2 World War I (1914–1918)Imperial, territorial, and economic rivalries led to the “Great War” between the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey) and the Allies (U.S., Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Montenegro, Portugal, Italy, and Japan). About 10 million combatants killed, 20 million wounded.
3 TWO SIDES OF WWI Germany Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Turkey Great Britain ItalyWho Changed SIDES?TWO SIDES OF WWICENTRAL POWERSALLIESGermanyAustria-HungaryBulgariaTurkeyGreat BritainFranceRussiaSerbiaBelgiumU.S. (later)Italy
4 Lusitania German submarine sank the British ocean liner Lusitanian More than 1,000 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans.The people of the United States were shocked! Wilson did not declare war, but instead asked Germany for an apology*, for damages to be paid, and for a promise not to attack any more passenger ships.Also lead to the United States to break off political relations with Germany.Also prompted Woodrow Wilson to build up United STATES Military.
5 May 17, 1915May 7, 1915 brought the United States into World War I. A German submarine sank the British ocean liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. More than 1,000 passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. The people of the United States were shocked! Wilson did not declare war, but instead asked Germany for an apology*, for damages to be paid, and for a promise not to attack any more passenger ships.
7 Zimmermann TelegramIn March 1917, a German official, Arthur Zimmermann, cabled the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing that Mexico ally itself with Germany.In return, Mexico would regain territory it had earlier lost to the United States.TEXAS, NEW MEXICO, ANDARIZONASo, in February 1917, Germany went back to unrestricted submarine warfare & soon after SUNK four American merchant ships.On April 6, 1917, the United States declared WAR against Germany
8 Turning Point in WW1In September 1918, Pershing put together the most massive attack in American history, causing one GERMAN position after another to fall to the advancing American troops.On November 11, 1918, Germany signed an ARMISTICE, or cease-fire, that ended the war.
9 RED SCAREAfter WWI, Americans associated communism with disloyalty and unpatriotic behavior.
10 Trench WarfareThe two armies dug trenches to protect themselves from bullets and bombs. Then they put up mazes of barbed wire around the trenches. The area between the trenches was called "no man's land." Soldiers ate and slept in the trenches. First one side, and then the other would try to break through at some point along the line. It was very difficult for either side to win a battle this way, and trench warfare claimed many lives.
11 May 7th 1915 Sinking of the Lusitania US Road to WarMay 7th 1915 Sinking of the Lusitania
13 The war Begins 1914WHEN…Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife assassinated by Serbian nationalist, A assassin from Secret “BLACK HAND Society (June 28).That started a domino effect of wars in Europe.Austria declares war on SerbiaBritain declares war on GermanyBLACK HAND Society: was a group of Serbs that was in the government and high ranking military that intended was to unify all Serbs through the violence of terrorism.They killed him for military purposes.Austria declares war on Serbia (July 28). Germany declares war on Russia (Aug. 1), on France (Aug. 3), invades Belgium (Aug. 4). Britain declares war on Germany (Aug. 4). Germans defeat Russians in Battle of Tannenberg on Eastern Front (Aug.). First Battle of the Marne (Sept.). German drive stopped 25 miles from Paris. By end of year, war on the Western Front is “positional” in the trenches.
16 NEW WEAPONS OF WWI TANKS – BRITISH FLAME THROWER – GERMANS U-BOATS (UNTERSEEBOOTEN)AIRPLANESGASPOISONMUSTARDMACHINE GUNSTANK TRAPSNEW WAY TO FIGHT– TRENCH WARFAREMINES
17 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 3. Schenck v. US – in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the st Amendment BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.
18 To prevent strikes, the government established the NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD (NWLB) in 1918. In exchange for wage increases, an 8-hour workday, and the right to organize unions & bargain collectively, the labor leaders agreed not to disrupt war production with a strike.
19 1917 – Selective Service Act It was a draft to build up U.S military forces. Passed in May 1917, the act required all men aged 21 to 30 to register for military duty.
20 Stripped Germany of its armed forces TREATY OF VERSAILLESStripped Germany of its armed forcesPay reimbursement for damages to the AlliesRequired Germany to acknowledge GUILT for the outbreak and devastation caused by World War I.This treaty marked the end of the War!
21 League of Nations – Wilson's 14th POINT The fourteenth point, known as theLEAGUE OF NATIONS, called formember nations to help preservepeace and prevent future war.Americans rejected it because it gavethe President powers that did nothave to go through CONGRESSFor Congressional
22 Espionage Act and Sedition Amendment Espionage Act: Specified of antiwar activities that’s demanded fines or imprisonmentSedition (treason) Amendment: Provided punishment to anyone using, “disloyal…,in regard to the U.S government, flag or military.