Presentation on theme: "W ORLD W AR I AND ITS A FTERMATH The United States Enters World War I."— Presentation transcript:
W ORLD W AR I AND ITS A FTERMATH The United States Enters World War I
L EARNING T ARGETS After this lesson you will: Know why Wilson sent Marines into Latin America Recognize how events in Mexico became one reason for America to enter WWI Understand how a system of alliances in Europe was one reason WWI started Describe the naval races taking place in Europe and how they relate to nationalism and the start of WWI Analyze the Balkan Crisis and its contribution to the start of WWI in relation to the “black hand”, Franz Ferdinand, the Austro-Hungarian government, Serbia, and the system of alliances Discover the countries of the Triple Entente (Allies) and the Central Powers Analyze the Sussex Pledge and its provisions Describe the Zimmerman Telegram and its contribution towards American involvement in WWI
I NTRODUCTION The United States did not want to be a part of WWI President Wilson signed the Treaty of Versailles ending the “War to end all wars.” The United States did not want to be tied to European obligations.
T HE I MPACT ON A MERICA T ODAY The US is involved in European activities today. WWI helped shape how people view war today.
T HE U NITED S TATES E NTERS W ORLD W AR I: W OODROW W ILSON ’ S D IPLOMACY President Wilson believed in: Democracy as an essential ingredient for peace Imperialism led to war The Mexican Revolution Started in 1911 because: 1. A few wealthy landowners dominated Mexican Society 2. A majority of the people were poor and landless Francisco Madero replaced Porfirio Diaz as ruler of Mexico Victoriano Huerta replaced Francisco Madero President Wilson refused to recognize Huerta’s government
T HE U NITED S TATES E NTERS W ORLD W AR I: W OODROW W ILSON ’ S D IPLOMACY Wilson Sends Troops Into Mexico In April of 1914, a group of American sailors visiting Tampico were arrested The American commander demanded an apology but was refused Wilson sent in troops to Veracruz Anti-American riots broke out in Mexico Wilson accepts international mediation and Venustiano Carranza becomes Mexico’s president. Mexican forces, led by Pancho Villa, conduct raids on the US using guerrilla tactics They burn down Columbus, New Mexico and killed Americans Wilson orders General John J. Pershing into Mexico with 600 troops to capture the guerillas.
T HE U NITED S TATES E NTERS W ORLD W AR I: T HE O UTBREAK OF WWI A number of factors set the stage for war in Europe: The Alliance System The Triple Alliance Prussia became Germany in 1870 Germany attacked France and took land along the German Border—France and Germany then became enemies Germany signed alliances with Italy and Austria-Hungary The Franco-Russian Alliance Russia supported the slavs living in Austria-Hungary against the Austria-Hungary government France and Russia form an alliance against their common “enemy”. The Naval Race Germany began building up its Navy in 1900. Great Britain, becoming alarmed, made an unofficial alliance with France and Russia—The Triple Entente
T HE U NITED S TATES E NTERS W ORLD W AR I: T HE O UTBREAK OF WWI CONTINUED A number of factors set the stage for war in Europe: The Alliance System The Naval Race Nationalism: extreme pride in one’s homeland Self-determination: the idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government The spark that lit the fire: The Assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand June 1914- The heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne visited Bosnia The “Black Hand” assassinated Franz Ferdinand Serbian officials knew about the assassination beforehand hoping to start a small war that would gain Serbia independence (Self- determination) The system of alliances brought other countries into the conflict
T HE U NITED S TATES E NTERS W ORLD W AR I: T HE O UTBREAK OF WWI CONTINUED The Allies: France, Russia, and Great Britain The Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary Austri-Hungary sent troops into Serbia, Russia came to the defense of Serbia, Germany joined Austria-Hungary, France and Great Britain joined Russia. Turkey later joined the Central Powers. Meanwhile… the United States remained neutral. (Why wouldn’t they, the war was “over there” in Europe!)
T HE U NITED S TATES E NTERS W ORLD W AR I: A MERICAN N EUTRALITY Woodrow Wilson wanted to remain neutral, but… Americans take Sides Immigrants sided with their homelands Pro-British Sentiment Many Americans sided with England (the allies) because of a shared heritage (including Pres. Wilson’s cabinet) Propaganda was used to try to persuade Americans Business Links America also did most of its business with Great Britain (England)
T HE U NITED S TATES E NTERS W ORLD W AR I: M OVING T OWARD W AR Great Britain blockaded Germany by sea. In return Germany used U-boats (submarines) to take out ships from other countries carrying war supplies to Great Britain including American ships The Sussex Pledge: Germany sank a French passenger ship (the Sussex) with Americans on-board injuring them Trying to avoid the war, Wilson signs the “Sussex Pledge” in which Germany agrees to not attack merchant ships without warning By keeping the US out of the war in Europe, Woodrow Wilson is re-elected as President in 1916!
T HE U NITED S TATES E NTERS W ORLD W AR I: T HE U NITED S TATES D ECLARES W AR The Zimmermann Telegram German official Author Zimmermann sends a telegram to Mexico stating that if Mexico declares war on the US that Germany will aid Mexico and help regain its lost territory of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona The Sinking of the Lusitania In May of 1915, German U-boats sink a British passenger ship, the Lusitania, killing 128 Americans on board In March of 1917, German U-boats sink four American merchant ships without warning. President Wilson declares war on Germany on April 2, 1917!
R EVIEW Q UESTIONS Why did Wilson send Marines into Latin America? What were the events in Mexico leading up to US involvement in WWI? How did a system of alliances in Europe help cause WWI? What were the naval races taking place in Europe and how did they help contribute to the start of WWI? Describe nationalism. How did the Balkan Crisis contribute to the start of WWI in relation to the “black hand”, Franz Ferdinand, the Austro- Hungarian government, Serbia, and the system of alliances? What were the countries of the Triple Entente (Allies) and the Central Powers? What were the provisions of the Sussex Pledge? How did the Zimmerman Telegram contribute to American involvement in WWI?
E SSAY Q UESTION Describe two events that pushed the United States toward entering World War I.
E SSAY A NSWER Describe two events that pushed the United States toward entering World War I. To try to cut off supplies going to Great Britain, the Germans announced in 1915 that their U-boats would sink without warning any ship found in the waters around Britain. This announcement outraged the United States because it violated an international treaty requiring military vessels to reveal their intentions to merchant ships and provide for the safety of the people aboard before sinking the ships. In implementing their policy, the Germans sank the British passenger liner Lusitania in the war zone, killing 1,200, including 128 Americans. In 1916 a U-boat torpedoed the French passenger ship Sussex, injuring several Americans on board. In 1917 British intelligence intercepted a telegram from Arthur Zimmermann, a German official. It proposed to offer the Mexican government its “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona” if Mexico sided with Germany in the event that the United States entered the war. Furious, many Americans now concluded war with Germany was necessary.