2“The Great War”; “The War To End All Wars” In your notes: What do you want to learn about WWI (and America’s participation in it)?“Nothing” is not an acceptable response!
3Why Learn About WWI? Global effects (Direct) “Just about everything that happened in the remainder of the century was in one way or another a result of World War I …”For Europeans, the war is the epochal event of the centuryBolshevik Revolution in RussiaLenin, Stalin, USSR, Cold War with USAThe rise of fascism, World War II, concentration camps and the HolocaustAtomic bomb
4Why Learn About WWI? Global effects (Indirect) The Great Depression & rise of HitlerThe collapse of European colonialismWWI killed more people, involved more countries (28) and cost more $ than any previous war in history9 million combatants, 5 million civiliansTotal war$186 (directly) and another $151 (indirectly)No way to determine what those who died might have contributed to mankind
5Why Learn About WWI?First war to use airplanes, tanks, long range artillery, submarines, and poison gasLeft 7 million men permanently disabledDownfall of 4 monarchiesRussia (1917); Germany (1918), Austria-Hungary (1918), and Turkey (1922)Severely disrupted the European economies and allowed the USA to become the world’s leading creditor and industrial powerSocial consequencesArmenian genocideInfluenza epidemic (25 to 50 million killed worldwide)
6Why Learn About WWI? Belief in human progress was shattered Created a “lost generation” in both Europe and the USThe “Peace to End All Peace” left a legacy of bitterness that contributed to WWII twenty-one years laterAmerica became a major (although reluctant) player in world affairsOther profound changes in American lifeTo be discussed later
7CAUSES OF THE WARHistorians have traditionally cited four long-term causes of the First World WarNATIONALISM – a devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nationIMPERIALISM – Economic and political control over weaker nationsMILITARISM – The growth of nationalism and imperialism led to increased military spendingALLIANCE SYSTEM – By 1907 Europe was divided into two armed camps
8NATIONALISMOften nationalism led to rivalries and conflicts between nations (“My country, right or wrong!”)Additionally, various ethnic groups resented domination by others and wanted independenceRussia and Austria-Hungary disagreed over the treatment of Serbs in central EuropeGermany was allied with Austria-Hungary while Russia, France and Britain were partners
10IMPERIALISM For many centuries, European nations built empires Colonies supplied European nations with raw materials and provided markets for manufactured goodsAs Germany industrialized it competed directly with France and BritainMajor European countries also competed for land in Africa
12MILITARISMEmpires had to be defended and European nations increased military spending enormously in the late 19th and early 20th centuryBy 1890 the strongest nation militarily in Europe was GermanyGermany had a strong army and built up a navy to rival England’s fleetFrance, Italy, Japan and the United States quickly joined in the naval buildup
13Battleships were being stockpiled by European nations, Japan and America in the late 19th and early 20th century – The “Dreadnaught Gap”
14ALLIANCE SYSTEMBy 1907 there were two major defense alliances in EuropeThe Triple Entente, later known as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and RussiaThe Triple Alliance, later known as the Central Powers, consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Soon joined by the Ottoman EmpireTRIPLE ENTENTEFRANCEBRITAINRUSSIA
16THE SPARK: AN ASSASSINATION The Balkan region was considered “the powder keg of Europe” due to competing interests in the areaRussia wanted access to the Mediterranean SeaGermany wanted a rail link to the Ottoman EmpireAustria-Hungary, which had taken control of Bosnia in 1878, accused Serbia of subverting its rule over BosniaFinally, in June of 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne was gunned down by a Serbia radical igniting a diplomatic crisisThe Archduke is assassinated in Sarajevo in June 1914
18Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia.
19The Black Hand..The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia.Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret."
20Domino EffectAustria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia.Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary.Russia pledged their support for Serbia.
21Domino Effect Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia.Germany declares war on France.Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
22Review – The MAIN causes of WWI M = militarismA = alliancesI = imperialismN = nationalismIn your notes: “ Which of the above was the most significant cause? Explain your answer.
23THE FIGHTING BEGINSThe Alliance system pulled one nation after another into the conflict – The Great War had begunOn August 3, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, following a strategy known as the Schlieffen PlanThis plan called for a quick strike through Belgium to Paris, FranceNext, Germany would attack RussiaThe plan was designed to prevent a two-front war for Germanysee map on page 375The Schliefflen Plan
24THE WAR BECOMES A STALEMATE Unable to save Belgium, the Allies retreated to the Marne River in France where they halted the German advance in September of 1914Both sides dug in for a long siegeBy the spring of 1915, two parallel systems of deep trenches crossed France from Belgium to SwitzerlandThere were 3 types of trenches; front line, support, and reserveBetween enemy trenches was “no man’s land” – an area pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire (see graphic on pg 376)British soldiers standing in mud
26Why was WWI a Stalemate? What’s a stalemate? Neither side can make a move to win.Machine gun. How did this change war? How was it fought before?Trench Warfare = “solution”.Millions die without gaining ground.
28FIRST BATTLE OF THE SOMME During the First Battle of the Somme - which began July 1, 1916 and lasted until mid-November – the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first dayFinal casualties for the First Battle of the Somme totaled 1.2 million, yet only 7 miles of ground was gainedThis bloody trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, lasted for three yearsGas attacks were common features of trench life and often caused blindness and lung disease
32NEW WEAPONS USEDMachine Guns – Guns could now fire 600 rounds per minuteThe Tank – New steel tanks ran on caterpillar treadsAirplanes – Early dogfights resembled duals, however by 1918 the British had a fleet of planes that could deliver bomb loadsPoison Gas – mustard gas was used to subdue the enemy
35Famous poem by Wilfred Owen about the evils of mustard gas Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum est (1917)Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs, And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots, But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame, all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of gas-shells dropping softly behind. Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time, But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And floundering like a man in fire or lime. Dim through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in. And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.Famous poem by Wilfred Owen about the evils of mustard gas
36Soldier Poets In Flanders Field – John McCrae (Br) I have a rendezvous with death – Alan Seeger (US/Fr)In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, though poppies grow In Flanders fields.I have a rendezvous with Death At some disputed barricade, When Spring comes back with rustling shade And apple-blossoms fill the air— When Spring brings back blue days and fair. It may be he shall take my hand And lead me into his dark land And close my eyes and quench my breath— It may be I shall pass him still. On some scarred slope of battered hill When Spring comes round again this year And the first meadow-flowers appear. God knows 'twere better to be deep Pillowed in silk and scented down, Where Love throbs out in blissful sleep, Pulse nigh to pulse, and breath to breath, Where hushed awakenings are dear... But I've a rendezvous with Death At midnight in some flaming town, When Spring trips north again this year, And I to my pledged word am true, I shall not fail that rendezvous.
37AMERICANS QUESTION NEUTRALITY In 1914, most Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000 miles away – they wanted neutralitySome simply did not want their sons to experience the horror of warfareGerman-Americans supported Germany in World War IHowever, many American felt close to the British because of a shared ancestry and languageMost importantly, American economic interests were far stronger with the AlliesFrench propaganda poster portrayed the Germans as inhuman and impacted American attitudes toward the Germans
38-U.S. declares neutrality in the war– President Wilson U.S. Neutrality-U.S. declares neutrality in the war– President Wilson-develops sympathy for the Allied causeAmericans feel loyalty to Britain as stories of atrocity circulate through propaganda-Begin to export war materialsU.S. begins to ship millions of dollars in supplies to AlliesSome atrocity stories—spread by British propaganda—referred to Germany as the “Bully of Europe.” Stories of Germany attacking civilians, destroying villages, cathedrals, libraries, and even hospitals prompted sympathy among Americans. This was spread through British propaganda aimed at the US: "It should be America's duty to help us subdue the mad dog of Europe."
39United States Policy Towards War Economics- During the first two years of the war the U.S. had a business recession and unemployment reached approx. 15%.- Economic recovery became dependent on sales of war materials to the Allies.- Allies took out loans with American Banks = good financial sense for the U.S. to see Allies win. Allies would need victory to pay off war debts to U.S.IS THIS NETURALITY?
40War at Sea The Schlieffen Plan fails and a stalemate ensues. 1) British impose a strict BLOCKADE (map pg 375)This was meant to starve out the enemy regardless of international law.The British stopped, searched, and (sometimes) seized American Ships.deja vu all over again (War of ______ ?)There was a difference between war supplies and food under international law but it was ignored by the British.(Is there a difference?)2) Germany responds with submarine warfare- Waters were declared war zones.- NEUTRAL ships became unsafe.- Sinking NEUTRAL ships was looked upon as more offensive than the British Blockade.
41THE WAR HITS HOMEDuring the first two years of the war, America was providing (selling) the allied forces dynamite, cannon powder, submarines, copper wire and tubing and other war materialBoth the Germans and British imposed naval blockades on each otherThe Germans used U-boats (submarines) to prevent shipments to the North AtlanticAny ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunkGerman U-boat 1919
42United States Policy Towards War 1914 – American public firmly opposed to intervention in a European War.- Wilson re-elected in 1916 running on a NON-INTERVENTIONplatform. (“He kept us out of war”)- HOWEVER, after the outbreak of war the U.S. pursued a neutralitythat favored the Allies. This made it so the U.S. became increasinglytied to an Allied victory. HOW? WHY?
43United States Policy Towards War German Submarine Warfare- U.S. officials asserted the doctrine of neutral rights for American ships.- Germany relied on their submarine fleet to break the British blockade and strangle Britain economically. Believed the could defeated Britain in six months if they were successful.- Attacked ships of great Britain and shipsheaded to Great Britain.- German subs often fired on neutral shipswithout firing a warning as required byinternational laws.
44THE LUSITANIA DISASTER United States involvement in World War I was hastened by the Lusitania disasterThe Lusitania was a British passenger liner that carried 1,198 persons on a fateful trip on May 7, 1915A German U-boat sank the British passenger liner killing all aboard including 128 American touristsThe Germans claimed the ship was carrying Allied ammunitionAmericans were outraged and public opinion turned against Germany and the Central PowersMay 7, 1915
45United States Policy Towards War Sinking of the Lusitania: May 7, 1915- German submarine sank the British passenger liner Lusitania off the Irish coast with a loss of 1,198 lives, including 128 U.S. citizens.Technically, the ship was a legitimate target, because it carried 4,200 cases of AMMUNITION and traveled through adeclared war zone.- Much of the American public was outragedand public opinion beganto turn againstGermany. (Propaganda)
461916 ELECTIONThe November 1916 election pitted incumbent Democrat Woodrow Wilson vs. Republican candidate Supreme Court justice Charles Evans HughesWilson won a close election using the slogan, “He kept us out of war”That slogan would prove ironic because within a few months the United States would be embroiled in World War IWilson
47Election of 1916HughesWilson“He kept us out of war!!!!”
49United States Policy Towards War The Zimmerman Note- Arthur Zimmerman, a German official, sent a telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico asking him to make an offer to the MEXICAN Government.- If Mexico agreed to become an ally with Germany in the war against the U.S., Germany promised Mexico would regain its “lost TERRITORY in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona” after the war.- British intelligence intercepted the message and shortly after it was leaked to the U.S. press. This infuriated Americans and helpedpush the country to war.
50AMERICA EDGES CLOSER TO WAR Several factors came together to bring the U.S. into the war;1) Germany ignored Wilson’s plea for peace2) The Zimmerman Note, a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German Ambassador in Mexico, proposed an allianceGermany promised Mexico a return of their “lost territory” in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona3) Next came the sinking of four unarmed U.S. merchant ships by German subs(Zimmerman note)Encoded message from Germany to Mexico
51Zimmerman note intercepted by a British agent and decoded
52AMERICA DECLARES WARA light drizzle fell on Washington on April 2, 1917, as senators, representatives, ambassadors, members of the Supreme Court, and other guests crowded into the Capital building to hear Wilson deliver his declaration of warWilson said, “The world must be safe for democracy”Congress passed the resolution a few days later
53United States Policy Towards War United States Declares War: April 6, 1917- February 1917 Germany resumedunrestricted Submarine warfare.(Had lessened after sinking ofthe Lusitania.)- Wilson declared, “Warfare againstcommerce,” equals “warfareagainst mankind. The world mustbe made safe for democracy.”
54Review Answer in your notes Describe some ways in which WWI threatened the lives of civilians on both sides of the Atlantic.Why were America’s ties with the Allies stronger than its ties with the Central Powers?Why do you think Germany escalated its U-boat attacks in 1917?
55ReviewWhat were the main reasons for U.S. involvement in the war?
56SECTION 2: AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE America was not ready for war – only 200,000 men were in service when war was declaredCongress passed the Selective Service Act in May of 1917By the end of 1918, 24 million had signed up and almost 3 million were called to dutyAbout 2 million American troops reached Europe
57FRESH U.S. SOLDIERS JOIN FIGHT After 2 ½ years of fighting, the Allied forces were exhaustedOne of the main contributions of the Americans was fresh and enthusiastic troopsAmerican infantry were nicknamed “doughboys” because of their white beltsMost doughboys had never ventured far from the farms or small towns they lived in
58AMERICAN TROOPS GO ON THE OFFENSIVE When Russia surrendered to the Germans in 1917, it allowed the Central Powers to focus on the Western FrontBy May, the Germans were within 50 miles of ParisThe Americans arrived and immediately played a major role in pushing the Germans backIn July and August the Americans helped the Allies win the Second Battle of the MarneMen of the 42nd Division during the Second Marne. These men were killed by artillery fire just 5 minutes after this photo was taken
59AMERICAN WAR HEROAlvin York, a blacksmith from Tennessee, originally sought an exemption from the war as a Conscientious ObjectorYork eventually decided it was morally acceptable to fight if the cause was rightOn October 8, 1918, armed with only a rifle and a revolver, York killed 25 Germans and (with six doughboys) captured 132 prisonersUpon his return home he was promoted to Sergeant and hailed a heroThe manThe movie
60GERMANY COLLAPSES, WAR ENDS GERMANY COLLAPSES; THE GREAT WAR ENDSGERMANY COLLAPSES, WAR ENDSOn November 3, 1918, Germany’s partner, Austria-Hungary, surrendered to the AlliesThat same day, German sailors mutinied against their governmentOther revolts followed, and Germany was too exhausted to continueSo at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, of the eleventh month of 1918, Germany signed a truce ending the Great WarWar ends 11/11/18