1962 completes the sequence of events shown in this time line? A The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. B The Cuban Missile Crisis occurs. C The Korean War begins.

10 Which of the following best completes the time line? A Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected president. B The Teapot Dome scandal is exposed. C Women gain the right to vote. D The League of Nations is formed.

11 explain the significance of the following dates: 1898, , 1929, , [and 1957] From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) 1898 The Spanish-American War was triggered by the explosion of the Maine on February 15, 1898, in Havana harbor. American officials refused to accept the Spanish report that the cause of the explosion was internal and accidental. On April 11, 1898, President William McKinley asked Congress to authorize armed intervention against Spain to free the oppressed Cubans. The Navy, commanded by Commodore George Dewey, sailed into Manila Bay in the Philippines on May 1 and with the assistance of military troops, captured it on August 13, a day after the armistice was signed. Hawaii was annexed by the United States on July 7 to secure a coaling and supply station in the Pacific Ocean. The "Rough Riders," led by Theodore Roosevelt, rushed San Juan Hill, Cuba, on July 1 and the American fleet destroyed Spanish ships in Santiago Harbor, Cuba, on July 3. Disease ravaged U.S. forces; 400 died in battle or due to injuries while more than 5,000 succumbed to malaria, typhoid, dysentery, and yellow fever. In peace negotiations late in 1898, the Cubans received their freedom from Spanish rule, and the United States acquired Puerto Rico, the island of Guam, and the Philippines.

12 In 1914 World War I began in Europe, triggered when a Serb assassinated the heir to the Austria- Hungary throne. The Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Turkey and Bulgaria faced off against the Allies including France, Britain, and later Japan and Italy. President Woodrow Wilson declared neutrality but both the Central Powers and the Allies sought U.S. support. England and France benefited from American products which aided their war efforts and businessmen in the United States prospered even as anti-German sentiment increased. Trade with the Central Powers was limited because Britain controlled shipping channels in the Atlantic and diverted U.S. ships to British ports. German U-boats (submarines) sank the British passenger liner Lusitania on May 7, 1915, at the cost of 128 American lives. Wilson won re-election in 1916 on the assumption that he would not ask Congress for a declaration of war but Germany announced its plan to wage unlimited submarine warfare in early 1917 and sank four U.S. merchant marine vessels in March. On April 2, 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war. After the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) arrived in France, the German threat increased, and the Allied forces united under French Marshal Foch. By September, General John J. Pershing demanded separate command. The U.S. troops under Pershing participated in the last major offensive of the war, the Meuse-Argonne which lasted 42 days and involved 1.2 million U.S. troops. In the battle of Argonne Forest, one-tenth of all U.S. troops died in the heavy fighting. Germans surrendered on November 11, Peace negotiations began late in 1918 and continued into The Great Depression began in President Herbert Hoover's efforts to slow the speculation in paper profits through the Federal Reserve Board had little effect. In October, U.S. and foreign investors began selling shares at a panic pace. The stock market fluctuated considerably during the Fall of Erratic sales on "Black Thursday,“ October 24, caused investors concern and on October 29, "Black Tuesday," 16,410,030 shares were sold on the stock exchange. By late 1929, investors lost $40 billion in paper values, an amount greater than total U.S. expenditures for World War I. The collapse of the stock market preceded a world-wide economic depression. All industrialized nations suffered. By the end of 1930, more than 4 million workers were jobless in the United States and by 1932, 12 million were unemployed.

13 The United States entered World War II in 1941 on both the Pacific and European fronts. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, prompted the United States to declare war on Japan. Germany responded by declaring war on the United States. Nearly 15 million men and more than 200,000 women enlisted. More than six million women worked outside the home to keep the economy going. In 1942 U.S. troops invaded north Africa and in 1943 the Allied troops invaded Italy. Also in 1943 the Japanese were driven from Guadalcanal. On June 6, 1944, General Dwight D. Eisenhower led 3 million Allied troops in the cross-channel invasion of France, landing at Normandy and pushing German forces out of France, liberating Paris in August. Adolf Hitler countered with a concentrated attack on American forces in the Ardennes forest on December 16, Over ten days, the German advance was stalled and then repulsed in the Battle of the Bulge. Eisenhower's troops advanced through Germany, meeting Soviet troops at the river Elbe in April 1945 and pushed on to Berlin. President Franklin Roosevelt died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945, nearly a month before German officials surrendered unconditionally on May 7. May 8 is designated V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day). War with Japan continued with the United States dropping fire bombs on Tokyo, March 9-10, 1945, in an effort to force its unconditional surrender. On August 6, 1945, the first atomic bomb was dropped on the military-base city of Hiroshima. A total of 180,000 were killed or missing. A second bomb fell on the naval-base city of Nagasaki on August 9 with 80,000 killed or missing. The Japanese agreed to surrender on August 10 if their emperor Hirohito remained as head of state. The surrender ceremony occurred on the U.S.S. Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945.

14 In 1898 more than 200 Americans died when the battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana Harbor. This event prompted the beginning of the — A Mexican-American War B Civil War C Spanish-American War D Russo-Japanese War Which of the following took place from 1914 to 1918? A The Great Depression B World War I C The Populist movement D The Spanish-American War

15 explain why significant events and individuals, including the Spanish-American War, U.S. expansionism, [Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Thayer Mahan,] and Theodore Roosevelt, moved the United States into the position of a world power Spanish-American War (1898) The Spanish-American War began when the United States intervened in Cuban affairs in opposition to Spanish rule. The explosion of the U.S.S. Maine on February 15, 1898, in the harbor in Hanava, Cuba, contributed to the start of the war. President William McKinley urged Congress to approve armed intervention in Cuba in his message to Congress on April 11. Another factor which prompted the war was U.S. interest in another Spanish possession, the Philippines. Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt urged Commodore George Dewey to invade the Philippines in the event of war with Spain. Dewey acted on May 1, 1898, and quickly destroyed the Spanish navy in Manila Bay. Although limited fighting occurred on the two fronts, more than 5,000 U.S. troops died from disease. The United States emerged as a world power as the treaty ending the "splendid little war" ceded the Philippines and Guam in the Pacific, and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, to the United States.

16 U.S. Expansion The United States has always been involved in foreign affairs but the degree of involvement has changed over time. After the War of 1812, those involved in foreign commerce sought peaceful negotiations with trading partners but others looked inward, seeing national development as providing the greatest economic opportunity. In the 1850s this began to change. Interest in strategic ports of call and shorter routes from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans prompted diplomats to negotiate with foreign powers over access to routes and trade. Thus the United States began to change its foreign policy from one of isolationism, avoiding involvement with other countries, to one of imperialism or expansionism, seeking control of foreign trade to bolster the domestic economy. The effort to expand into foreign markets caused American diplomats to "look outward" in the 1890s. Islands in the South Pacific including Hawaii were important depots for ocean-going trade and military vessels. The perception of unfair treatment of the inhabitants of Cuba and the Philippines, two colonies of Spain, led to the Spanish-American War (1898). The territory secured in the treaty ending the "splendid little war" angered those who opposed imperialism. Regardless, U.S. officials continued to seek foreign markets and to support American investment abroad. Trade with China began in In an effort to protect that trade, Secretary of State John Hay opposed the increase of British, German, Russia, French, and Japanese trade with China because of the competition it posed to American interests. He wrote letters to these governments requesting that they support an Open Door Policy in China ( ). His policy stated that all nations would have equal trading rights in China. Many of these countries participated in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, an uprising of Chinese against foreign influences including business and missionary interests. Japan was another country strategically positioned as a supply stop for American trading and whaling vessels. Efforts to open it to foreign trade began in the 1850s. Securing a passage through Central America to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans also affected U.S. foreign policy beginning in the 1850s. Latin American relations involved negotiations with imperial powers controlling Latin American countries as well as the governments of countries which gained their independence. Dollar Diplomacy was a policy adopted by President Howard Taft (who served from ) to encourage investment by American banks and businesses in Latin America. He promised military protection to those who invested. World War I reoriented the priorities of the emerging world power and U.S. foreign policy makers returned to a goal of isolationism.

17 Theodore Roosevelt ( ) Born in New York, Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th president. He graduated from Harvard, was elected to the New York legislature, wrote history and served as president of the New York police boards. He gained national attention as the leader of the "Rough Riders," a volunteer cavalry unit which served in the Spanish-American War. He served as governor of New York and then as McKinley's vice president. When McKinley was assassinated in 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the presidency and was later elected to a full term in He supported expansionism, the development of a canal across Central America, and a powerful navy. Under Roosevelt's direction the United States became the police of the western hemisphere and numerous reforms were enacted: he prosecuted big business for trust violations, supported passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act, and created national parks.

18 Which twentieth-century U.S. leader is described by the list above? A Henry Cabot Lodge B George Marshall C Theodore Roosevelt D Harry S. Truman Famous Rough Rider First American to win the Nobel Peace Prize Motto was “Speak softly and carry a big stick” Strengthened the U.S. Navy

19 President Theodore Roosevelt increased American involvement in world affairs by — A issuing the corollary to the Monroe Doctrine B campaigning against international trusts C urging Congress to declare war on Germany D repealing federal tariff laws As a result of the events described in the headlines below, the United States — A became a world power B remained an isolationist in world affairs C rejected imperialism D placed limitations on foreign travel

20 Much has been given us, and much will rightfully be expected from us. We have duties to others and duties to ourselves; and we can shirk neither. We have become a great nation.... — Excerpt from Theodore Roosevelt’s Inaugural Address, March 4, 1905 The excerpt above most likely suggests that the United States — A has moved into a position of world power B needs to impose higher taxes on imported goods C has accepted the role of isolationist nation D needs to concentrate on domestic issues

21 identify the reasons for U.S. involvement in World War I, including unrestricted submarine warfare It is a fearful thing to lead this great, peaceful people into war.... But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for... a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free. — President Woodrow Wilson, 1917 According to the excerpt, President Woodrow Wilson supported involvement in World War I because he wanted to — A protect U.S. colonial interests around the world B prevent communism from spreading outside the Soviet Union C make the world safe for democracy D provide Germany with humanitarian aid

22 Reasons for the _________?____________ Unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmermann telegram Cultural and political ties to Great Britain Threat to democratic governments Which of the following phrases best completes the title above? A Creation of the League of Nations B U.S. Entrance into World War I C Formation of the Allied Powers D U.S. Decision to Contain Communism

23 Which of the following most influenced President Woodrow Wilson’s decision to ask for a declaration of war against Germany? A The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand B Germany’s treatment of prisoners of war C The German use of aerial bombing raids D The Zimmermann telegram Which of the following actions by Germany led to the end of U.S. neutrality during World War I? A The invasion of Russia B The use of unrestricted submarine warfare C Attacks on U.S. colonies D The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

24 analyze major issues raised by U.S. involvement in World War I, Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the Treaty of Versailles From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) World War I World War I was a global conflict which began in 1914 and continued into Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, and Russia) defeated the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). About 20 other countries assisted the Allied Powers including the United States, which entered the war in The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and Bulgaria supported the Central Powers. The war was triggered by the assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Slavic nationalist, but the central issue was the competing nationalism and imperialism among major European powers.

25 Wilson's Fourteen Points (1918) President Woodrow Wilson traveled to Europe to participate in treaty negotiations ending World War I. He sought to reduce the risk of war and believed several adjustments to the method of conducting foreign policy could accomplish this. His suggestions included open covenants of peace with no hidden agendas, absolute freedom of navigation, removal of all economic barriers and support of equal trade, reduction of national armaments, impartial adjustment of colonial claims in the best interest of resident populations, and mutual guarantees of political independence of great and small nations. He also supported the establishment of an association of nations to maintain peace, a world parliament he called the League of Nations. Many opposed his dreams including Americans who favored isolationism; those who lobbied for harsher treatment of the Central Powers; and German-Americans, Italian- Americans, and others who believed the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh on their native lands. All found reason to criticize the treaty. Wilson's pleas to adopt the League of Nations as the only hope for preventing future wars failed to sway the opposition. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge led the critics in the Senate. His reservations to the treaty along with Wilson's refusal to compromise prevented the treaty from garnering the two-third majority of votes needed for the United States to adopt the measure when it came up for a second senatorial vote on March 19, Treaty of Versailles (1919) Allied leaders wrote the Treaty of Versailles, the formal agreement to end World War I. Their challenge was to divide the territory contained in four empires which collapsed at the end of the war: Russia, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Germany. President Woodrow Wilson supported divisions which freed ethnic groups from foreign rule. The treaty established the League of Nations which obliged each country to defend the territory of other member countries. It also charged Germany with responsibility for the war, requiring it to pay reparations to the Allies and stripping the country of all colonies. Because Wilson was unable to secure the support of the U.S. Senate for the treaty, the League of Nations was formed without U.S. involvement.

26 Why did President Woodrow Wilson consider the last item in his Fourteen Points speech, the creation of a general association of nations, to be the most important? A Such an organization would provide a forum for addressing international problems. B It placed the United States in a leadership position among nations. C It excluded small colonial nations from the diplomatic process. D It guaranteed that Great Britain, France, and Italy would retain control of Europe The box above lists examples of — A the effects of U.S. involvement in the Spanish-American War B the effects of U.S. imperialism on colonial territories C the U.S. economic policies that led to the Great Depression D the domestic impact of World War I on U.S. society Voluntary rationing Increased employment of women Migration of African Americans Higher taxes Sale of Liberty Bonds

27 The three points listed below support President Wilson’s belief that the Fourteen Points were — F arranged by private negotiations G important to the United States’ supremacy H necessary to prevent future wars J reasons for punishing Germany

28 analyze causes and effects of significant issues such as immigration, the Red Scare, Prohibition, and the changing role of women Red Scare ( ) Paranoia regarding the threat of Bolsheviks to the United States was called the Red Scare. In the late 1910s citizens of the United States were concerned about political unrest in Europe. Capitalists believed that the Russian Revolution and rise of the Bolshevik power in 1917 threatened their world. The Bolsheviks called for workers to revolt. This threat, in the minds of Americans, did not disappear at the end of World War I, and strikes by workers contributed to the popular belief that a giant conspiracy was at work to destroy the U.S. government as it had overthrown Russia's. Radicals, immigrant laborers, and anyone who appeared to threaten the U.S. government were charged with crimes. They were often deported or executed depending on court verdicts. Prohibition Prohibition as enforced by the 18th Amendment emerged from the Progressive era's push for moral, social, and political reform. Temperance leagues began working to reduce alcoholism and social problems resulting from alcoholism as early as the 1820s. The Women's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1874 and laws to ban alcohol were adopted in states as early as These states were considered "dry." In 1919 it became illegal to manufacture, sell, or transport alcoholic beverages following the ratification of the 18th Amendment. This amendment was the first legislation to ban alcohol at the national scale and it had negative consequences. The ability to sell grapes and barley was reduced and this hurt farmers. Enforcement was difficult and many were openly defiant of prohibition. Gangs could make millions of dollars dealing in illegal liquor so crime actually increased. The amendment was repealed in Tax collected on the sale of liquor then became an important source of revenue.

29 Which of the following is the correct cause-and-effect pairing of events that occurred during the 1920s? A Victory in World War I and the outbreak of urban riots B Labor strife and the downfall of unions C Prohibition and the rise of organized crime D Fear of foreigners and the closing of U.S. borders During the 1920s, what was the most likely reason for the existence of illegal bars called speakeasies? A Conservation B Immigration C Prohibition D Unionization Which of the following had the greatest impact on the role of women in U.S. politics? A The growth of the labor movement B The passage of the Prohibition amendment C The creation of New Deal agencies D The accomplishments of the suffrage movement

30 During the 1920s the nationwide prohibition of the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol in the United States contributed to the — F ratification of the women’s suffrage amendment G growth of organized crime H end of Progressive reform J demand for stricter immigration policies

31 analyze the impact of significant individuals such as Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan, Henry Ford, and Charles A. Lindbergh From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) Clarence Darrow ( ) The most renowned defense attorney of his time, Clarence Darrow was born in Ohio to a working-class family. He was admitted to the Ohio Bar in He and his family moved to Chicago in 1887 to further his law career. He defended Eugene V. Debs in 1894 against charges of criminal conspiracy in relation to the American Railway Union strikes. His attraction to social concerns prompted him to argue criminal conspiracy cases and cases involving union violence and labor rights. He opposed the death penalty and supported racial equality. In 1925, he defended John T. Scopes who was charged by fundamentalists for violating a Tennessee statute against teaching evolution in the schools. His closing arguments are models of expository speaking. William Jennings Bryan ( ) A noted politician and orator, William Jennings Bryan supported reforms benefiting ordinary people. He served as a representative to the Illinois legislature where he favored income tax, prohibition, and women's suffrage. He earned the Democratic nomination for president in 1896 but lost the race. He also lost in 1900 and He served as Woodrow Wilson's secretary of state but resigned in 1915 because he did not support Wilson's aggressive stance toward Germany. Bryan made a fortune in real estate deals in Florida. His last oration was as a spokesman for the prosecution in the Scopes trial in which he supported a literal interpretation of the Bible and denounced the teaching of evolution in the schools.

32 Henry Ford ( ) Henry Ford helped create a mobile society by mass producing and marketing the Model T automobile, making it an indispensable part of American life. Through his efforts, the automotive industry became a world-wide phenomenon. Born on a farm near Detroit, Michigan, Ford worked on the farm, at a shipbuilding firm, and for a company which serviced steam engines. During the winters he experimented on building his own internal- combustion engines. He drove his first home-built automobile in The Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903 and he developed the Model T by Ford used mass production to reduce the price of the Model T, and he worked to perfect the assembly line. He retained complete company control and used it to amass billions of dollars. Charles A. Lindbergh ( ) Born in Detroit to a political family, Charles Lindbergh studied mechanical engineering and flying, gaining a reputation as a mechanic and pilot. He completed the U.S. Army Air Cadet program in 1925 and was made second lieutenant. He set a record in aviation history when he flew the specially built monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, nonstop from St. Louis to Paris on May 20-21, Afterward he served as a technical advisor to commercial airlines, testing new aircraft and developing viable routes. He favored neutrality before the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, then he supported the war cause, testing military aircraft and sharing technical knowledge. His interest in nature led him to support conservation efforts and he directed the World Wildlife Fund.

33 Charles Lindbergh’s 1927 solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean was important to Americans because it — F allowed the United States to demonstrate new military technology to European allies G helped Great Britain to develop new aviation technology H embarrassed the fascist dictators of Germany and Italy J symbolized American ingenuity, courage, and ability In which of the following did attorney Clarence Darrow defend an instructor accused of teaching the theory of evolution?. F Plessy v. Ferguson G The Scopes trial H The Alger Hiss spy trial J United States v. Nixon

34 How did the person depicted in the image above most influence American culture immediately after his historic flight in 1927? F He helped negotiate the Treaty of Versailles and end German militarism. G He promoted military spending during World War II. H He was treated as a hero and inspired a sense of hope. J He helped end nativism by spreading European traditions

35 Which title best completes the diagram above? A The Scopes Trial B The Espionage Act C The Palmer Raids D The Bonus Army

36 identify reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II, including the growth of dictatorships and the attack on Pearl Harbor From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) World War II ( ) World War II was a global conflict which began in 1939 and continued into 1945, in which the Allies (Great Britain, Russia, the United States) defeated the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan). Economic and social crises followed World War I in much of central Europe. Political unrest and fear of communist revolutions comparable to that led by V. I. Lenin in Russia in 1917 triggered the rise of Benito Mussolini and the founding of the Fascist Party in Italy, and the rise of Adolf Hitler and the founding of the Nazi Party in Germany. At the same time, extreme militarists in Japan exerted more control in the 1930s. Hitler's attempts to unite all German-speaking people in Europe led to his invasion of Czechoslovakia and then Poland in Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany. The United States declared war on Germany following the invasion of Russia in June 1941, and on Japan following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December The war remains the deadliest in history with between 40 and 60 million dead from battle and acts of genocide perpetrated by Nazi officials. Dictatorships A dictator is a ruler who wields absolute authority and controls the government within a state or nation. Prior to World War II several men assumed the role of dictator in European countries including Adolf Hitler in Germany, Benito Mussolini in Italy, and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. Other countries such as Spain under Fascist Francisco Franco worked to overthrow republican governments and impose dictatorial rule. The League of Nations did not oppose the actions of dictators nor did nations such as Britain, France, or the United States intercede as the republican government of Spain fell to Franco. This encouraged the dictators as they organized and strengthened their control in Europe.

37 During World War II, the United States became an ally of which of the following European dictators? F Adolf Hitler G Joseph Stalin H Benito Mussolini J Francisco Franco In the 1930s, which countries were ruled by dictatorships that were widely regarded as threats to the safety and security of the world’s democracies? A Mexico, Brazil, and India B France, Spain, and Greece C Germany, Japan, and Italy D Japan, Mexico, and Turkey

38 The factors shown in the diagram above contributed to U.S. involvement in — A the Cold War B World War I C World War II D the Spanish-American War

39 analyze major issues and events of World War II such as fighting the war on multiple fronts, the internment of Japanese-Americans, the Holocaust, the battle of Midway, the invasion of Normandy, and the development of and Harry Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) World War II ( ) World War II was a global conflict which began in 1939 and continued into 1945, in which the Allies (Great Britain, Russia, the United States) defeated the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan). Economic and social crises followed World War I in much of central Europe. Political unrest and fear of communist revolutions comparable to that led by V. I. Lenin in Russia in 1917 triggered the rise of Benito Mussolini and the founding of the Fascist Party in Italy, and the rise of Adolf Hitler and the founding of the Nazi Party in Germany. At the same time, extreme militarists in Japan exerted more control in the 1930s. Hitler's attempts to unite all German-speaking people in Europe led to his invasion of Czechoslovakia and then Poland in Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany. The United States declared war on Germany following the invasion of Russia in June 1941, and on Japan following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December The war remains the deadliest in history with between 40 and 60 million dead from battle and acts of genocide perpetrated by Nazi officials.

40 Harry S. Truman ( ) Harry S. Truman assumed the presidency following the sudden death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Having served as a senator from Missouri, he knew little of the workings of the executive office. He had no time to learn. Within weeks he attended the founding of the United Nations; represented the U.S at the Potsdam conference where two European powers, the Soviets and the British, discussed post-war order; and authorized the use of the atomic bomb in Japan, first on Hiroshima on August 6 and then on Nagasaki on August 9. In response to the spread of Communism, Truman announced the Truman Doctrine on March 12, 1947, which pledged U.S. support to nations opposing Communism. The Cold War, characterized by the antagonistic conflict between two world powers, the Soviet Union and the United States, began during Truman's administration. When the Communist North Koreans invaded South Korea in June 1950, Truman appealed to the United Nations, which dispensed forces to support South Korea. Truman's refusal to commit more effort to win the war frustrated voters and they elected Dwight D. Eisenhower as president in 1952.

41 The significance of the Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, was that it — A caused the Soviet Union to join the war against Germany B liberated Paris from German control C opened a second major front in the war in Europe D forced Germany to surrender immediately to Allied forces During World War II, the Soviet Union pressured the other Allies to open a second front in France in order to — A allow the Soviet Union to send troops to fight in North Africa B help French communists resist the Nazis C free the Soviet Union to concentrate on fighting Japan D Germany to move some of its troops away from the eastern front Why did President Harry Truman decide to use the atomic bomb in World War II? A To end the war quickly and save American lives B To make sure the Swiss remained neutral C To free prisoners of war in Europe and the Pacific

42 Japanese Americans were held in internment camps during World War II because they — A disobeyed the state laws of California B disagreed with President Franklin Roosevelt’s war strategy C were labeled a threat to U.S. security D were unwilling to serve in the U.S. military The Battle of Midway was a crucial victory for the United States because it — A dealt a severe blow to the Japanese navy B was the last sea battle of the war with Japan C was fought on Japanese territory D destroyed Japan’s will to continue fighting

43 describe U.S. responses to Soviet aggression after World War II, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, [and the Berlin airlift] From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) Soviet Aggression Between 1918 to 1920 communists defeated anti-communists in Russia. In 1922 the communists created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or the Soviet Union). European countries and the United States feared that communist expansion threatened established government, particularly democracy and freedom (see Red Scare). Following World War II, communists sought to take over Greece and establish an airbase in Turkey. President Harry S. Truman managed to persuade Congress that this was a global struggle of freedom over communism. Several policies of Truman's were directed at containing Soviet (communist) aggression. He believed that the United States should support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." This was the basis of his Truman Doctrine, which guided American foreign policy for years. Also in 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall proposed an economic program to contain communism. His Marshall Plan supported economic aid to Europe and generated increased trade between the United States and European nations. In 1948 Stalin attempted to eliminate involvement of the west in Berlin and enacted the Berlin blockade. This prompted the United States to join Canada, Iceland, and nine other Western European nations in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Each pledged loyalty to the other in case of attack. British and U.S. planes flew tons of supplies into Berlin in an operation called the Berlin Airlift.

44 One example of President Truman’s response to Communist aggression after World War II was the Marshall Plan. This plan — A created the House Committee on Un-American Activities B provided funding for the economic reconstruction of Western Europe C established an alliance with Great Britain and France to de-colonize Africa D provided military training for Latin American soldiers One of the primary goals of the Marshall Plan was to prevent the — F spread of democratic forms of government G collapse of the Soviet Union’s economy H collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe J spread of communism in Western Europe

45 One reason for the large increase in defense spending between 1950 and 1960 was — F an unprecedented inflationary economy G funding for military involvement in South America H the Cold War and the arms race with the Soviet Union J a large investment in supersonic military transports

46 Don’t be afraid to... read every book, as long as any document does not offend our own ideas of decency. That should be the only censorship. How will we defeat communism unless we know what it is, what it teaches, and why does it have such an appeal for men, why are so many people swearing allegiance to it? — President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Speech at Dartmouth College, 1953 In the excerpt above, President Eisenhower was responding to Senator Joseph McCarthy’s public attempts to — A promote religious tolerance B limit free speech C increase U.S. literacy rates D restrict conservative political influence

47 Created in 1949 as a mutual-defense alliance Initially included 12 democratic nations Prompted by the Berlin blockade First commitment to a mutual-defense alliance by the United States The information listed above describes which of the following agreements? A Warsaw Pact B Strategic Arms Limitation Talks C Atlantic Charter D North Atlantic Treaty Organization

48 The purpose of the organization formed by the 1949 treaty excerpted above was to — F create an alliance to protect against communist aggression in Europe G provide military assistance to countries seeking independence in the Americas H provide financial aid to rebuild countries in Africa J regulate economic ties with communist countries in Asia The Parties to this Treaty... Are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. They seek to promote stability and well- being in the North Atlantic area. They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the preservation of peace and security.

49 What threat was President Truman referring to in the excerpt above? A Regional wars in South America B The spread of communism C Civil disobedience in U.S. cities D The formation of the United Nations

50 Which of the following statements best characterizes the purpose of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which was created in 1949? A Each member nation is committed to the defense of all other member nations. B All member nations will cooperate in rebuilding war-torn nations. C Trade barriers between all member nations will be removed. D All member nations will enforce trade embargoes against communist countries During the Cold War, nations formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) for the purpose of — F advancing communism G free trade H mutual defense J terrorism control

51 analyze the conflicts in Korea and Vietnam and describe their domestic and international effects Korea Korea is a nation in northern Asia divided following World War II between North Korea, which was occupied by Soviet troops, and South Korea, occupied by U. S. forces. Following the withdrawal of the Soviet and U.S. troops, communist North Korea invaded South Korea in President Harry S. Truman ordered General Douglas MacArthur to intervene in the civil war. Truman chose MacArthur because of his knowledge and experience in the region. MacArthur had commanded Allied forces in the Philippines when the Japanese invaded during World War II. In 1950 President Truman named MacArthur commander of United Nations forces and ordered him to lead troops in a "peace action" in Korea. Differences of opinion between Truman and MacArthur over the application of force in bringing about an end to the conflict, which ended in MacArthur's firing, mirrored public sentiment. Some felt the United States should not be involved in the war and others felt that the United States should intervene in a decisive way to bring an end to the conflict and to the expansion of communism. President Dwight D. Eisenhower negotiated peace in 1953 but communism continued as a presence in Asia. Vietnam Vietnam is a long, narrow country in southeast Asia with a spine of hills and a large river delta, the Mekong, one of the richest areas of rice production in the world. The Vietnamese sought to maintain their independence despite centuries of Chinese and French occupation. During World War II, Japan seized the country from the French but in 1941, communist leader Ho Chi Minh organized the independence movement. The United States supported Ho Chi Minh's opposition to Japan and he, in turn, expected support in independence. Instead, the United States, concerned about the communist threat in Vietnam, agreed to support Vietnam's return to France. The French Indochina War lasted from Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel with Ho Chi Minh designated as leader of North Vietnam with Hanoi as its capital. Saigon was capital of non-communist South Vietnam. The south was led by Ngo Donh Diem, a corrupt politician who manipulated voting and repressed nonconformists to retain power. President Dwight D. Eisenhower supported Diem from 1954 to In 1961, President John F. Kennedy increased aid to South Vietnam in opposition to the Vietcong, communists who opposed Diem. In August 1964 U.S. Navy ships, cooperating with South Vietnamese gunboats, exchanged fire with North Vietnamese in the Tonkin Gulf. Particulars remain unclear, but Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution which empowered President Lyndon B. Johnson to direct military support to Southeast Asia. He first ordered American troops to land in 1965 following a Viet Cong raid on an American air base. By the end of 1965, 184,000 Americans troops were involved. Throughout the conflict, foreign policy officials presented the issue as an effort to protect the non-communist south from the Communist north. In reality, most problems arose from confrontations between the Viet Cong and Diem supporters in South Vietnam. As more American tax dollars and troops were expended on the military offensive, and as the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese countered every escalation with more manpower and guerrilla tactics, public support waned. The Vietnam War continued through January It was the longest military engagement in U.S. history and the United States' first defeat.

52 The photograph below depicts a demonstration during the Vietnam conflict. It reflects — F bitter opposition to U.S. foreign policy G popular sympathy for Soviet communism H widespread support for military buildup J unanimous support for the president

53 During the late 1960s and early 1970s, U.S. military involvement in Vietnam led to — A an outpouring of international support for the U.S. military B the reelection of President Lyndon B. Johnson C a loss of public trust in the U.S. government D a worldwide condemnation of North Vietnam Which of the following was a cause of the Korean War? A South Korea would not trade with other Asian countries. B Taiwan attempted to seize control of South Korea. C The United States would not grant foreign aid to North Korea. D North Korea wanted to unify the peninsula under a communist regime. U.S. involvement in Korea and Vietnam reflected the U.S. government’s policy of preventing the spread of communism after World War II. Which of the following established this U.S. policy? F Alliance for Progress G Open Door Notes H Truman Doctrine J Patriot Act

54 describe the impact of the GI Bill, [the election of 1948,] McCarthyism, and Sputnik I GI Bill In 1944 Congress passed the Servicemen's Readjustment Act, known as the GI Bill. Part of the strategy to avoid economic downturn after World War II, the GI Bill allotted funds to send former soldiers to school. In the ten years after the war, more than eight million veterans went to school at government expense. Most sought vocational and technical training, but many also attended colleges and universities. In addition, the act allowed the Veteran's Administration to guarantee $16 billion in loans to veterans so they could purchase homes, farms, or small businesses. The bill did contribute to economic stability after the war. McCarthyism During the Cold War, Americans viewed the Soviets as a threat to national security and cultural survival. The fear of communism increased throughout the 1950s as Americans became sensitized to the threat through publicized investigations of critics of the government. Extreme opposition to communism gained the name "McCarthyism" from the efforts of Joseph R. McCarthy, a senator from Wisconsin elected in In 1950 he announced that communists worked in the State Department. He and his followers worked to identify known communists and accused others based on association. McCarthyism resulted in the ruin of many public figures who were unable to find work because they were blacklisted. Employers refused to hire those suspected of communist activities because McCarthy's tactic of guilt by association made the employee suspect. In 1954 through 35 days of televised hearings before a Senate investigating committee, McCarthy failed to substantiate his claims of communist collusion and lost favor with the Senate, and with the American public. Sputnik I Sputnik was the first space satellite. Launched in 1957 by the Soviet Union government under Nikita Khrushchev, it started the space race with the United States

55 The actions of Joseph McCarthy in the early 1950s led many Americans to — A suspect that some government officials had communist sympathies B demand more rights for organized labor C support U.S. involvement in the United Nations D organize to protect the rights of African Americans How did the United States initially respond to the event described in the headline above? A The president ordered the construction of the Berlin Wall. B Congress appropriated additional money to develop a hydrogen bomb. C Congress emphasized science and math education as a matter of national security. D The president created a national committee on physical fitness.

56 The United States formed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in response to — F the Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik 1 G North Korea’s invasion of South Korea H the Soviet Union’s placement of missiles in Cuba J China’s development of an atomic bomb The launch of Sputnik I and Sputnik II by the Soviet Union in 1957 led the United States to — F form an alliance with communist China G reduce its defense spending H reinstate the military draft J accelerate its space program

57 Gave military veterans money for tuition, books, fees, and other training costs for education Gave military veterans home, farm, and business loans Gave military veterans unemployment payments for one year Which is the best title for this box? F Advantages of the Good Neighbor Policy G Conditions of the Marshall Plan H Benefits of the GI Bill of Rights

58 From TAKS Information Booklet (revised 2004) Objective 2 is the geography objective and consists of TEKS from three social studies courses: Grade 8 Social Studies, World Geography Studies, and World History Studies. The knowledge and skills statements and student expectations in this objective examine the movement of people and ideas as well as the patterns and processes of settlement. When teaching the student expectations in this objective, teachers should focus on the ways that processes such as trade can spread ideas,material goods, and even diseases such as bubonic plague. Students should understand how to read and recognize patterns on maps, charts, and other graphic models from a geographic standpoint. Students who gain this kind of knowledge and understanding will recognize and appreciate the geographic issues that affect their daily lives. Examples of these issues at a local level are the development of traffic routes in towns or cities; debates regarding land use, such as agriculture versus real estate development; the effects of drought on water use; and the movement of migrant workers in search of work. On a global level, students who gain geographic knowledge and understanding will recognize and appreciate how events and issues in other parts of the world affect their daily lives. An example is the production in other countries of energy sources and material goods to be used in the United States. A solid understanding of geography concepts from both the past and present enables students to participate in and make informed decisions about local, regional, and international geographic issues.

59 [pose and] answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, [and databases According to the table, the northern city that experienced the largest percentage growth of African American population from 1910 to 1930 was — A Cleveland B New York City C Pittsburgh D Detroit

60 Based on the graph below, most people 65 and older who migrated to different states moved to states — F in warmer climates G along the Great Lakes H in the Rocky Mountains J along northern coastlines

61 According to the table above, which area experienced continued growth in its percentage of the world’s population from 1750 to 1999? A Africa B Asia C Latin America and the Caribbean D Northern America

62 According to the table above, which is the most accurate statement? F Immigration from Italy increased from 1880 to G Southern European immigrants faced immigration restrictions prior to H Immigration from Russia decreased from 1880 to J Northern European immigrants met with hostility prior to 1900.

63 According to the information on the map, in 1850 the population density was the greatest — F along the Pacific Coast G east of the Mississippi River H along the Gulf Coast J in the areas bordering Mexico

64 analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors on major events including the building of the Panama Canal Panama Canal In 1901 the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty gave the United States the right to construct and defend a canal through Central America. The idea to build a canal was not new in Many nations sought quicker, safer access to the east from the west, and the narrow isthmus of Panama offered a link. Once the 50-mile long canal was completed in 1914, it changed the world's systems of transportation, communication, and economics

65 Many U.S. farmers from the Great Plains left their farms and migrated to California in the 1930s because of — A the excessively high cost of new farm machinery B federal and state assistance programs available to farmers in California C drought and dust storms that destroyed their crops D the availability of factory jobs in California Which of the following best completes the diagram F Hoover Dam G Golden Gate Bridge H Panama Canal J Transcontinental railroad

66 Difficulty in navigating the Drake Passage contributed to the U.S. decision to — F declare war on Spain G build a canal in Panama H enact the Teller Amendment J announce the Open Door policy

67 Overproduction of Crops + Lack of Soil-Conservation Practices + Drought and Windstorms Crop Failure Rise in Farm Foreclosures ???? Which of the following best completes the diagram above? A Growth of the Banking Industry B Suspension of Government Assistance C Increase in Farm Production on the Great Plains D Mass Migration of Farmers from the Dust Bowl

68 In the early 1900s President Theodore Roosevelt used the Big Stick policy to involve the United States in the building of the Panama Canal. Which of the following benefits was accomplished with this construction? A Political alliances with European governments were created. B Colonies in West Africa were acquired. C Shipping time for world trade was decreased. D European colonies in Latin America were granted immediate independence.

69 Which was a lasting effect of the activities shown in this drawing? F Native Americans of the Great Plains lost a natural resource that was important to their culture. G Settlers in the West started ranches instead of farms. H Native Americans of the Great Plains lost their influence on eastern markets.

70 analyze the effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from migration within the United States TAKS Information Booklet Objective 2 —For Your Information The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 2: 1. how population movement patterns have caused an exchange and diffusion of ideas, material goods

71 One social effect of the large migration of African Americans to U.S. industrial centers between 1940 and 1950 was — F increased racial tensions G the peaceful integration of southern schools H a 20th-century renaissance in the arts J improved public transportation systems What was one result of the rapid growth of U.S. cities in the early 20th century? A Fewer educational opportunities were available. B Prices for consumer goods became unstable. C Farm production declined significantly. D The population in slums increased. The migration of thousands of African Americans to the North in the early 20th century can best be explained by — A the availability of cheap farmland in the North B the closing of factories in southern states C decreased availability of government land for sharecropping in the South D greater job opportunities in northern cities

72 The migration of Americans to western territories following the Civil War led to — A the admission of new states to the nation B improved relations with Native Americans C the abandonment of the U.S. policy of Manifest Destiny D fewer conservation measures by the federal government The box above lists some reasons for the twentieth-century Great Migration, which involved — A Dust Bowl farmers migrating from the Midwest to California B African Americans migrating from the South to the North C Rust Belt workers migrating from the Northeast to Texas D Mexican Americans migrating from border states to the Northeast Racial violence and discrimination Mechanization of cotton production Demand for labor in cities

73 analyze the effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from immigration to the United States TAKS Information Booklet Objective 2 —For Your Information The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 2: 10. how questions about geography can be answered by studying maps, graphs, and charts; 11. how population movement patterns have caused an exchange and diffusion of ideas, material goods, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds; 12. how various technological innovations have affected the ways in which people interact with the physical environment. Demographic Patterns Demography is the study of population and the forces which affect change within the population. These include changes in birth (fertility) and death (mortality) rates, and the redistribution of a population (migration). Certain patterns are evident in the redistribution of population over time and space. Settlement occurred first in areas along transportation corridors including the coastline and interior waterways. Transportation routes funneled the population into the interior of the country. Throughout the history of the United States the population became increasingly concentrated in and around urban areas. The United States shifted from being a rural nation to an urban nation in 1920 when the majority of the population no longer lived in the country. Demographic shifts rearrange patterns of the population which change the human landscape. These include increased fertility, factors contributing to increased mortality such as famine and disease, and political factors such as war. Cultural factors such as language and tradition also influence how people move and where they settle. Thus several factors influence the patterns of population distribution.

74 Which of the following themes does the photograph above illustrate? A The United States closes its borders to immigrants. B Americans are resistant to Asian businesses. C Immigration leads to ethnic neighborhoods in U.S. cities. D The United States experiences a decline in Asian immigration.

75 Which of the following best completes the diagram below? A Integration B Progressivism C Imperialism D Immigration

76 The act below assists individuals who leave their homeland as a result of — F severe discrimination G poor economic conditions H few educational opportunities J extreme weather conditions During the mid-1800s Chinese immigrants to the United States were an important source of labor for which of the following industries? A Railroad construction B Steel manufacturing C Oil production D Ship construction

77 identify the effects of population growth [and distribution and predict future effects] on the physical environment TAKS Information Booklet Objective 2 —For Your Information The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 2: 13. how questions about geography can be answered by studying maps, graphs, and charts; 14. how population movement patterns have caused an exchange and diffusion of ideas, material goods, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds; 15. how different regions of the world possess distinct physical and human characteristics and how 16. these characteristics help shape world societies

78 Which of the following best completes the diagram above? A Population Growth B U.S. Trade Policies C Supply-Side Economics D Immigration Restrictions Population growth in coastal regions has contributed to the problems described above by — F creating a need for more highways G causing an increase in flooding and soil erosion H creating a demand for more clean water J producing increasing amounts of sewage and other waste products

79 As a result of the passage of the Homestead Act in 1862, the Great Plains — A became the most populated region of the United States B became the location of the country’s largest urban centers C preserved through conservation measures D was developed into a major agricultural area Which of the following best completes the chart above? A Poor sanitary conditions B Public education abolished C Breakup of ethnic communities D Unemployment decreases

80 The federal lands shown above were set aside as a response to concerns about — F border conflicts G community development H environmental conservation J property values

81 WG1A analyze the effects of physical and human geographic patterns and processes on events in the past [and describe their effects on present conditions, including significant physical features and environmental conditions that influenced migration patterns in the past and shaped the distribution of culture groups today] (correlates with WH12B WG1B trace the spatial diffusion of a phenomenon and describe its effects on regions of contact such as the spread of bubonic plague, the diffusion and exchange of foods between the New and Old Worlds, [or the diffusion of American slang] (correlates with WH11B) WG6A [locate settlements and] observe patterns in the size and distribution of cities using maps, graphics, and other information (correlates with WH26C) WH23A give examples of [major mathematical and scientific discoveries and] technological innovations that occurred at different periods in history and describe the changes produced by these discoveries and innovations (correlates with WG19A and WG20A)

82 The invention of the light bulb contributed to industrial growth in the United States by making it possible for — A production to continue at night B workers to light their homes C electric companies to raise their prices D cities to reduce crime by lighting city streets How did the introduction of the assembly line affect the U.S. automobile industry in the early 20th century? A There was an increase in federal regulation of automobile production. B The United States began to import large numbers of cars. C There was a decrease in demand for unskilled labor. D The demand for cars increased as they became affordable for the average person. How did the invention of the elevator affect cities in the United States? A Assembly-line production could be increased. B Factories relocated to rural areas. C Taller buildings could be built. D New forms of mass transit were developed.

83 The map above shows that the placement of nuclear missiles in Cuba by the Soviet Union was unacceptable to U.S. leaders primarily because — F the presence of missiles in Cuba would make a U.S. invasion of the island impossible G the physical location of Cuba made large areas of the United States vulnerable to attack H the physical location of the United States obligated it to protect Canada from attack J the presence of missiles in Cuba would result in an arms race among Caribbean countries WG1A

84 The table above lists exchanges between which areas? F Europe, Asia, and Africa G Africa, Australia, and the Americas H Europe, Africa, and the Americas J Australia, Antarctica, and Africa WG1B

85 The map above shows the spread of which type of music through cultural diffusion? F Opera G Bluegrass H Classical J Jazz WG1B

86 Ten years ago the place where we gathered was an unpeopled, forbidding desert.... We are here to celebrate the completion of the greatest dam in the world.... Beautiful and great as this structure is, it must also be considered in its relationship to the agricultural and industrial development and in its contribution to the health and comfort of the people... who live in the southwest. — Excerpt from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Dedication Day speech, 1935 In the dedication of the Hoover Dam described above, President Roosevelt suggested that — F water would now be available for irrigation G missing soil nutrients would be replaced H trees lost in the clearing of farmland would be replanted J contour plowing would prevent soil erosion W11a

87 Which numbered area on the map made it more difficult to build the Transcontinental Railroad in the late 1860s? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 WG1A 4

88 Which technological advance from the nineteenth century resulted in all the effects listed above? A Cotton gin B Canals C Railroads D Telephone WG23A Travel time reduced Western migration encouraged Open range closed Native Americans forced off their land

89 analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the growth of labor unions, farm issues, and the rise of big business TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions Related to Objective 3: 26. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction; 27. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction…. From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) Growth of Labor Unions As industrialization increased in the United States following the Civil War, the rights of laborers were undermined by the emphasis of employers to increase production and profits. Workers unionized to effect change. However, laborers were not united in the efforts because established workers rarely cooperated with immigrant or black workers who were willing to work for less. The majority of laborers, particularly the unskilled, did not join the early unions and their interests were not defended. In the late 1800s, two out of three working Americans depended on wages instead of self-employment. Laborers organized, forming unions to oppose unfair treatment but corporations continued to wield more power than labor. The first union was the National Labor Union (1866). By 1872, 32 national unions existed serving the special interests of bricklayers, typesetters, and shoemakers. In 1886 Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL) as an association of several national unions. Gompers sought better wages and hours and general improvement in the conditions under which laborers worked. He supported boycotts and walkouts and focused on the issues concerning skilled workers. He did not represent the interests of the unskilled, of women, or blacks. Between 1881 and 1900 there were 23,000 strikes involving 6,610,000 workers and employers lost $450 million. But this labor agitation still reflected the interests of only a small percentage of all laborers. Public support for labor increased during the period as people recognized the rights of laborers to organize, practice collective bargaining, and strike. In 1894, the federal government declared Labor Day as a legal holiday in tribute to laborers. This occurred the same year the federal government broke the strike of laborers for the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago

90 Industrialization during the late 1800s contributed to the development of organized labor because it — F created low-wage, low-skill jobs that made employees easy to replace G allowed individuals to accumulate huge fortunes H reduced the demand for hourly wage earners J contributed to the growth of college business programs Why were labor strikes in the late 19th century not as effective in industries that depended largely on unskilled workers? A Most unskilled workers were paid high wages. B Unskilled workers could be replaced more easily than skilled workers. C Unskilled workers were not allowed to join unions. D Many unskilled workers were deported for supporting unions. The labor movement grew rapidly during the late 1800s because of — F an increase in agricultural production G a significant fall in stock prices H an increase in wages for unskilled labor J a significant growth in industry

91 Unhealthy working conditions Unequal distribution of wealth Long working hours for little pay Growing incidence of wage cuts The conditions listed above best explain the growth of — A farmer alliances B urban areas C national railroads D labor unions

92 analyze social issues such as the treatment of minorities, child labor, growth of cities, and problems of immigrants TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 28. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction; 29. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction; and Child Labor Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. They worked with their families on farms and in small businesses starting at a young age. Children also worked in mills and factories from the start of industrialization in the late 1700s. In 1789 at the first spinning mill built in America in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, nine children between the ages of 7 to 12 composed the work force. The number increased to over 100 by Though several bills were introduced throughout the 19th century to reduce the employment of children or at least improve the conditions under which they labored, business opposition remained strong because children often performed the same work as men but earned less. In many families the mother and children in addition to the father worked as laborers to earn enough to survive. In 1880 at least one-fifth of the children in the United States between 10 and 14 years of age held jobs. Many were immigrants. In the 1890s and early 1900s many states passed anti-child labor bills. In 1916 the Keatings-Owen Child Labor Bill prohibited the interstate commerce of items produced using child labor. This marked the first time the federal government used the economic leverage of interstate commerce to prompt change. The bill was later declared unconstitutional but it paved the way for future legislation.

93 The illustration above demonstrates one problem associated with — F overcrowding in urban tenements G the growth of political machines H the overproduction of consumer goods J labor union activism in urban areas

94 Which of these terms best completes the diagram? A Reconstruction B Immigration C Populism D Women’s suffrage

95 During the late 19th century, factory owners often hired child workers because children — F required little supervision G could be paid low wages H were able to work after school J had received job training at school In the early 20th century, the increase in ethnic diversity in the United States because of immigration from southern and eastern Europe contributed to — A increased social tension B a decrease in urban populations C increased religious tolerance D an extended economic decline

96 In the late 1800s many Americans resented the arrival of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe primarily because the immigrants — A lived in the most desirable sections of cities B refused to accept new political beliefs C accepted less pay than most workers D joined unions to improve work conditions

97 evaluate the impact of reform leaders such as Susan B. Anthony, W.E.B. DuBois, [and Robert LaFollette] on American society TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 30. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century. Susan B. Anthony ( ) Susan B. Anthony was a leading force in the women's suffrage movement for 50 years. Born in Massachusetts to a Quaker family, she taught school and became convinced that society needed to be reformed and freed from slavery and alcoholism. She was president of the Canojoharie Daughters of Temperance in the 1840s. She met Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1851 at an antislavery rally. They organized the Women's State Temperance Society of New York. Not until 1853 did Anthony support the cause of women's suffrage and equal rights, but she remained committed to the cause for the remainder of her life, contributing significantly to the effort to attain equal rights for women.

98 William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ( ) W. E. B. Du Bois was a leading African-American intellectual. Born in Massachusetts, Du Bois entered Fisk University in 1885, his first involvement with other African-Americans his own age and his first exposure to southern racism. He entered Harvard in 1888, and became the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. His dissertation, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States, was published by Harvard in It was the first in a long career of scholarship and writing. He believed in the ability of the Talented Tenth, the intellectual black elites, to advance the cause for all blacks. From 1897 to 1910 he headed the economic and history programs at Atlanta University. In 1903 he published The Souls of Black Folk, his best- known work, and was already challenging the ideas of Booker T. Washington. In contrast to Du Bois' radical ideas calling for immediate extension of rights to blacks so they could vote, take advantage of education, and use public facilities, Washington's conservative approach was called accommodationism. Washington supported industrial education and improved personal habits as a way to earn political and social equality. Washington remained the most influential black spokesman until his death in Du Bois was active in the formation of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He served as director of publicity and research and edited The Crisis until 1934 when he broke with the organization. He increasingly favored black separatism. From 1934 to 1944 he pursued teaching at Atlanta University and writing. In 1961 he joined the Communist Party and moved to Ghana where he died at age 95.

99 W.E.B. Du Bois was one of the founders of the NAACP, an organization dedicated to — A preserving racial segregation in the United States B achieving racial equality for African Americans C promoting landownership as the key to economic equality D using force to gain equal rights The efforts of Susan B. Anthony and other leaders of the women’s suffrage movement led to women — A gaining the right to vote B earning the same wages as men C gaining the right to attend state universities D becoming property owners in some state Susan B. Anthony worked for a constitutional amendment that would — A end slavery B give women the right to vote C protect the rights of African Americans D allow women to serve in the military

100 According to the excerpt above, Susan B. Anthony believed the only way for women to acquire the “blessings of liberty” was by — F voting in elections G working in factories H becoming missionaries J studying economics It is a downright mockery to talk to women of their enjoyment of the blessings of liberty while they are denied the use of the only means of securing them provided by this democraticrepublican government.... — Susan B. Anthony, 1872 By setting aside millions of acres of land under public domain during the early 1900s, Theodore Roosevelt promoted which of the following concepts? A Political reform B Conservationism C Collective bargaining D Agribusiness

101 identify significant leaders of the civil rights movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr. TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 31. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century. From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ( ) A noted leader, Martin Luther King was one of several African-Americans concerned with reforming American society and gaining equal rights by using civil disobedience or non-violent action. He earned his Ph.D. from the School of Theology at Boston University. He was called to minister at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. Despite opposition from his father who urged him to return to Atlanta, King moved to Montgomery in 1955, settling in just before Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger. King assisted in coordinating the bus boycott which gained national and international attention. He gained visibility as a black leader, and experience in organization and leadership as a result. In 1957 he was instrumental in organizing the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a consortium of churches and civic groups which supported activities to parallel those of the NAACP. The SCLC supported sit-ins, boycotts, and protest marches in Birmingham, Alabama beginning in In August, during the March on Washington in support of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, King set aside his prepared speech and rallied the 250,000 in attendance with "I have a dream today!“ He was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee

102 there comes a time when people get tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression.... I want it to be known that we’re going to work with grim and bold determination to gain justice on the buses in this city. And we are not wrong.... — Martin Luther King, Jr., 1955 Martin Luther King, Jr., gained prominence in the Civil Rights movement by leading the struggle against — F limited city bus routes for African American riders G higher fees charged to African American bus riders H restrictions on the hiring of minority bus drivers J segregated seating on buses The actions of which of the following individuals led to a boycott of public transportation that lasted over a year, until segregated buses were declared unconstitutional? A Elizabeth Eckford B James Farmer C Rosa Parks D Medgar Evers

103 Which of the following completes the diagram? A Representatives of the American Indian movement B Founders of the American Civil Liberties Union C Leaders of the Civil Rights movement D Leaders of the U.S. labor movement

104 Which of the following best completes the diagram below? A Favored extensive limits on free speech B Supported stricter immigration laws C Used nonviolent protest strategies D Effected little social change

105 The Civil Rights movement’s strategy of nonviolent resistance was most widely advocated throughout the 1960s by — F Stokely Carmichael’s Black Power movement G Malcolm X’s Organization of Afro- American Unity H Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference J Huey P. Newton’s Black Panther Party Why was Martin Luther King, Jr., chosen as Time magazine’s 1963 “Man of the Year”? F He supported the unionization of farmworkers. G He had become the symbol of the Civil Rights movement. H He traveled to India to talk to the followers of Mohandas Gandhi. J He became the first African American Supreme Court justice.

106 analyze causes of economic growth and prosperity in the 1920s TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 32. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century; and 33. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction

107 The automobile industry helped stimulate the U.S. economy in the 1920s because it — A increased demand for products such as steel, rubber, and gasoline B started the Industrial Revolution in the United States C ended U.S. dependence on foreign-made cars D increased employment opportunities for female engineers During the 1920s, the growth of which of the following industries had the greatest effect on the expansion of the steel, rubber, and petroleum industries? A Airplane B Farm products C Automobile D Sewing machine

108 Which of the following best completes the diagram above? F Causes of U.S. participation in World War I G Results of the completion of the Panama Canal H Causes of the economic boom of the 1920s J Effects of early-20th-century political reforms

109 analyze the causes of the Great Depression, including the decline in worldwide trade, the stock market crash, and bank failures TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 34. how to read maps, graphs, and other demographic data to compare and contrast or determine the level of development or standard of living of different groups of people; 35. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century. From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) Great Depression In the United States, a period of severe economic hardship called the Great Depression began in 1929 and continued until World War II. The Stock Market Crash of October 1929 contributed to the start of the depression but many other factors affected economics in the 1930s. Wealth was not distributed equally among the population. Too many people had too little money and they could not keep enough money in circulation to keep the economy running. High tariffs limited foreign trade and investment and prevented European countries from repaying the debts they owed the United States following World War I. Banks were not secure and the money in them was not insured if banks failed. Americans bought too much on credit and the demand could not keep up with the supply of goods in an era of overproduction. The depression extended beyond the boundaries of the United States, affecting European countries and others which relied on trade with the United States.

110 Which of the following historical periods belongs in the center box? A The Progressive Era B World War I C The Great Depression D The Cold War

111 Which of the following best completes the diagram as a cause of the Great Depression? F Decreased income-tax rate G Decline of agricultural prices H Increased savings by consumers J Expansion of foreign markets

112 One reason people overextended their use of credit in the stock market during the late 1920s was that they believed — A debts would not have to be repaid for many years B federal government would assume their debts C they would make quick profits and be able to repay their debts D overspending would bolster the weak economy Which of the following was a cause of the Great Depression? F Consumers were buying crops grown in other countries. G The industrial sector was not producing enough goods. H Natural resources were becoming less available. J The stock market was not sufficiently regulated.

113 Which of the following was an underlying cause of the Great Depression? F Increased government regulation of the stock market G Low tariffs to increase international trade H Overproduction of consumer goods J Economically strong farm sector Which of the following events helped trigger the start of the Great Depression? F Palmer Raids G Bonus Army march H World War I J Stock market crash

114 analyze the effects of the Great Depression on the U.S. economy and government TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 36. how to read maps, graphs, and other demographic data to compare and contrast or determine the level of development or standard of living of different groups of people; 37. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century; 38. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction

115 President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal was a program designed to — A prevent the onset of the Great Depression B control big business C combat the effects of the Great Depression D restore the gold standard The primary purpose for the creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was to — A oversee a system of pensions for the elderly B stabilize financial institutions of the United States C establish relief agencies for the needy D pay subsidies to American farmers

116 Which of the following best completes the diagram? A Great Society programs B New Deal programs C World War I treaty articles D Roosevelt Corollary

117 analyze how various New Deal agencies and programs such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, [the Securities and Exchange Commission,] and Social Security to affect the lives of U.S. citizens TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 39. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century; 40. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction

118 Which New Deal agency continues to protect against the loss of savings in personal accounts? F Works Progress Administration G Tennessee Valley Authority H Social Security Administration J Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Which New Deal agency established a pension program that contributes to the income of retired workers? A Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation B Social Security Administration C Securities and Exchange Commission D Agricultural Adjustment Administration

119 describe the economic effects of World War II on the home front, including rationing, female employment, and the end of the Great Depression TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 41. how to read maps, graphs, and other demographic data to compare and contrast or determine the level of development or standard of living of different groups of people; 42. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century; 43. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction; 44. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century.

120 This photograph shows a female factory worker during World War II. It demonstrates that during the war, many women — A were not recognized for contributing to the war effort B were leaders in the labor movement C achieved economic equality in the workplace D were employed in nontraditional occupations

121 This World War II poster shows that — A the government tried to recruit women to fight in the war B the government sought women to fill jobs left vacant by men C women refused to volunteer to help in the war effort D female military officers commanded both male and female troops

122 U.S. citizens at home were directly affected during World War II by the — A government rationing of essential goods B rise in the unemployment rate C worsening of the economic depression D government ending the military draft

123 What was responsible for the economic conditions shown in the diagram? A Cold War B New Deal C World War II D Great Society

124 The photograph above demonstrates that during World War II, women — A expressed opposition to involvement in the conflict B risked their lives by serving in combat roles C performed duties that historically had been assigned to men D trained men to conduct air raids on the enemy

125 describe the dynamic relationship between U.S. international trade policies and the U.S. free enterprise system TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 45. how government leaders dealt with various economic issues during the 20th century; 46. how the free-enterprise system of economics developed in the United States after Reconstruction. From the Social Studies Center for Educator Development (SSCED) U.S. Free Enterprise System The U.S. free enterprise system is an economic system in which individuals depend on supply and demand and the profit margin to determine the answers to the four basic economic questions of "what to produce," "how to produce,“ "how many to produce," and "for whom to produce." Profit is an improved situation, usually measured in dollars. The quest for improvement financially and materially motivates producers and consumers in the free enterprise system. Government regulation is kept to a minimum. Competition between companies makes it more difficult to answer the questions of what and how much to produce and for whom, but it also makes it harder for one company to monopolize the market.

126 The purpose of the Open Door policy proposed by the United States in 1899 was to — A protect U.S. interests by establishing equal trading rights in China B establish a trade embargo against Japan until the Japanese withdrew from Korea C form a military alliance with countries opposed to Russian expansion D encourage Asian nations to form an economic coalition The Open Door policy was implemented as a result of attempts by foreign nations to restrict trade with — F Japan G India H Korea J China

127 Which event most contributed to the large number of trucks coming into the United States, as shown in the map above? F The establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) G The implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) H The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol J The signing of the World Trade Agreement

128 Which of the following most likely resulted in economic cooperation between nations on a global level? A Fordney-McCumber Tariff B Smoot-Hawley Tariff C General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade D North American Free Trade Agreement

129 explain actions taken by people from racial, ethnic, and religious groups to expand economic opportunities and political rights in American society TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 47. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century

130 In the 1960s César Chávez organized the United Farm Workers to — A assist farm workers in securing loans to buy homes B demand disaster relief for farmers in the Midwest C guarantee government subsidies for U.S. fruit growers D improve working conditions for migrant farm laborers The actions of César Chávez in the 1960s led to improved working conditions for — A disabled citizens B steel industry workers C migrant farmworkers D civil servants

131 Lunch-counter sit-ins Montgomery bus boycott March on Washington Freedom Summer The events listed above occurred as part of the — A women’s rights movement B Progressive movement C antiwar movement D Civil Rights movement

132 In the photo above, Freedom Marchers in Mississippi demonstrate in order to expand — A the political right to vote B religious freedom C the legal status of immigrants D the opportunity to earn a minimum wage

133 All of these were examples of demonstrations that occurred to — A end the Vietnam War B focus on environmental issues C obtain equal rights for African Americans D lower the voting age

134 Dr. Hector P. García founded the American GI Forum to ensure that Hispanic veterans received — A the same honorary rank as other veterans who served B lifetime employment in the military C job placement in medical professions D the same benefits provided to other veterans 500,000 Hispanics served in the armed forces during World War II. The Naval Air Station at Corpus Christi refused to treat sick Hispanic veterans. Dr. Hector P. García founded the American GI Forum in 1948.

135 TAKS Objective 3: (US21D) identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 48. how women and people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups contributed to political, social, and economic life in the United States during the 20th century.

136 Which of these made it possible for women to become full participants in American political life? A Appointment of women to the U.S. Supreme Court B Passage of the 19th Amendment granting women voting rights C Creation of the National Organization for Women (NOW) D Equal pay for female factory workers

137 Which of the following issues was the most likely reason for the creation of the National Woman’s Party, shown in the photograph below? F Promoting conservation legislation G Ending gender discrimination in voting H Promoting the growth of big business J Ending immigration restrictions

138 explain the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as electric power, the telegraph and telephone, petroleum-based products, medical vaccinations, and computers on the development of the United States TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 49. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction….

139 The invention of the telegraph aided the economic development of the United States by — A protecting the growth of the Pony Express B reducing the cost of electric power C increasing the speed of communication between people D eliminating the need for railroad transportation Some recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future. — Albert Einstein, letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, August 2, 1939 The development referred to in Einstein’s letter led directly to — F a government program to develop the atomic bomb G the first funding of scientific research by the federal government H the delivery of inexpensive electricity to U.S. consumers J the creation of a new cabinet department

140 The development of both the telegraph and telephone contributed to the economic expansion of the United States by increasing the — A willingness of communications companies to share technology B price and durability of communications equipment C scale and speed of nationwide communications D importation of foreign communications products Which technological innovation most directly enabled the construction of skyscrapers throughout U.S. cities in the late nineteenth century? A Whitney’s interchangeable parts B Fulton’s steam engine C Taylor’s scientific management D Bessemer’s steel process The invention of the electric elevator contributed to the growth of cities in the United States by — F reducing the need for large industrial complexes G making the construction of taller buildings practical H leading to federal regulation of all urban construction J eliminating the need to build tenement housing

141 TAKS Objective 3: (US22C) analyze the impact of technological innovations on the nature of work, the American labor movement, and businesses TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 50. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction….

142 The author of the excerpt describes a condition that resulted from industrialization and criticizes the — A wealthy for taking advantage of workers B workers for not joining trade unions C workers for not supporting management D government for protecting workers Which of the following is a primary result of twentieth-century technological innovations such as computers and robots? F Fewer assembly-line jobs for workers G More people working in agriculture H Fewer people living in suburbs J More safety hazards for factory workers

143 analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations, including those in transportation and communication, have changed the standard of living in the United States TAKS Information Booklet The following list contains some of the issues students must understand to respond to questions related to Objective 3: 51. how various scientific and technological innovations have changed the standard of living in the United States since Reconstruction… The expansion of America’s railroad network in the late 1800s changed the standard of living by — A creating employment opportunities for women and children B establishing an example for ethical business practices C increasing the availability and variety of consumer goods D discouraging economic competition with foreign countries

144 Which of the following is an accurate statement about the impact of the automobile on American life? A The automobile has improved air quality because fossil fuels are clean-burning. B The automobile has led to the growth of suburbs because cars allow people to commute to work. C The automobile has reduced personal freedom because people must obtain licenses to drive. D The automobile has helped U.S. businesses grow because people are reluctant to buy foreign cars Rapid growth of suburbs Passage of the U.S. Interstate Highway Act Popularity of drive-in theaters Which of the following is the best title for the list above? F Effects of the Baby Boom During the 1940s G Impact of the Automobile During the 1950s H Growth of the Service Industry During the 1960s J Results of Gasoline Shortages During the 1970s

145 The expansion of America’s railroad network in the late 1800s changed the standard of living by — A creating employment opportunities for women and children B establishing an example for ethical business practices C increasing the availability and variety of consumer goods D discouraging economic competition with foreign countries

146 analyze political, economic, social, and demographic data to determine the level of development and standard of living in nations (correlates with WH14C) Level of Development Countries with high levels of urbanization and industrialization that enjoy high material standards of living are referred to as developed countries. Countries with lower levels of progress and prosperity are considered less developed or underdeveloped countries. Countries showing evidence of economic, social, and political progress are termed developing countries. Some measures of development include: national product per person, e.g., the sum total of all the goods and services produced in a nation in one year divided by the total population; occupational structure of the workforce, e.g., percentage of the labor force employed in manufacturing (developed) vs. agriculture (less developed); consumption of energy per person; transportation and communication facilities per person, e.g., the per capita index of telephones, railroads, roads, radios; standard of living, e.g., literacy rates, caloric intake per person, infant mortality, life expectancy. Standard of Living Standard of living is a function of the level of development in a country, measured by factors such as the amount of personal income, levels of education, food consumption, life expectancy, availability of health care, ways natural resources are used, level of technology, and others.

147 The best title for the diagram above is — A Characteristics of Developing Nations B Characteristics of Industrialized Nations C Characteristics of a Free-Enterprise System D Characteristics of a Command Economic System

148 Ethnic conflict in Yugoslavia led to its breakup into five republics. According to the information in the table, which of the five republics has the highest level of economic development? A Bosnia and Herzegovina B Croatia C Serbia and Montenegro D Slovenia

149 compare the ways people satisfy their basic needs through the production of goods and services such as subsistence agriculture versus market-oriented agriculture or cottage industries versus commercial industries (correlates with WH14C) Subsistence Agriculture Subsistence agriculture is the kind of agriculture practiced most widely around the world, especially in the less developed economies of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. Foods and other goods and services are produced by a family for its own consumption. Subsistence agriculture is usually very small-scale and uses a low level of technology. It often requires a very intensive use of small plots of land to support a dense population. What a family raises is what it has available to eat. Because there is little surplus, there is very little trade. Market-Oriented Agriculture Agriculture in a market economy responds to the forces of the market and involves off-farm sales of goods. Farmers in a market economy (free enterprise system) produce crops and other foodstuffs based on what the market demands. The price of agricultural products depends upon supply and demand. Farmers specialize in producing the goods that they can raise most profitably. This type of agriculture is most common in the developed economies of the world. However, in less developed regions of the world, market-oriented agriculture in the form of plantation agriculture was established to supply the developed world with raw materials such as sugar, rubber, cacao, coffee, and bananas. Patterns of agricultural production have changed over time in response to improvements in transportation technology. A model used to explain the location of different types of agriculture in a market economy is von Thunen's spatial model of farming. The value of land is highest closest to urban areas and declines as one moves away from the city. The most intensive forms of agriculture, which generate the most profit on the smallest plots of land, are located closer to urban areas. Less intensive agricultural activities, which require large amounts of land to be profitable, take place farther away from cities. In areas adjacent to urban centers, intensive agriculture such as dairying and market gardening are common; in areas farthest from urban areas, extensive agriculture activities such as ranching and large-scale grain farming are profitable in a market economy. Cottage Industry In a subsistence economic system, small-scale production of goods for sale in markets is termed cottage industry. It usually involves producing a good by hand or with low technology at home or in a small village cooperative. Commercial Industry The production of manufactured goods in a market economic system is termed commercial industry. There are four major industrial regions in the world today: western and central Europe, eastern North America, Russia-Ukraine, and East Asia. All are linked and competing for commercial dominance in a world-wide economic system.

150 Compared to a market-oriented economy, a subsistence-based economy has a higher percentage of agricultural output that is — A sold for profit B produced for personal use C collected for payment of taxes D distributed to the poor by the government Which of the following is the most likely motive for market-oriented agriculture? A Organic farming B Recreational farming C Subsistence farming D Farming for profit What type of economy is described by the information above? F Subsistence agriculture G Cottage industry H Commercial agriculture J Command economy Small tracts of land Family-based workforce Crops mainly grown for personal consumption

151 8.3A :explain the reasons for the growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period 8.16A identify the influence of ideas from historic documents including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, [the Mayflower Compact,] the Declaration of Independence, the Federalist Papers, [and selected anti-federalist writings] on the U.S. system of government 8.16D analyze how the U.S. Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights 8.17B describe the impact of 19th-century amendments including the 13th, 14th, and 15 th amendments on life in the United States 8.18B describe historical conflicts arising over the issue of states' rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War 8.20A define and give examples of unalienable rights 8.20B summarize rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights 8.22B describe the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society

152 Whoever, when the United States is at war,... shall willfully utter [speak], print, write, or publish any disloyal... or abusive language about the form of government of the United States... shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.... — from the 1918 amendment to the Espionage Act of 1917 Which civil liberty was most seriously threatened by the act shown in this box? F Right to an attorney G Freedom of religion H Freedom of speech I Trail by jury

153 evaluate the impact of Progressive Era reforms including [initiative, referendum, recall, and] the passage of the 16th and 17th amendments Progressive Era Progressivism was a political movement of the early 1900s, first called progressive by President Woodrow Wilson in Progressivism was not a united movement. Instead it occurred over a period of time from the late 1890s to the Great Depression. It began in local and city politics and spread to influence state and national politics during Wilson's administration. Features of the era in which the progressive movement occurred included a decrease in voter participation and an increase in special interest groups striving to reform society, the economy, and politics. The movement coincided with the rise of big business and increased interest in scientific engineering and organization. Progressives were generally more interested in a predictable society than in individual or local initiative. Reform was concentrated in urban areas and in industry because that was where the majority of the corporations and those versed in social engineering were located. Reform efforts of the era did foster change. For instance, following the Galveston Hurricane in 1900, people were hired to rebuild the city based on their knowledge of city planning, not because of political connections. Drug inspection and labeling began, child labor laws and minimum wage measures were considered, and women's rights gained attention. However, efforts to make society more efficient and regulated also led to increased segregation and discrimination. In the early 1900s a series of political reforms was enacted to improve the efficiency and response of city and state government. These included initiative and referendum which served to give voters a greater role in the lawmaking process and recall which increased a voter's ability to eject an elected official from office. 16th and 17th Amendments The 16th Amendment (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income. The 17th Amendment (1913) guaranteed the direct election of senators by the voters. In the case of a vacancy in a Senate seat, the amendment authorized a special election to fill the vacancy.

154 evaluate the impact of Progressive Era reforms including [initiative, referendum, recall, and] the passage of the 16th and 17th amendments

155 The 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution provided for U.S. senators to be elected directly by the people. This amendment is significant because it — F allowed for the election of more experienced senators G gave citizens more control of the government H discouraged people from voting in state and local elections J lessened the importance of political parties Which group benefited most from the reforms shown in this diagram? F Political parties G Industrial laborers H Religious institutions I Big Business

156 What was the immediate effect of the Progressive reforms listed in the box? A Shareholders began to elect corporate officers. B Big business came under greater government control. C Citizens had a larger role in selecting their elected representatives. D Political bosses in large cities gained greater control over local governments Ratification of the 17th Amendment gave the people a greater voice in government by providing for — F direct election of U.S. senators G federal funding of local and state governments H equal voting rights for African Americans J equal representation in the Senate and House

157 If you were a sociable person, he [the government inspector] was quite willing to enter into conversation with you, and to explain to you the deadly nature of the ptomaines which are found in tubercular pork; and while he was talking with you you could hardly be so ungrateful as to notice that a dozen carcasses were passing him untouched. — Upton Sinclair, 1906 After reading the book excerpted above, President Theodore Roosevelt asked the U.S. Congress to — F halt production at meatpacking plants G pass a law calling for closer regulation of food quality H fund research to find a cure for tuberculosis J pass a law to limit work hours in meatpacking plants

158 trace the historical development of the civil rights movement in the 18th, 19th, and 20 th centuries, including the 13th, 14th, 15th amendments Civil Rights Movement Civil rights are legal and political rights enjoyed by the inhabitants of a country, especially the rights guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The struggle for equal rights was never easy. For nearly 100 years, from the ratification of the 15th Amendment to the adoption of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, African Americans and women sought equality before the law and protection of their rights by the Constitution. Some states passed measures which extended equality to blacks and women, but most did not. Beginning in the 1940s, nonviolent tactics were adopted in an effort to unify protest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made racial, religious, and sex discrimination in public places by employers illegal. It also gave the federal government power to enforce all laws governing civil rights. The March on Washington was an early and important step for the black community in gathering national attention to its plight. Black activists, often affiliated with church groups, continued to offer passive resistance to the unjust civil laws. This form of protest is called civil disobedience. The effort of women to secure equal rights was also frustrating. In the early 1970s, the Equal Rights Amendment was accepted by Congress after more than 130 years of effort on the part of women. However, after ten years, two-thirds of the state legislatures had not ratified the measure and it died in 1982.

159 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States.... —14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution The 14th Amendment was important to the Civil Rights movement because it provided constitutional justification for — A passage of hate-crimes legislation B the end of racial segregation C legal recognition of the NAACP D the creation of affirmative-action programs The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin. The act also established — A legal consequences for discrimination B exceptions for job-related discrimination C an official definition of housing discrimination D criminal penalties for those practicing affirmative action

160 The U.S. Civil Rights movement had its roots in the late 18th and early 19th centuries with the work of — A carpetbaggers B the Know-Nothings C abolitionists D the Populists The information in the box describes William Lloyd Garrison, who became a leading advocate for abolishing — A child labor B monopolies C slavery Correct Answer D direct taxes

161 evaluate government efforts, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to achieve equality in the United States Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964, signed by President Lyndon Baines Johnson, made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal. It also gave the federal government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights including the desegregation of schools and public places.

162 1896 The U.S. Supreme Court establishes the separate-but-equal doctrine in Plessy v. Ferguson The U.S. Supreme Court supports the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States This change happened because of efforts to — F end racial discrimination in public places G keep citizens who fail a reading and writing test from voting H improve voter participation in large cities I segregate people of different races

163 As a result of the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, segregation was outlawed in — A public facilities B the armed forces C religious institutions D private universities In 1963 the Birmingham, Alabama, police shocked the nation by using fire hoses and attack dogs in their response to civil rights protestors. Shortly after the violence in Birmingham, President John F. Kennedy declared it was time to — A increase the government’s commitment to civil rights B enforce voting restrictions that discriminate based on race C decrease the government’s involvement in states’ rights issues D limit access to the media by civil rights protestors

164 Outlawed discrimination in hotels, motels, restaurants, theaters, and all other public accommodations engaged in interstate commerce Prohibited discrimination by government agencies that receive federal funding Prohibited discrimination in hiring on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Which of the following is described by the list above? A The Voting Rights Act of 1965 B Brown v. Board of Education C The Civil Rights Act of 1964 D Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

165 It ought to be possible for American consumers of any color to receive equal service in places of public accommodation, such as hotels and restaurants and theaters and retail stores, without being forced to resort to demonstrations in the street.... — President John F. Kennedy, Address to the Nation Which of the following legislative acts addressed the issue referred to in this statement by President Kennedy? F Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 G Equal Access Act H Equal Pay Act J Civil Rights Act of 1964

166 analyze the effects of 20th-century landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education,[ Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, Reynolds v. Sims]. Brown v. Board of Education Referencing the 14th Amendment's equal protection clause, the Supreme Court, in 1954, outlawed racial segregation in public schools in this landmark case. It reversed the 1896 decision, Plessy v. Ferguson, which held that states could segregate public facilities as long as all facilities were equal. In winning Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas), Thurgood Marshall and other NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) lawyers proved that separate schools were not equal and never would be because the segregation implied inequality. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke In 1978, in a two-part decision, the Supreme Court ruled first that Allan Bakke was a victim of reverse discrimination. Bakke, a white applicant, was twice denied admission into the University of California-Davis (UC-D) medical school even though his test scores were higher than the average of minority students who were admitted to comply with a UC-D special admissions program. But the Supreme Court also upheld the right of a school to adopt an admission program which included race or ethnic background as an element. Thus, the court did not overturn "affirmative action," preferring to take discrimination questions on a case-by-case basis. Reynolds v. Sims In the early 1960s President John F. Kennedy sought to balance the representation of rural and urban areas in the U.S. House of Representatives by gaining judicial support to reorganize voting districts. Some districts with a few thousand residents had representation equal to cities with hundreds of thousands of residents. Attorney General Robert Kennedy was influential in bringing two cases before the Supreme Court, Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964). In landmark decisions, the Supreme Court ruled that the national House of Representatives and all state and local legislative bodies had to be apportioned on a "one-man to one-vote" principle, further supporting equal representation in American government.

167 Which of the following was the immediate result of the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)? A The all-white primary was declared unconstitutional. B States were permitted to adopt Jim Crow laws. C Poll taxes were upheld as a legitimate restriction on voting. D Public schools were ordered to desegregate. Which of the following court cases is directly related to the scenario described above? A Gideon v. Wainwright: The accused has the right to an attorney in state felony cases. B Escobedo v. Illinois: The accused has the right to an attorney during police interrogation. C Reynolds v. Sims: Congressional districts should be equal in population. D Mapp v. Ohio: Evidence seized illegally cannot be used in a court of law.

168 Words can be weapons.... The question in every case is whether the words are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent. — U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Schenck v. U.S., 1919 Based on the excerpt above from Holmes’s opinion of the Court, it can be concluded that the — A federal government can place limitations on basic individual rights B legislative branch has final authority concerning issues of civil rights C protection of individual rights is the responsibility of state governments D Supreme Court does not have the authority to interpret the U.S. Constitution

169 Which headline reports the result of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education?

170 evaluate various means of achieving equality of political rights, including the 19th, 24th, and 26th amendments Amendment 19, 24 and 26 The first step in the process to create equal rights for women was to seek suffrage, or the right to vote. In the 1840s women spoke in public meetings calling for equal rights for women. Suffrage was extended to women in the Wyoming territory in 1869, and when it became a state in 1890 it was the first which allowed women the vote. Three other states which joined the United States in the 1890s likewise granted suffrage to women. These were Colorado, Idaho, and Utah. Yet, the 19th Amendment which extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections was not ratified until The 24th Amendment, ratified in 1964, eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections. The 26th Amendment, ratified in 1971, lowered the official voting age to 18, thereby allowing a greater percentage of U.S. citizens to participate in the process of government.

171 The movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s to lower the voting age to 18 was prompted by the — A National Defense Education Act B election of John F. Kennedy as president C debate over the Vietnam War D successes of the Persian Gulf War Which of the following events prompted the ratification of the 26th Amendment, which gave 18-year-olds the right to vote? A The Watergate scandal B The election of Richard M. Nixon C The energy crisis D The Vietnam War Which of the following conflicts resolved the issue of slavery and ended states’ efforts to declare a law of Congress null and void? A The Revolutionary War B The War of 1812 C The Mexican War D The Civil War

172 By ratifying the 24th Amendment, which eliminated the poll tax, the federal government acted to — A force state officials to revise their income tax schedules B provide a more equal opportunity for citizens to vote C encourage members of the armed services to vote D remove all racial barriers to employment opportunities The 24 th Amendment to the Constitution said that no state can keep a person from voting because the person failed to pay a poll tax. Before the 24th Amendment was passed, what was the poll tax used for in the South? F To increase the number of citizens voting G To limit the rights of states H To discourage minority citizens from voting I to raise money for public education

173 US24A [locate and] use primary and secondary sources [such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts] to acquire information about the United States US24B analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause- and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations [and predictions], and drawing inferences and conclusions H.24 C explain and apply different methods that historians use to interpret the past, including the use of primary and secondary sources, points of view, frames of reference, and historical context US24 F identify bias in written, [oral,] and visual material ( G.8 B compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment using [local,] state, national, and international human activities in a variety of cultural and technological contexts WG21C [construct and] interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and analyze geographic change

174 [We must protect] not free thought for those who agree with us, but freedom for the thought that we hate. — Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., 1929 In this excerpt, Justice Holmes suggests that allowing free speech in a democratic society includes — F developing new ideas G endorsing popular viewpoints H tolerating unpopular views J silencing vocal dissenters Every piece of work in the shops moves; it may move on hooks on overhead chains... it may travel on a moving platform or it may go by gravity, but the point is that there is no lifting or trucking of anything other than materials. — Henry Ford, 1924 What revolutionary manufacturing method is Henry Ford describing in this excerpt? A Assembly line B Micro-management C Quality assurance D Cottage industry

175 According to the graph, during which of the following 10 year periods did the greatest change in agricultural labor take place? A 1860–1870 B 1880–1890 C 1920–1930 D 1940–1950

176 Both of these photographs were taken in the South in the mid-1900s. What conclusion can be drawn by comparing them? A Because of differences in the facilities, white students most likely received a better education than African Americans. B Despite differences in the facilities, African American students most likely received a better education than white students. C Southern state governments provided equal funding for both African American and white students. D Segregation of southern schools had no impact on the quality of education.

177 Which of the following would be the best example of what President Kennedy asked Americans to do in the excerpt above? A Conserve energy B Support his reelection C Perform civil service D Oppose Supreme Court rulings Which of the following would be a primary source for a historian writing an account of the Battle of Wounded Knee? A A biography of a battle participant B A diary of a cavalry officer who participated in the battle C A history book on the Indian Wars D An interview with a descendant of Sitting Bull

178 In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military- industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. — President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address, 1961 The warning in President Eisenhower’s speech is about the — A growing aerospace industry B high level of defense spending C number of retired military leaders in Congress D collaboration between arms producers and the government All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words “Ich bin ein Berliner [I am a Berliner].” — President John F. Kennedy, June 26, 1963 According to the excerpt, what did Berlin symbolize to the West? F An ideal location for peace conferences G A strategic international outpost for the U.S. military H A place of freedom surrounded by a totalitarian state J A prime location from which to sell U.S. products to Europe

179 This photograph portrays an important historical event in the — A 1992 Los Angeles riots B Vietnam War C Civil Rights movement D 1960 presidential election

180 The point of view expressed in this poster is that if Americans failed to support the war effort by purchasing government bonds, then — A freedom would be threatened B the government would increase rationing C more soldiers would have to be drafted D the United States would be expelled from the Allied powers

181 Which of these statements best identifies why the Anasazi lived in the type of dwellings described above? A They adapted to their environment by using available resources. B Their economy required family dwellings to be temporary. C There was an abundance of lumber for constructing their houses. D The design of their buildings depended on the growing season

182 It can be concluded from the map that one purpose of the Lewis Clark expedition was to – A gain information about Spanish possessions in the Southwest B explore Canadian territory C explore areas west of the Mississippi D lay claim to the Rio Grande

183 Which of these nations controlled the greatest number of territories shown on the map below? F France G United States H Portugal J Great Britain

184 According to the map, which of the following cities fell under German occupation in 1939? F Königsberg G Bialystok H Breslau J Krakow

185 According to the map, which city was least likely to suffer the immediate effects of Soviet missiles fired from Cuba? F San Antonio G Dallas H Los Angeles J Seattle

186 Which of the following questions can be answered from the map below? F How many people in Texas voted in the 1924 presidential election? G What percentage of the population in California voted Republican? H Which candidate won the electoral vote in North Carolina? J How many people in New York voted for the Democratic candidate

187 Which of the following statements is supported by the information on the map below? A The territory of the thirteen original states included present-day Florida B The United States ceased to expand after C The United States acquired territory from several different nations. D The territory ceded by Mexico included Texas and New Mexico.

188 According to the map above, the nations that emit the most carbon dioxide are — A less-developed nations B located in the Northern Hemisphere C countries with small populations D located in the Southern Hemisphere

189 President Wilson’s speech asking for a declaration of war in 1917 implies that — A imperialism should be a major goal of the United States B the United States wishes only to protect itself C the United States should enter the war for moral reasons D other countries will have to repay the United States for the cost of war We are glad... to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples.... We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities [compensation] for ourselves.... — President Woodrow Wilson, 1917

190 Which of these statements shows bias? A Statement 1 B Statement 2 C Statement 3 D Statement 4 Statement 1: Many American families faced financial struggles during the Great Depression. Statement 2: Environmental conditions such as the Dust Bowl contributed to the Great Depression. Statement 3: The actions of ruthless businessmen and greedy bankers caused the Great Depression. Statement 4: Government agencies were created to address the problems of the Great Depression

191 The photograph above shows how farmers on the Great Plains — A utilized irrigation techniques B adapted to their environment C developed new agricultural technology D maintained contact with their neighbors WG8B

192 We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1954 every American president has offered support to the people of South Vietnam. We have helped to build, and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. And I intend to keep that promise. To dishonor that pledge, to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemies, and to the terror that must follow, would be an unforgivable wrong. — Lyndon B. Johnson, 1965 In our opinion and from our experience, there is nothing in South Vietnam which could happen that realistically threatens the United States of America. And to attempt to justify the loss of one American life in Vietnam, Cambodia or Laos by linking such loss to the preservation of freedom, which those misfits supposedly abuse, is to us the height of criminal hypocrisy, and it is that kind of hypocrisy which we feel has torn this country apart. — John Kerry, 1971 What phrase best describes the excerpts above? F Secondary sources G Factual accounts H Differing points of view J Newspaper reports 24C

193 Which conclusion is supported by the information in the heat-island profile above? A Rural activity is the dominant cause of global warming. B Suburban residential areas experience the greatest heat-island effect. C Dense urban areas are a significant cause of regional warming. D City parks increase the heat-island effect. WG8B

194 Statement 1: Many immigrants of the early 1900s lived in ethnic neighborhoods in large cities. Statement 2: Schools, churches, and businesses were built and supported by the immigrants of the early 1900s. Statement 3: The immigrants of the early 1900s often had to live in poorly built, overcrowded tenements. Statement 4: Most of the immigrants of the early 1900s were criminals from the old country who couldn’t be trusted. Which of the statements above most clearly demonstrates a negative bias? F Statement 1 G Statement 2 H Statement 3 J Statement 4 24F

195 The 1932 cartoon above suggests that when Franklin Roosevelt became president — F agriculture and mining were the main issues G voter turnout in local elections increased H domestic and international issues needed to be resolved J the federal government had reduced powers 24A

196 The type of housing shown above was necessary because many Native Americans living on the Great Plains — F needed easy access to railroad lines G wanted to hide their identity from the U.S. Army H were always on the move in search of buffalo J needed permanent residences in order to practice agriculture 24A

197 Here they are become men: in Europe they were as so many useless plants.... They withered, and were mowed down by want, hunger, and war; but now by the power of transplantation, like all other plants they have taken root.... —Excerpt from Letters from an American Farmer, J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, 1782 Which of the following does de Crevecoeur suggest happens when people immigrate to the United States? A They pay taxes. B They work in factories. C They start families. D They improve their lives. 24B

198 Based on this map, it can be concluded that the purpose of the Ho Chi Minh Trail was to — A create a physical boundary between Laos and Thailand B send troops and supplies from North Vietnam to South Vietnam C move Vietnamese refugees to camps in Thailand

199 The view expressed in this cartoon is that — F Native Americans were treated fairly by the U.S. government G government officials grew rich at the expense of Native Americans H Native Americans led comfortable lives on reservations I Native Americans should attack American settlers 24F


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