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“Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Dr Roy (Rohintan) S. Irani, Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd. London, U.K. Gasworld Conference Wednesday, 4 th.

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Presentation on theme: "“Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Dr Roy (Rohintan) S. Irani, Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd. London, U.K. Gasworld Conference Wednesday, 4 th."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Dr Roy (Rohintan) S. Irani, Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd. London, U.K. Gasworld Conference Wednesday, 4 th December, 2013 Dubai, UAE Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 1

2 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Composite Cylinders A.Brief History of Composites B.Role of Regulations and Standards C.Specifics for Composite Cylinders D.Future Developments Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 2

3 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd Napoleon Bonaparte 3

4 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Following on from Napoleon….almost a century later: In 1919 a 6.9 MPa, 150 mm diameter cylinder was developed:- This was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel wire to prevent sidewall rupture, & The end caps were longitudinally reinforced with high-tensile rods. A.Brief History of Composites (2) Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 4

5 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” There next followed a spate of wire-wound designs regrettably yet again for military applications. During World War II, they were used by airmen as part of their breathing apparatus. Such is their success that they are still used for this military application in what is considered to be a conservative field. Steel wire windings Thin steel plate cylinder A.Brief History of Composites (3) Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 5

6 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Following a number of years of research and development within NASA, finally commercial applications with hoop-wound composite cylinders came into being in Originally these were with an aluminium alloy liner and glass fibre. There then flowed a multitude of developments, which included a variety of liners and fibre combinations. Here we have an example of a seamless steel liner with an Aramid fibre reinforced composite, known as a Type 2 cylinder. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd A.Brief History of Composites (4) 6

7 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Seamless steel or aluminium alloy liner Carbon fibre composite Glass fibre overwrap for protecting the carbon composite Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd A.A Brief History of Composites (5) 7

8 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Computer controlled wrapping of a Type 3 cylinder with a carbon fibre composite. Note protective layer of paint, on metallic liner under the composite. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd A.Brief History of Composites (6) 8

9 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Newsflash!!! Technological breakthrough!! Year 2000!!! Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd A.A Brief History of Composites (7) 9

10 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Metallic boss Glass fibre composite overlay, over a polymer liner Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd A.Brief History of Composites (8) 10 Critical triple point junction

11 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Summary of Types of Composites Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 11 Type 1: Monolithic cylinders…no composite Type 2: Hoop wrapped composite gas cylinders Type 3: Fully wrapped composite gas cylinders with load-sharing metal liners Type 4: Fully wrapped composite gas cylinders with non-load-sharing metallic or non-metallic liners Type 5: Linerless cylinders…only composite

12 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd Some applications for composites 12

13 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 13 Stay awake….watch this space!

14 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” B. Role of Regulations and Standards Regulations are Mandatory and must be followed Regulations are essential ‘Safety Requirements’ against which the law will be applied BUT Regulations are very concise and so often they rely on the application of good Standards which provide the DETAILS. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 14

15 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd ADR - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road RID - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ADN - Transport of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways TPED - Transportable Pressure Equipment Directive PED - Pressure Equipment Directive Principal Regulations covering Pressurised Containers e.g.in Europe 15

16 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd  Monolithic (seamless) cylinders are manufactured using a Design Formula e.g. Lamé von-Mises. BUT 16

17 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Safety First! Stored Energy : There is a huge amount of energy stored in a compressed gas cylinder. E.g. In a 200 bar 50 litre cylinder i.e. 10,000 bar litres:- We have energy equivalent to 0.4 kgs of TNT Or The pressure wave alone can kill a person 15 metres away Or Enough energy to raise a small car about 30 metres into the air THEREFORE: In a ISO(CD) receptacle i.e. the Titan, whose scope is for a 10,000 litre x 1000 bar WP vessel the stored energy is 10 million bar litres i.e. equivalent to 4 tons of TNT….much safety needs to built into the design. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 17

18 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 18 Explosion inside a cellar

19 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd Explosion of an Oxygen Cylinder Inside a Cabin 19

20 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 20

21 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd A large suite of tests developed …..COSTLY!! Cyclic testing (fatigue) Complete composite cylinder Burst testing Liner only Mechanical testing (tensile, impact, hardness, bend) Flaw tolerance (to simulate damage in service) Drop tests Environmental test (up to 2000 hours in some cases!) Bonfire (subjective!!) Penetration (Gunfire) (really needed in 21 st Century?) Permeation (Type 4) High temp creep Accelerated stress rupture Extreme temp pressure cycling Resin shear strength Natural gas cycling Etc.? C. Specifics for Composite Cylinders (1) 21

22 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd Despite such an exhaustive and expensive TEST PROGRAMME, There is still little confidence that a SAFE cylinder is being produced in the minds of COMPETENT AUTHORITIES who are “committed” to achieving a safe design. Are these sufficient and appropriate tests for SAFETY??? Specifics for Composite Cylinders (2)

23 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd NET RESULT: The total life of a composite cylinder is limited e.g. in most cases to just 15 YEARS. But watch this space! This then results in a double blow for the user!! Specifics for Composite Cylinders (3) 23

24 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd New cylinder costs e.g. Type 3, 300 bar WP and 100 litre €2000 € 130/annum c.f. Type 1, 300 bar WP and 100 litre €240 €6/annum BUT Type 1: Technical efficiency # 0.9kg/L Type 3: Technical efficiency # 0.3kg/L # Unit weight of cylinder/volume 24

25 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd  Lack of confidence in performance is also reflected in the use aspects of composites e.g.  P. I. & T. ……… EN ISO (2002)  Lacks any real test for degradation of composites  Despite a revision in progress after nearly a decade, very little innovative progress for vast majority of composites  Some expensive testing e.g. AE testing being developed for ‘Prestige’ Projects. 25

26 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” The Grave! Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 26 The cylinder shall be made unserviceable by:  Removing all labels and identification marks,  Removal of the valve and other accessories for reuse or recovery,  Either crushing the cylinder as flat as possible, or cutting irregular holes in the neck and base.  In addition see the guidance in EN ISO – “Transportable gas cylinders - Periodic inspection and testing of composite gas cylinders”.

27 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” The Grave! (2) Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 27  Where technically and economically feasible, separate materials for recycling/recovery e.g. cut up/separate different materials by shredding or crushing.  Depending on the metal content and the acceptance criteria for the metallic waste on the waste site licence it may be possible to directly recycle the cylinder with metal wastes (without separation of materials).  If neither of above methods is technically or economically feasible then the cylinders should be segregated and sent to a suitable landfill.

28 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd D. Future developments 1)Develop pragmatic, realistic manufacturing tests and not those which ‘might be useful’ e.g. delete the ‘Gunfire’/‘Penetration’ test. 2)Provide hard data to Competent Authorities and not ‘hearsay’ e.g. stress rupture characteristics of various types of fibres. 3)More objectivity e.g. a more reproducible bonfire test than the current one. 4)Minimise permeation of gas (especially flammable ones) from Type 4 cylinders. 5)Develop an affordable test for evaluating degradation of the composite. 6)Undertake a risk analysis with due regard to the local population. 7)All of the above factors 1) -> 6) will help composites to achieve a non-limited life. Thus ensuring that composites compete COMMERCIALLY on a more equal footing with Type 1 cylinders, than they do today. 28

29 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 29

30 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 30

31 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Something to think about…. Enter the “Titan” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 31 4 x composite tubes in a 40’ ISO container = 1 module

32 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 32 A “Titan” on the move Around 300 modules are now in-use worldwide

33 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 33 Exacting “Bonfire” Tests Critical “Rollover”. Tubes tested after accident using AE and found to be perfectly safe for further service.

34 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 34

35 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Typical leakage rate from a plastic lined Type 4 due to permeation Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

36 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Permeation rates permitted by various specifications Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd

37 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave”StandardisationIsALiving Process. Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 37

38 “Composite Cylinders: From Birth to Grave” Gas Package Solutions (GPS) Ltd 38


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