2OVERVIEWAbout 60 million tons of animal feed are pelleted in the U.S. each year.Feed range from % of total production costsIndustry losses due to fines range from 1-3%Feed consumers waste estimated millions of dollars yearly due to non-utilized feed that is wasted through broken pellet fines, dissolved pellets in water for aquaculture, and wasted mash.
3GENERAL ADVANTAGES OF PELLETING Hold together during shipping and handlingDeliver more available nutrientsMore digestible by the animal due to gelatinization (breaking down the outer membrane of the grain's starch molecules)Conditions feed at temperatures that exceed 220 degrees FGelatinizes more starches which act as a pellet binderPelleting reduces waste, improves flavor, reduces segregation of ingredients, ensures balanced nutrition, and allows animals to consume feed with less effort.If pellets disintegrate, many advantages are lost. Animals regard fines just as we regard the last bit of broken cereal that pours into our bowl at the end of a box.
4SOME FACTORS AFFECTING PELLET QUALITY TEMPERATUREFEED FORMULATIONCONDITIONINGPELLETQUALITYTROUGHPUT(DWELL TIME)QUALITY OF BINDERUSEDPARTICLE SIZECOOLING PROCESS% FAT USED IN MIXER
5GENERALITIES REGARDING QUALITY CONTROL Specific responsibility for generating required data along with commensurate accountability is usually inadequate.Data analyzing & reporting method is usually inadequate.
6GENERAL TEMPERATURE CONSIDERATIONS MINIMUM TARGET TEMPERATURE FOR DINAPELL IS 203 F OR 95 CRepair & overhaul steam line completely to stop all steam leaks.Re check steam pipe sizing design.Insulate steam line piping with high efficiency material.Insulate conditioner.Check steam trap location and functionality.Monitor steam traps and record findings daily.Do complete checkup of steam regulator. Insure proper function.Set steam regulator pressure initially to at least 35 PSIG.Monitor steam regulator setting and record findings weekly.Monitor & re calibrate steam regulator monthly, record findings.
7GENERAL TEMPERATURE CONSIDERATIONS If practical relocate steam regulator as close as possible to conditioner & insulate steam pipe.Perform initial and thorough steam nozzle cleanup.Initially Monitor and Record findings every 2 hours for:-PSIG indicator on steam regulator.-PSIG setting for regulator.-Steam injection nozzle status. Clean by the end of shift.-Mash humidity & temperature coming into conditioner.-Mash temperature & humidity at conditioner exit point.
8CRITERIA FOR CONDITIONERS Rule of thumb:“temperature increase of 18 degrees Fahrenheit, (10 degrees C) for every 0.6 percentage increase in moisture to the mash.”Acceptable moisture level for mash is %. From this level temperature can be increased by at least 135 degrees Fahrenheit, (57 degrees C) above ambient mash temperature without exceeding the 16.5% maximum moisture level before pellet mill will begin to reach the choke point. This means that in order to achieve targeted objective of 203 degrees Fahrenheit, (95 degrees C), ambient mash temperature must be at least 60 degrees Fahrenheit, (15.55 C).Conditioning time is usually marginal. Longer conditioning times improve quality & aid in achieving desired minimum temperature.Low set and defective regulators are main problem in achieving targeted temperature objectives.
9CRITERIA FOR CONDITIONERS Single Pass versus Double pass Conditioners and their implications on Steam and Pellet QualitySteam quality is an important contributor to pellet quality.Many conditioners in use today are a single pass .Double pass systems get more uniform mixture than single passMost single pass conditioners operate at atmospheric pressure. These systems do not sustain conditions for higher quality steam that atmospherically pressurized systems do.Check steam nozzle condition frequently to prevent clogging & eventually diminishing amount of steam available to heat mash.
10CRITERIA FOR CONDITIONERS Goal for a good conditioning operation is to blend steam & liquid additives into feedstock in a uniform flow to the pellet millRequired temperature objective for DINAPELL is 95 degrees C.Adjust paddle pitch to achieve required retention time in so temperature & moisture of feedstock is raised to required level.Monitor angle of conditioner paddles. Angle paddle against mash flow until a 2 minute retention time is reached & maintain.Set paddle shaft to between RPM and maintain.Check & monitor steam pressure gauges in conditioning room & calibrate for accuracy monthly. Replace nonconforming gauges.Monitor mash humidity at feed mixer every 2 hours. If humidity is below 12% increase to 12 % by adding water to the mixer. Monitor humidity & temperature at conditioner entry every 2 hrs.
11CRITERIA FOR CONDITIONERS Monitor humidity & temperature levels at conditioner exit every 2 hours.Monitor steam pressure at regulator level every 2 hours. Pressure should be set not lower than 30 not higher than 45 PSIG. At startup set regulator at 35 PSIG. Insure regulator is located as close as possible to conditioner on the steam system line.Monitor paddle adjustment quarterly, or as formulation varies significantly.Monitor for bent paddles and paddle wear- weekly.Monitor & clean magnet each time pellet mill door opens but a minimum of twice a day.
12CRITERIA FOR CONDITIONERS Keep mating surfaces of access doors clean. Monitor daily or as required so they can seal properly.Monitor and Lubricate all bearings monthly.Monitor steam injection points to be sure they're not plugged weekly.Monitor status & clean out conditioner at end of each shift to avoid heavy build-up on the walls that will eventually fall off & plug the pellet mill. This minimizes wear on agitator paddles & permit a smooth flow of feed through the conditioning chamber guaranteeing better pellet mill operation. It also minimizes cross contamination between feed batches.
13FEED FORMULATION & PARTICLE SIZE Feed formulation can improve pellet binding efficacy in general by:-Increasing starch levels in mash. Use of whole wheat based formulas for example.-Reducing fat/oil levels in the mash.-Reducing use of bentonite like products-Decrease particle size to micron range.-Insure ingredients have uniform particle size
14CONDITIONER DWELL TIME, (TROUGHPUT) Conditioner dwell time of at leas 2 minutes and if possible 2 ½ to 3 minutes is recommended.
15COOLING & CURING PROCESS GoalTo remove the heat and moisture from the formed pellet so the pellet becomes hard and durable & allow proper curing. Objective To bring pellet temperature to within 5 degrees of ambient temperature and allow DINAPELL treated pellets to cure for at least 24 hours after exiting cooler. Counter flow cooling systems are normally able to do a good job but any pellet cooling system should be able to cool pellets to within 5 degrees Centigrade
16GENERAL DISCUSSION ON HOW TO IMPROVE PELLET QUALITY FOR MORE DETAILED TECHNICAL INFORMATION ON HOW TO IMPROVE PELLET QUALITY PLEASE SEE OUR TECHNICAL PUBLICATION ENTITLED“Moreira, M. R “Efficacy Improvements can be made in conjunction with the use of a pellet binder.”
17DINAPELL PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS SPECIFICATIONS: Appearance White free flowing powder, Moisture content 4% max., Bulk density , Retention in 200 mesh 10% max., Solubility - Dilutable to 20% N.W., Viscosity (50% in water) cps., pHPACKING: 25 Kg/ cardboard drum with plastic liner inside.STORAGE: Store in a cool dry place. Excessive heat and moisture can cause caking.INGREDIENTS: Polymethylolcarbamide and other moisture absorbents, Preservatives and dust controlling agents.GUARANTEE: NITROGEN 25%, FREE FORMALDEHYDE 1.0% (MAX), MOISTURE 4.0% (MAX)USE & DIRECTIONS: Fish Feed- 2 to 5 kgs./ton., Shrimp feed--5 to 7.5 kgs./ton., Animal feed-..1 to 2 kgs./ton.For manufacture of shrimp feed, add DINAPELL at the rate of 5 to 7.5 Kilograms per metric ton. Use level above 7.5 kgs. per metric ton may reduce palatability.CAUTION AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN AND EYES. AVOID BREATHING DUST.CLOSE BAG AFTER EACH USE.
18MODE OF ACTION DINAPELL Hits the target everytime Through its’ unique blend of highly effective active ingredients, DINAPELL fine powder is able to liquefy during the pelleting process and form a coherent binding internal mesh for the pellet that will afford it greatly increased durability
19AQUACULTURE OVERVIEWFish feed producers face a unique problem called Hydrostability-how to maintain integrity of pelleted feeds and baits in an aquatic environment.Most binders used for aquatic rations work well, until exposed to water. Then, they fall apart, deteriorating rapidly, leaving rations unused with the residue polluting pond bottoms. It's money down the drain!!!DINAPELL® provides a cost efficient solution, which increases the hydrostability of aquatic rations and improves your return on investment.
20The DINAPELL advantage in aquaculture With DINAPELL you can produce feed that remains palatable and usable long after other binders have fallen apart. That means more efficient use of feed, decreased waste and decayed matter on pond bottoms to clean up, and an improved bottom line.DINAPELL is ideal for all aquatic environments- reducing fines and small particles in pelleted, floating feeds, and sinking feeds, increasing feed/grain ratios and decreasing decayed matter on pond bottomsDINAPELL is proven successfully through out the world in aquaculture and other types of feed.
21GENERAL ADVANTAGES OF DINAPELL ® DINAPELL ® will improve pellet durability in the water up to 10 hours if needed and reduce fines by 40-60%. Durability can easily be increased by more than 100% particularly in aquaculture applications.DINAPELL is a low inclusion pellet binder saving important formulation space. Excellent results can be obtained at between kg per metric ton.
22GENERAL ADVANTAGES OF DINAPELL ® PackagingThe unique sealed hardboard drums used to package Dinapell insure that the efficacy of Dinapell will be preserved and prevent cacking long after competitive products have spoiled. There are many customer testimonials that support the value of our superior packaging
23DINAPELL HARD SHELL DRUM Hardshell drum with airtight closure as well as interior plastic bag liner preserves DINAPELLS’ product quality and efficacy over a longer period of time than competitors products. Lost product due to caking will be a thing of the past once you start using DINAPELL
24RING CLOSURE MECHANISM SHOWN ALLOWS PRODUCER TO RESEAL UNUSED DINAPELL PRODUCT TO MAINTAIN EFFICACY & FRESHNESS.
25METALLIC RING AND CAP SHOWN IN DETAIL Metallic Ring SealMetallic cap cover
26TO INSURE DINAPELL PRODUCT INTEGRITY EVERY DRUM HAS A SEAL THAT MUST BE BROKEN TO OPEN DRUM Seal is applied through holes shown so that when ring seal mechanism is opened, the seal will have to be broken as well
27GENERAL SUMMARY ADVANTAGES OF DINAPELL ® Higher lubricity with DINAPELL ® can reduce the energy required to pellet feed, reduce wear on dies and rollers and/or increase production rates by up to 30%. Increasing production rates usually reduces the cost per ton of pellets produced and may allow increased plant capacity. An important feature of DINAPELL® is that it can lubricate and bind at the same time. Production rates can be increased without loss of pellet durability.
28The lubricity of DINAPELL has other important benefits - It allows the feed to be steam-conditioned to higher temperatures. As feed is conditioned, it softens, eventually becoming dough-like. Before this happens, the feed becomes too plastic to push through the die holes. By lubricating the holes, DINAPELL reduces resistance to extrusion, thereby allowing higher conditioning temperatures to be reached. Feed manufacturers seek high conditioning temperature as part of their program to eradicate salmonella and gelatinize starches for better digestibility