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“Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave”

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1 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave”
11/04/2017 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gasworld Conference Wednesday, 4th December, 2013 Dubai, UAE Dr Roy (Rohintan) S. Irani,   Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd. London, U.K. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

2 Composite Cylinders:From Birth to Grave
11/04/2017 Composite Cylinders Brief History of Composites Role of Regulations and Standards Specifics for Composite Cylinders Future Developments Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

3 Composite Cylinders:From Birth to Grave
11/04/2017 Napoleon Bonaparte Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

4 Brief History of Composites (2) Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Following on from Napoleon….almost a century later: In 1919 a 6.9 MPa, 150 mm diameter cylinder was developed:- This was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel wire to prevent sidewall rupture, & The end caps were longitudinally reinforced with high-tensile rods. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

5 Brief History of Composites (3) Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Steel wire windings Thin steel plate cylinder There next followed a spate of wire-wound designs regrettably yet again for military applications. During World War II, they were used by airmen as part of their breathing apparatus. Such is their success that they are still used for this military application in what is considered to be a conservative field. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

6 Brief History of Composites (4) Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Following a number of years of research and development within NASA, finally commercial applications with hoop-wound composite cylinders came into being in 1972. Originally these were with an aluminium alloy liner and glass fibre. There then flowed a multitude of developments, which included a variety of liners and fibre combinations. Here we have an example of a seamless steel liner with an Aramid fibre reinforced composite, known as a Type 2 cylinder. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

7 A Brief History of Composites (5)
Glass fibre overwrap for protecting the carbon composite Carbon fibre composite Seamless steel or aluminium alloy liner Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

8 Brief History of Composites (6) Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Computer controlled wrapping of a Type 3 cylinder with a carbon fibre composite. Note protective layer of paint, on metallic liner under the composite. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

9 Newsflash!!! Technological breakthrough!! Year 2000!!!
A Brief History of Composites (7) Newsflash!!! Technological breakthrough!! Year 2000!!! Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

10 Brief History of Composites (8) Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Glass fibre composite overlay, over a polymer liner Metallic boss Critical triple point junction Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

11 Summary of Types of Composites
Type 1: Monolithic cylinders…no composite Type 2: Hoop wrapped composite gas cylinders Type 3: Fully wrapped composite gas cylinders with load-sharing metal liners Type 4: Fully wrapped composite gas cylinders with non-load-sharing metallic or non-metallic liners Type 5: Linerless cylinders…only composite Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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Some applications for composites Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

13 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Stay awake….watch this space! Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

14 B. Role of Regulations and Standards
Regulations are Mandatory and must be followed Regulations are essential ‘Safety Requirements’ against which the law will be applied BUT Regulations are very concise and so often they rely on the application of good Standards which provide the DETAILS. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

15 ADR - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road
Principal Regulations covering Pressurised Containers e.g.in Europe ADR - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road RID - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ADN - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways TPED - Transportable Pressure Equipment Directive PED - Pressure Equipment Directive Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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Monolithic (seamless) cylinders are manufactured using a Design Formula e.g. Lamé von-Mises. BUT Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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Safety First! Stored Energy: There is a huge amount of energy stored in a compressed gas cylinder. E.g. In a 200 bar 50 litre cylinder i.e. 10,000 bar litres:- We have energy equivalent to 0.4 kgs of TNT Or The pressure wave alone can kill a person 15 metres away Enough energy to raise a small car about 30 metres into the air THEREFORE: In a ISO(CD) receptacle i.e. the Titan, whose scope is for a 10,000 litre x 1000 bar WP vessel the stored energy is 10 million bar litres i.e. equivalent to 4 tons of TNT….much safety needs to built into the design. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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Explosion inside a cellar Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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Explosion of an Oxygen Cylinder Inside a Cabin Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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C. Specifics for Composite Cylinders (1) A large suite of tests developed …..COSTLY!! Cyclic testing (fatigue) Complete composite cylinder Burst testing Liner only Mechanical testing (tensile, impact, hardness, bend) Flaw tolerance (to simulate damage in service) Drop tests Environmental test (up to 2000 hours in some cases!) Bonfire (subjective!!) Penetration (Gunfire) (really needed in 21st Century?) Permeation (Type 4) High temp creep Accelerated stress rupture Extreme temp pressure cycling Resin shear strength Natural gas cycling Etc.? Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

22 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Specifics for Composite Cylinders (2) Despite such an exhaustive and expensive TEST PROGRAMME, There is still little confidence that a SAFE cylinder is being produced in the minds of COMPETENT AUTHORITIES who are “committed” to achieving a safe design. Are these sufficient and appropriate tests for SAFETY??? Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

23 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Specifics for Composite Cylinders (3) NET RESULT: The total life of a composite cylinder is limited e.g. in most cases to just 15 YEARS. But watch this space! This then results in a double blow for the user!! Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

24 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
New cylinder costs e.g. Type 3, 300 bar WP and 100 litre €2000 € 130/annum c.f. Type 1, 300 bar WP and 100 litre €240 €6/annum BUT Type 1: Technical efficiency# 0.9kg/L Type 3: Technical efficiency# 0.3kg/L # Unit weight of cylinder/volume Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

25 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
Lack of confidence in performance is also reflected in the use aspects of composites e.g. P. I. & T. ……… EN ISO (2002) Lacks any real test for degradation of composites Despite a revision in progress after nearly a decade, very little innovative progress for vast majority of composites Some expensive testing e.g. AE testing being developed for ‘Prestige’ Projects. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

26 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
The Grave! The cylinder shall be made unserviceable by: Removing all labels and identification marks, Removal of the valve and other accessories for reuse or recovery, Either crushing the cylinder as flat as possible, or cutting irregular holes in the neck and base. In addition see the guidance in EN ISO – “Transportable gas cylinders - Periodic inspection and testing of composite gas cylinders”. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

27 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd
The Grave! (2) Where technically and economically feasible, separate materials for recycling/recovery e.g. cut up/separate different materials by shredding or crushing. Depending on the metal content and the acceptance criteria for the metallic waste on the waste site licence it may be possible to directly recycle the cylinder with metal wastes (without separation of materials). If neither of above methods is technically or economically feasible then the cylinders should be segregated and sent to a suitable landfill. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

28 Composite Cylinders:From Birth to Grave
11/04/2017 D. Future developments Develop pragmatic, realistic manufacturing tests and not those which ‘might be useful’ e.g. delete the ‘Gunfire’/‘Penetration’ test. Provide hard data to Competent Authorities and not ‘hearsay’ e.g. stress rupture characteristics of various types of fibres. More objectivity e.g. a more reproducible bonfire test than the current one. Minimise permeation of gas (especially flammable ones) from Type 4 cylinders. Develop an affordable test for evaluating degradation of the composite. Undertake a risk analysis with due regard to the local population. All of the above factors 1) -> 6) will help composites to achieve a non-limited life. Thus ensuring that composites compete COMMERCIALLY on a more equal footing with Type 1 cylinders, than they do today. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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30 Composite Cylinders:From Birth to Grave
11/04/2017 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

31 Something to think about…. Enter the “Titan”
4 x composite tubes in a 40’ ISO container = 1 module Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

32 Composite Cylinders:From Birth to Grave
11/04/2017 A “Titan” on the move Around 300 modules are now in-use worldwide Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

33 Composite Cylinders:From Birth to Grave
11/04/2017 Exacting “Bonfire” Tests Critical “Rollover”. Tubes tested after accident using AE and found to be perfectly safe for further service. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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Typical leakage rate from a plastic lined Type 4 due to permeation Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

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Permeation rates permitted by various specifications Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

37 Standardisation Is A Living Process. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

38 Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd


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