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When should the U.S go to war?.  Soon after the war began in 1914, president Woodrow Wilson declared a policy of neutrality. The United States would.

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Presentation on theme: "When should the U.S go to war?.  Soon after the war began in 1914, president Woodrow Wilson declared a policy of neutrality. The United States would."— Presentation transcript:

1 When should the U.S go to war?

2  Soon after the war began in 1914, president Woodrow Wilson declared a policy of neutrality. The United States would not take sides in the conflict.  Recall: what were the M.A.I.N causes of WWI?  Soon after the war began in 1914, president Woodrow Wilson declared a policy of neutrality. The United States would not take sides in the conflict.  Recall: what were the M.A.I.N causes of WWI?

3 Isolationism: The belief that America should stay out of the affairs of other countries. Interventionism: The belief that America should intervene (get involved) in other countries if it will benefit them, the U.S., or both. When war in Europe broke out, many Americans fell into one of two categories:

4  Compare Woodrow Wilson’s statements in 1914 with those from For each quote: 1.Tell me what Wilson’s views were on entering WWI (isolationist or interventionist) 2.Explain what reasons he gave for each. 3.Then predict what might have happened in three years to make him change his mind (come up with at least two things) For each quote: 1.Tell me what Wilson’s views were on entering WWI (isolationist or interventionist) 2.Explain what reasons he gave for each. 3.Then predict what might have happened in three years to make him change his mind (come up with at least two things)

5  Americans were deeply divided on the war in Europe Map of German Ancestry 1914 What information on this map would allow you to conclude that Americans were deeply divided on the War in Europe? Map of German Ancestry 1914 What information on this map would allow you to conclude that Americans were deeply divided on the War in Europe? A Challenge to Neutrality In 1914, 1/3 Americans were foreign born or children of foreign born parents. These Americans had strong emotional ties to their homelands and found it hard to remain neutral. A Challenge to Neutrality In 1914, 1/3 Americans were foreign born or children of foreign born parents. These Americans had strong emotional ties to their homelands and found it hard to remain neutral.

6  Due to a series of events that took place from the U.S was forced to abandon its neutrality.

7 Directions: Step 1: Read about each event with your group members Step 2: Decide on a course of action on your graphic organizer Step 3: With your group members, discuss your response and any unintended consequences. Working in small groups you will be learning about the various events that slowly pulled the United States into WWI.

8 As a neutral nation, the United States could make loans and sell supplies to both the Allied and Central Powers. What conclusions can you draw from the data about American Neutrality? “The European War is one with which we have nothing to do, whose causes cannot hurt us.” But can make us rich! Event #1

9 Britain set up a blockade (naval block/wall) against German ports (Stopped ships, or took their cargo, or paid for cargo – against international law.) President Wilson complained to the British about the policy of stopping neutral ships, but he did not threaten to take action. Event #2

10 Unterseeboot!!!!! (U-Boat)Unterseeboot As a result of the British blockade, Germany uses submarine warfare against Allied and Neutral ships in the North Sea. Germany will shoot down any ships in the water without warning. Changes Naval warfare forever “Unrestricted Submarine Warfare” Event #3

11 Wilson protested that sinking merchant ships without protecting the lives of passengers and crews violated international law. He warned Germany that the U.S would hold them to "strict accountability" for any American casualties in such attack.

12 President Wilson believed that Americans should have the right to travel on Allied passenger ships. American public was outraged. Event strengthens American support for Allies. On May 7,1915, a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania, killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans. Even though the ship was carrying weapons, many denounced Germany’s actions as murder. Event #4

13 Lusitania 1,198 killed (128 Americans) Wilson demands an apology, money, and commitment not to use submarines Germans agree to most; Americans back down and remain neutral

14 Lusitania-American perspective  The Century, America's Time: Shell Shock (1 of 3) – YouTube- Lusitania The Century, America's Time: Shell Shock (1 of 3) – YouTube

15 German U-boats continued to attack British and French ships carrying American passengers. March 1916: German U-boat sinks French liner “Sussex Wilson threatened to break off diplomatic relations with Germany. Sussex pledge- Germany agreed to spare all lives in attacks on merchant ships by stopping surprise attacks Germany temporarily keeps the United States from declaring war Event #5

16 The Sussex Pledge U.S. Congress agrees to begin building up the army and navy U.S. is still aiding in the war effort but not yet officially involved in the war

17 1915 – U.S. Army was ill prepared for war Army of 80,000 men Lacked equipment & resources Former President Theodore Roosevelt calls for America to prepare for war Wilson recognizes the threat of submarine warfare and the need to for preparedness 1915 – U.S. Army was ill prepared for war Army of 80,000 men Lacked equipment & resources Former President Theodore Roosevelt calls for America to prepare for war Wilson recognizes the threat of submarine warfare and the need to for preparedness

18 “He kept us out of war” The slogan that helped Wilson win the election of 1916

19 Wilson hoped America could remain neutral February 1917, that suddenly changes German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman devises a bold plan. Uses a coded message to unveil plan If U.S. enters the war, Germany would help Mexico regain territory lost in Significance – anti- German sentiment deepens, U.S. is now on the verge of declaring war on Germany Event #6

20 In your own words, explain what the telegram said in the first two lines. If the U.S does not remain neutral, what did Germany propose to Mexico? Be Specific. Why did this document cause anti-German settlement?

21 Zimmermann Note Arthur Zimmermann – German ambassador to Mexico If Mexico joins a German alliance, Germany would help to restore territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona back to Mexico Note is made public and outrages Americans

22 Wilson says “the world must be made safe for democracy” in his call for war to Congress Germans continue use of unrestricted submarine warfare April 6, 1917 – U.S. Congress declares war “It is a war against all nations…the challenge is to all mankind.”

23 In 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war. On April 4, 1917, the Senate voted 82 to 6 to declare war on Germany. The House followed on April 6 by a vote of 373 to 50. The U.S was going to war. “It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into... the most terrible and disastrous of all wars,” he said. “Civilization itself seems to be hanging in the balance.”

24 Woodrow Wilson’s War Message, address to Congress, 1917 Neutrality is no longer feasible (practical)…where the peace of the world is involved…The w world must be made safe for democracy. It’s peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty…The right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts-for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments. When Wilson finished, lawmakers cheered. Later Wilson said sadly, “Think what it was they were applauding. My message today was a message of death for our young men.”

25  Copy the following timeline on a piece of paper. Beginning with 1914, write “Stay Neutral” or “Declare War” beneath each event to show how you believe the United States should have reacted to that event. When and if you decide the United States should have declared war explain why you chose the place that you did.  Copy the following timeline on a piece of paper. Beginning with 1914, write “Stay Neutral” or “Declare War” beneath each event to show how you believe the United States should have reacted to that event. When and if you decide the United States should have declared war explain why you chose the place that you did.

26 Four Long-term causes of the war (M.A.I.N) The “Spark” that ignited the war American neutrality (why?) Lusitania Submarine Warfare Sussex Pledge Zimmerman Note


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