2 Changing Profession, Changing Attitudes Accepted test methods circa 1942Testing for voltage by touch under 250 volts considered safe!!Testing for low voltage by tasting!!
3 Electrical SafetyWhen I show this slide, I drive home that this is not an arc flash only standard. Rather it is an electrical safety standard covering all hazards involved with working on potentially energized equipment. Therefore your PPE must be a system in order to protect the worker properly3
4 What are the Electrical Hazards? Electrical SafetyWhat are the Electrical Hazards?Electrical Shock – When electrical current enters and exits the body creating a path.Arc Flash – A dangerous condition associated with the release of energy caused by an electric arc. Note that this explosive condition includes a broad spectrum of electromagnetic energy, plasma, fragments and a spray of molten materials.Arc Blast – Pressure wave caused by the expansion of gases and conducting materials with flying molten materials.When I show this slide, I drive home that this is not an arc flash only standard. Rather it is an electrical safety standard covering all hazards involved with working on potentially energized equipment. Therefore you PPE must be a system in order to protect the worker properly4
5 Electrical Safety Shock Illustration Current passage paths through the body(A) Touch Potential (B) Step Potential (C and D) Touch / Step PotentialCurrent passing through the heart and lungs is the most seriousWhen I show this slide, I drive home that this is not an arc flash only standard. Rather it is an electrical safety standard covering all hazards involved with working on potentially energized equipment. Therefore you PPE must be a system in order to protect the worker properly5
6 Electrical Safety Effects of Shock on the body Current, Not Voltage causes Electrical ShockmA Affect on PersonTingling sensations3+ Shock10+ Muscle contractions and pain30+ Respiratory paralysis60+ Heart Paralysis (may be fatal)Ventricular fibrillation (usually fatal)4+ Amps Heart Paralysis5+ Amps Tissue and Organs start to burnWhen I show this slide, I drive home that this is not an arc flash only standard. Rather it is an electrical safety standard covering all hazards involved with working on potentially energized equipment. Therefore you PPE must be a system in order to protect the worker properly6
7 Electrical Safety Statistics Annual U.S. average 4,000 Electrical contact injuries, non-disabling3,600Electrical contact injuries, disablingEach Day1Person is electrocutedElectrocutions4Leading cause of occupational fatalitiesEvery Year2000+Workers are sent to burn centers with electrical burns
8 Electrical Safety Terms and Definitions related to Arc Flash Arc Rating. Arc Rating is a protection value assigned to textile materials based on predicting 2nd degree burn injury based on the Stoll Curve.Arc Flash hazard. A dangerous condition associated with the release of energy caused by an electric arc. Note that this explosive condition includes a broad spectrum of electromagnetic energy, plasma, fragments and a spray of molten materials.Incident Energy as the amount of energy impressed on a surface, a certain distance from the source, generated during an electric arc event. Incident Energy is measured in calories/cm2.Cal/cm2. (Calories per Sq. Centimeter) The total energy on a surface area. It is the unit of measure used for Arc Ratings.When I show this slide, I drive home that this is not an arc flash only standard. Rather it is an electrical safety standard covering all hazards involved with working on potentially energized equipment. Therefore you PPE must be a system in order to protect the worker properly8
9 Electrical Safety What causes Arc Flashes? Electricity will go through the path of least resistance. When the path of electricity is suddenly interrupted, the electricity will try to create a new pathway.The arc can be generated by:- Mechanical breakdown/failure- Current overload- Accidental contactWhen I show this slide, I drive home that this is not an arc flash only standard. Rather it is an electrical safety standard covering all hazards involved with working on potentially energized equipment. Therefore you PPE must be a system in order to protect the worker properly9
10 Electrical Safety Arc Flash Variables Variables that effect the size and energy of an electric arc flash are:AmperageVoltageArc gapClosure timeDistance away from arc3 phase v single phaseConfined spaceCharacteristics of equipmentWhen I show this slide, I drive home that this is not an arc flash only standard. Rather it is an electrical safety standard covering all hazards involved with working on potentially energized equipment. Therefore you PPE must be a system in order to protect the worker properly10
11 Example of an arcing fault Electrical SafetyArc Flash ImpactsAs much as 80% of all electrical injuries are burns resulting from an arc-flash and ignition of flammable clothing.Arc temperature can reach 35,000°F - this is four times hotter than the surface of the sun. Fatal burns can occur at distances over 10 ft.Over 2000 people are admitted into burn centers each year with severe electrical burnsExample of an arcing faultWhen I show this slide, I drive home that this is not an arc flash only standard. Rather it is an electrical safety standard covering all hazards involved with working on potentially energized equipment. Therefore you PPE must be a system in order to protect the worker properly11
12 Electrical Safety Arc Blast Electrical Arc-Flash can create blast in excess of 200 lbs/ft2.Arc-Blast can cause collateral damage and extreme personal damage.Explode switchgearSend molten metal at extreme high velocities.
13 Electrical SafetyAre you in Compliance?Are your workers Safe?Industry standards and regulations:OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart SNEC 2011NFPA 70E-2012 EditionVarious ASTM Requirements
14 Electrical Safety NEC 2011 – National Electric Code Arc Flash Hazard Warning - Switchboards, panel boards, industrial control panels, and motor control centers in other than dwelling units, that are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized, shall be field marked to warn qualified persons of potential electric arc flash hazards. The marking shall be located so as to be clearly visible to qualified persons before examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the equipment.FPN No. 1: NFPA 70E-2012, Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, provides assistance in determining severity of potential exposure, planning safe work practices, and selecting personal protective equipment.FPN No. 2: ANSI Z , Product Safety Signs and Labels, provides guidelines for the design of safety signs and labels for application to products.
15 Sample NEC Warning Article 110.16 Electrical SafetySample NEC Warning Article
16 NFPA 70E – 2012 Edition Standard Electrical SafetyNFPA 70E – 2012 Edition StandardElectrical Safety Requirements for Employee WorkplacesThis requirement covers all aspects of worker safety associated with electrical hazards in the workplace. Within this standard are recommendations for proper PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)Addresses hazards:ShockArc FlashRequirements for shock and arc flash boundariesRequirements for personal protective equipment
17 Electrical Safety NFPA 70E 2012 Summary of Significant Changes All references to “FR” now changed to “Arc Rated”. This identifies that FR clothing is not necessarily tested to the ASTM test for arc rating.Addition of incident energy tables for direct current (DC) systems.Terms such as “flash protection boundary”, “flash hazard boundary”, and “flash boundary” changed to new term “arc flash boundary”.The nose was added to the coverage needed from a balaclava.Retraining shall be performed at intervals not to exceed 3 years.Electrical safety program shall identify procedures for working :within the limited approach boundary and arc flash boundary to clarify the separation between the two boundaries.Removal of 2* category. For 2012, all is included in category 2.Arc Blast is now a recognized hazard by NFPA 70E. Inclusion of this hazard may require updated assessments.Employees must report any perceived contact to supervision.Employers must inform contractors of any known hazards.
18 Electrical SafetyHow Do I Protect My Workers???
20 Electrical SafetyNFPA 70E provides two choices for selecting the appropriate PPE:Perform an arc flash hazard analysis, and document the incident energy exposureEasyPowerDuke Flux Software (Freeware)ETAPIEEE 1584 StandardAs an alternate, use the “Hazard Risk Category Classifications” table to choose the PPE level required for the task
21 Electrical SafetySalisbury Assessment Solutions (SAS) A full turn-key solution which provides an arc flash hazard analysis and the necessary PPE recommendations needed to protect workers against those hazards
22 Electrical Safety What Does SAS Provide? SAS will put you into compliance!Engineering service designed to identify hazardous electrical conditions which may exist in commercial or industrial facilities.Proper compliance training of personnel on procedures to help reduce injury/harm to the electrical worker
23 Electrical Safety SAS Process Initial Review Our engineers will review your line drawings and based on those drawings, identify potential risks in your work environment.If line drawings are out of date or unavailable, our engineers will be onsite to identify the potential risks.Post ReviewSAS will provide you with a full summary of the assessment as well as recommend practices to improve your organizations safety practices.SAS provides the training necessary to ensure your staff is educated in safe work practices.SAS will recommend the necessary PPE to provide your staff with essential protective equipment to keep them safe in the event of an arc flash.Salisbury Assessment Solutions gives you the Tools and Training to provide a Safe Work Environment!!
24 Electrical Safety Benefits of SAS – Turn Key Solution Assessment SolutionsSAS will complete the Salisbury by Honeywell “One Stop” Arc Flash Solution that our competition cannot offerFor years, Salisbury by Honeywell has offered all of the electrical PPE needed for an electrical worker.Now with Salisbury Assessment Solutions, Salisbury by Honeywell can offer electrical assessments and training!SAS Consumer PromiseSAS will continue to provide the worker with the same quality in its SAS service as the industry has come to expect from the products that Salisbury by Honeywell has provided since 1855.
25 Electrical Safety Who Could Use SAS? Institutional Government ManufacturingHospitalsWarehousingMarineMilitaryAll Non Residential Facilities With Electrical Power Requirements
26 Getting Started With Your SAS Assessment!! Electrical SafetyGetting Started With Your SAS Assessment!!
27 Electrical Safety What Is Electrical Safety PPE? The Term “Electrical Safety PPE” Includes All Products Available To The Worker To Ensure a Safe Work Environment
28 Electrical Safety Who Needs Electrical Safety PPE? OSHA/NFPA 70E states:“For energized circuits over 50 volts or more, safety tools and personal protective equipment must be used.”
32 Electrical Safety NFPA 70E: Does Not Recognize a Hazard Above 40 cal/cm²Suits With Higher Values Are Available But Are Not Recognized by NFPA 70EMay Be Needed When Using Software Method
33 Electrical Safety Make the Right Choice Uniforms Coveralls HRC 1 & 2 SolutionCoverallsAdditional LayerDo Not Use Over 11 cal/cm23 Piece SystemBib Overalls / Jacket / HoodHigher Risk CategoriesLab CoatsUnsafeAdditional Leg Protection Needed / Leggings
34 Electrical Safety Face Shields Must Meet ASTM F2178-02 Must Meet ANSI Z87.1Meet Same Criteria for ATPV Rating Given to Garments Based on ASTM F1958
35 Electrical Safety Face Shields Proper Storage Will Prolong Life of Face ShieldClean With Mild Soap and Warm WaterDO NOT USECleaners with AbrasivesDish Soap with ScentsPetroleum Based Cleaners
36 Electrical Safety Insulating Gloves OSHA 1910.333(a)(1) Rubber Insulating Gloves are among the most important articles of personal protective equipment for electrical workers. They are the first line of defense for contact with any energized components or lines.
38 Electrical Safety Types of Rubber Two Types of Rubber Type I Type II FlexibleCorona CuttingUVType IILess FlexibleOnly Available in CL00 and CL0Very Durable
39 Electrical Safety Glove Inspection Working around sharp object, in close proximity to energized partsGloves must be inspected prior to each useThere are two ways to inspect glovesManualPortable glove inflator
40 Electrical Safety Gloves Reject Criteria Rejection of Gloves Cuts PuncturesOzone checkingCorona CuttingEmbedded foreign materialsOil markingsGloves that leak air.
41 Electrical Safety Gloves Testing The interval between electrical retest for issued Rubber Gloves shall not exceed six monthsGloves that have been electrically tested but not issued shall not be placed into service unless they have been electrically tested within previous twelve months
42 Electrical Safety Gloves Storage Rubber gloves should be stored in glove bagsDo not store more than one pair of gloves in each bagDo not store on or in front of truck heaters.Do not roll , fold or tape
43 Electrical Safety Glove Liner Glove liners made from stretch fabric accommodate a range of hand sizes, absorb perspiration and improve wearer comfort and dexterity.
44 Typical Products Containing Petroleum Products Electrical SafetyTypical Products Containing Petroleum ProductsWashing detergentsSafe Alternative - Salisbury’s Salco Cleaner.Hand soaps- Use Salisbury’s Rub-Out hand cleaner.Baby powder-Use Salisbury’s 10-4 Glove Dust.
45 Electrical Safety Application Sizing of Rubber Gloves To determine the proper size, measure the distance around the palm of the hand between the thumb and forefinger
46 Leather Protector Gloves Electrical SafetyLeather Protector GlovesLeather Protector Gloves should always be worn over electrical insulating gloves to provide needed mechanical protection against abrasion or cuts. Leather protectors should never be used as work gloves and work gloves should never be used as protectors.
47 Electrical Safety Arc Flash & Gloves NFPA 70E Requires that Voltage Rated Gloves and Protectors Must Be Worn in the Presence Of Voltage But Does Not Discuss Arc Ratings for Gloves.NFPA 70E Does Say That Leather Gloves Offer Good Arc Flash Protection
48 Electrical Safety Insulated Tools NFPA 70E 130.7(D)(1)- Employees Shall Use Insulated Tools and/or Handling Equipment When Working Inside the Limited Approach Boundary of Exposed Live Parts Where Tools or Handling Equipment Might Make Accidental Contact…..Both NFPA 70E and OSHA Require Insulated Tools When Working On or Near 50V or More While Energized
49 Electrical Safety Insulated Tools ASTM F1505 OSHA 1910.333(c)(2) Tested to 10,000VMax Use 1000VMust Have Two Color Coating if Coated ToolMust Show Symbol For Use in Live Voltage Situation
50 Electrical Safety Blankets Blankets, as all other insulating products (except rubber gloves, used with leather protectors) are designed to provide protection against accidental contact with energized partsSalisbury Insulating Blankets, compliant with ASTM D1048 specification, are flexible and feature a reinforced beaded edge and eyelets for added strength and tear-resistanceSalisbury insulating blankets are available in Type I – natural rubber and Type II SALCOR ® rubber
51 Electrical Safety Roll Blankets Salisbury is offering insulating blanket material on a roll. Salisbury’s insulating Roll Blankets, made from a high-strength fabric-reinforced TYPE II rubber or PVC clear blankets, allow workers to custom cut the blanket to fit each job assignment. The product is available in three classes: Class 00 (500v), Class 0 (1,000v) and Class 1 (7,500v). PVC is class 1 only
52 Insulated Rescue Hooks Electrical SafetyInsulated Rescue HooksAn invaluable tool for any workplace, Salisbury’s rescue hook is used to withdraw an injured worker from a hazardous area. Confined spaces, vaults and the vicinities of electrical cabinets and switch gear are some of the places where the Salisbury Insulated Rescue Hook is a must.