Presentation on theme: "America and WWI America and WWI Review of European History."— Presentation transcript:
America and WWI America and WWI
Review of European History
M.A.I.N M ilitarism= the development of armed forces & their use as a tool of diplomacy A lliance System= countries form alliances with one another to help provide international security I mperialism= building of empires by extending their economic & political control over various peoples around the world N ationalism= the devotion to the interests & culture of one’s nation
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]
The Balkans The “Powder Keg” of Europe
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family Heir to the Austrian throne
The Assassination: Sarajevo June 1914 shot and killed while visiting Bosnian capital Sarajevo
Who’s To Blame?
The Schlieffen Plan -Germany invades Belgium Aug. 3, Invade Belgium, then onto Paris, France, then Russia
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
A Multi-Front War
“No Man’s Land”
America Joins the Allies
Americans View of the War: Socialists - criticize war as capitalist & imperialist Pacifists - belief that war was evil & America needs to set an example of peace to rest of world Home Country Ties - many sympathized with the country in which they had emigrated from Economic Ties - most tied to Allied Powers, less to Germany Outcome: U.S. Remains NEUTRAL!
War Hits Home Cause: British blockade German coast Effect: German U-Boats wage “ unrestricted submarine warfare ” Outcome: American ships & civilians caught in middle May 1915 British liner Lusitania sunk (128 Americans die) August 1915 British liner Arabic sunk (2 American die) March 1916 French liner Sussex sunk (5 Americans die )
At Home……… -Woodrow Wilson is re-elected in January 1917 Wilson calls for: “a peace without victory…..a peace between equals” -Germany ignores Wilson’s call for peace -January 31…. Kaiser Wilhelm declares Germany will resume “Unrestricted Submarine Warfare” in British waters
The Zimmerman Telegram -German foreign minister sends telegram to German ambassador in Mexico -Suggested Mexico declare war with U.S. and Germany would support them in alliance January 16, 1917 Americans are “outraged”
“The Yanks Are Coming!” “The Yanks Are Coming!” April 1917 U.S. enters WWI
U.S. had to shift the economy from a peacetime to wartime production – War Industries Board (WIB) determined what products industries would make, where those products went, and how much they would cost – Food would also be conserved The American War Effort:
Committee on Public Information (CPI) educated the public about the causes and nature of the war, the CPI had to convince Americans that the war effort was a just cause Most important tool Propaganda to make Germans look bad The American War Effort:
U.S. not prepared for war Need to build a large and modern army Selective Service Act: passed by Congress in 1917 which required men to register with govt. to be randomly selected for military service How? The American War Effort:
Resistance to the Draft – Draft created controversy, – some believed the federal government did not have the right to tell you to go fight What happens if you refuse the draft? – Some would use religion or their beliefs to not accept the draft – What do you think? Does a draft violate our U.S. rights? Public Opposition
The Government Cracks Down on Dissent – The work of the CPI created a mood in America that did not welcome open debate – Espionage Act allowed the federal gov’t to ban treasonable or seditious newspapers, magazines, or printed materials from the mail Violators would suffer severe penalties of a $10,000 fine and 20 years of imprisonment – Sedition Act violated freedom of speech Led to the arrest of Eugene V. Debs and in the Supreme court case Schenck vs. U.S., the government upheld the Sedition act –When the need for public order is so pressing First Amendment protections of speech do not apply
Sent to Europe is the: American Expeditionary Force (Doughboys) Commander of U.S. war effort in Europe was: General John J. Pershing
“America Turns the Tide” U.S. troops offer “freshness & enthusiasm” to the fight U.S. convince British to use Convoy System (destroyers escort merchant ships across Atlantic) U.S. lay mines along North Sea
America Supplies the War New technology and industrialization = “a new type of war” American factories produce much of the war effort for the allies
Changes in American Society Result of WWI: New opportunities for women, African Americans, and Mexican Americans Women: – Many women moved into the workforce for first time munitions factories, on the railroads, as telegraph operators – Proved that they could succeed in any type of job, regardless of difficulty or risk
African Americans: – African Americans will serve in WWI – Great Migration: African-Americans began moving from rural South to industrial North Escape violate racism Better jobs and economic advancement Mexican Americans: - Moved North (same reasons) Migrate to California for factory jobs
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Fourteen Points: Speech made by Wilson on Jan. 8, 1918 for his vision of a peace treaty – Called for a “Peace without Victory” – Wilson proposed a peace inspired by noble ideals, not greed and vengeance – Encouraged independence and freedom
Open Diplomacy (1) Freedom of the Seas (2) Free Trade (3) Multilateral disarmament (4) Self-Determination & Colonies (5) Land Issues in Europe (6-13) League of Nations (14) Fourteen Points:
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!
9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American Cemetery, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties Why did the U.S. suffer less casualties?
Peace Conference (1919) Paris Peace Conference: The Big Four U.S. Delegation: Woodrow Wilson French Delegation: Georges Clemenceau( “The Tiger”) “ God gave us the Ten Commandments and we broke them. Wilson gives us the Fourteen Points. We shall see.” Britain Delegation: Lloyd George ( Slogan: “Make Germany Pay”) Italian Delegation: Vittorio Orlando BACK
Allied Leaders Response to Wilson’s Ideas: – REJECT the citizens of England and France wanted gain from this conflict – The Paris Peace Conference only kept a few of Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Freedom of seas, Free trade Liberation of colonial empires General Disarmament The League of Nations
U.S. Senate Rejects the Versailles Treaty – Irish Catholics & German Americans against treaty – U.S. does not join the League of Nations U.S. Response to Treaty Congress passes Knox-Porter Resolution in July 1921 – Ends war with Germany, Austria, and Hungary