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Constructed Wetlands Treatment of an Automotive Bedliner Manufacturer’s Wastewater Art Kuljian, P.E., BCEE, Kevin Olmstead, Ph.D., P.E., Tammy Rabideau,

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Presentation on theme: "Constructed Wetlands Treatment of an Automotive Bedliner Manufacturer’s Wastewater Art Kuljian, P.E., BCEE, Kevin Olmstead, Ph.D., P.E., Tammy Rabideau,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Constructed Wetlands Treatment of an Automotive Bedliner Manufacturer’s Wastewater Art Kuljian, P.E., BCEE, Kevin Olmstead, Ph.D., P.E., Tammy Rabideau, CPG, Jamie Meikle WEFTEC 2009 October 14, 2009

2 Outline  Background  Timeline  Construction and Startup  System Description ● Treatment Cells and Lagoons ● Wetland Plantings ● Tertiary Filtration  System Performance  System Observations  Summary

3 Background  Truck bedliner manufacturing operation in Lapeer, Michigan  Mixed sanitary and process wastewater from plastic extrusion and thermoforming operations  Previous unlined lagoon system ineffective  Restrictive groundwater discharge limits  Switched to wetland wastewater treatment ● “First-in-the-State” in Michigan for an industrial application

4 Constructed Wetlands Advantages  Passive, self-regenerative treatment process, given proper harvesting of dominant plants  Low environmental impact  Little need for operator attention  Large buffering capacity to accommodate system variances  Habitats for wetland species  Short implementation schedule

5 Timeline  Characterization – June 1999  Pilot Study – August 1999  Design/Build Proposal – January 2000  Begin Construction – April 2000  System Startup – August 2000  Phase 2 Expansion – April 2006  Phase 2 Commissioning – October 2006  In continuous operation since November 2000

6 Relative Removals During Pilot Testing

7 Construction and Startup  Wetland comprised of over 27,000 native plants  Installed over 160,000 ft 2 PVC liner and earth bed  Seeded startup with activated sludge from POTW  Temporary winter storage of wastewater in HDPE lined lagoons underlain with bentonite-sand layer  Final polishing in 150 ft 2 tertiary sand filter building  UV disinfection prior to surface water discharge

8 System Description  20,000 gallon/day (gpd) design flow rate, 90 day HRT  4 acre lined wetland treatment system - 2 winter storage lagoons (900,000 gal.each) - 2 primary cells (0.6 acre capacity) - secondary treatment cell (2.5 acre capacity) - tertiary treatment cell (0.9 acre capacity)  Continuous downflow sand filter rated at 5 gpm/ft 2  Disinfection w/ultraviolet (UV) radiation  Flow monitoring structure and discharge to Plum Creek

9 Process Flow Diagram


11 SPECIESCOMMON NAMEQUANTITY Nuphar luteaYellow Lilly1,700 Eleodea CanadensisBroad water weed500 Typha latifoliaBroad leaf cattail50 Plantings—Primary Cells

12 SPECIESCOMMON NAMEQUANTITY Typha latifoliaBroad leaf cattail5,000 Carex lacustrisLake Sedge3,000 Scirpus acutusHard-Stem Bulrush1,500 Scirpus validus (tabernaeontani) Soft-Stem Bulrush2,200 Sagittaria latifoliaBroad-Leaf Arrowhead4,500 Alisma plantago-aquaticaWater plantain2,200 Pontederia cordataPickerelweed750 Sparganium eurycarpumGiant Bur-reed3,500 Polygonum hydroperiodesSmartweed500 Polygonum amphibiumSmartweed2,000 Eleodea CanadensisBroad water weed500 Plantings---Secondary Cells


14 System Performance  Significant treatment occurs in the primary cells: - BOD and TSS are reduced ~ 60% to 70% - NH3-N is reduced ~ 85% to 95% - Total P is reduced ~ 60% to 70%  Flowthrough, facultative treatment occurs in the primary cells, with an HRT of ~ 12 days  Vegetative growth in the secondary and tertiary cells results in mass removals for all target parameters of 90% to 95%

15 System Removal Performance ParameterInfluentPrimary Cell Discharge Final Discharge BOD 5 (mg/l)12 to 2489 to to 7.1 TSS (mg/l)54 to to 804 to 20 NH 3 -N (mg/l)16 to to to 2 TP (mg/l)3.4 to to to 0.5

16 Effluent BOD

17 Effluent TSS

18 Effluent NH 3 -N

19 Effluent P

20 Original Site

21 Lagoon Preparation

22 Cell Preparation

23 Sand-Bentonite Underlayer

24 Lagoon Liner Installation

25 Treatment Cell Liner Installation

26 Flow Distribution Berm Construction

27 Initial Planting

28 Water Plantains and Bulrushes in Secondary Cell

29 Acclimated Plantings

30 Winter Storage Lagoon

31 Artistic Shot of Storage Lagoon

32 Secondary Cell

33 Your’s Truly on the Berm

34 Tertiary Cell with Water Depth Gauge

35 Tertiary Cell

36 Final Treatment Building

37 Volcano™ Continuous Downflow Sand Filter

38 UV Disinfection and Flow Monitoring

39 Toad on Top of Things at the UV Chamber

40 Site Observations  Nutrient uptake in wetland vegetation was poor during the winter months and good to excellent remainder of the year  Operations labor minimal - <2 hours/8 hour shift  Normal operation requires no chemical addition  Maintaining water operating depth of <18” is vital for emergent vegetation to occur  Presence of wildlife indicative of a healthy habitat

41 Performance Summary  95% removal of BOD 5, TSS, NH3-N and P is achievable  Effluent NH3-N of 0.5 mg/L and P of 0.2 mg/L  Primary cells provide equalization and treatment prior to discharge to secondary and tertiary cells  Effluent BOD 5 has averaged 3 mg/L and TSS has averaged 5 mg/L since installation of the sand filter

42 Lessons Learned  Ensure C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 is available in wastewater feed  Maintain wetland water temperature >50°F (10°C); otherwise, winter storage may be needed  Backwash of sand filter at 2% to 5% of flow aids insoluble nutrient removal  Periodic lamp cleaning via citric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite every 2 to 3 months  Annual harvesting of dominant plants (e.g., cattails) helps ensure variation and quantities of all species  Harvest duckweed before winter die-off to keep total P inventory in check

43 Contractor/Supplier Acknowledgements  Ms. Joanne Michael, Southern Tier Consulting – West Clarksville, NY  Mr. Dave Bury, North American Lining Services – Kalkaska, MI  Mr. Mark Fisher, Lighthouse Filters – Dahlonega, GA  Mr. Todd Desloover, Debarr Construction – Greenwood, MI  Mr. H. Blair Selover, Tetra Tech – Ann Arbor, MI

44 Questions?

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