Presentation on theme: "The Orthotic Management of Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly and Other Head Shape Deformities Orthomerica Products, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
The Orthotic Management of Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly and Other Head Shape Deformities Orthomerica Products, Inc.
STARband Cranial Remolding Orthosis
COMMON HEAD SHAPE DEFORMITIES
Definition of Terms Bossing: An area of prominence. Occipital plagiocephaly: An area of flattening in the occipital region. Frontal plagiocephaly: An area of flattening in the forehead or frontal region. Facial asymmetry: Difference in the bony and soft tissue structures of the right side compared to the left side of the face.
Deformational PlagiocephalyBrachycephaly Scaphocephaly Definition of Terms
BRACHYCEPHALY Bilateral occipital flattening or central flattening Frontal bossing High cranial vault Width of head is greater than 85% of the length and may exceed 100% (cephalic ratio)
An asymmetrical molding of the head caused by external forces often accompanied by torticollis. Incidence reported at birth: – 1 in 300 when torticollis is also present (Clarren) – 16% (4 weeks) Hutchison – 13% flattening and 11% other unusual head shape Peitsch
Scaphocephaly Long, narrow head shape Prevalent in infants with sagittal synostosis and NICU babies due to side- lying position Width of head is less than 75% of the length Infant’s neck muscles have difficult time extending the head due to head shape
Early Management of Torticollis Child is in custom molded cranial orthosis. Child pinned to the bed sheet in prone! Rubber tubing attached to the orthosis and to the bed rail. Torticollis resolved in 7-10 days, but babies didn’t tolerate the treatment.
Why don’t these skull deformities resolve like they used to? Supine positioning at night. Supine positioning all day in carriers, car seats, swings. Infants who sleep supine roll later, so infants spend more time in supine before they are able to reposition themselves. Neck tightness does not resolve because of limited positions during the day.
Why don’t these skull deformities resolve like they used to? Increased incidence of multiple births. – Parents are busy and can’t reposition infants as often. – Less intrauterine space. More pre-term babies survive whose heads are more fragile and susceptible to deformation.
Orthotic Treatment Components Non-synostotic deformational plagiocephaly – Diagnosed with clinical observation. – X-ray, CT, and/or MRI MAY be used to rule out craniosynostosis – Uniform growth – Brain determines size and shape of cranium. Maximum growth – Treatment is most effective when the head is actively growing. – 4-7 months is ideal timing. – Children can be treated up to 18 months. Compliance – 23 hours per day.
The goal of the orthotic treatment program is to provide effective and progressive realignment of the skull.
Principals of Orthotic Intervention for Deformational Plagiocephaly Provide total contact in the areas where growth is to be curbed. Allow space in the areas where growth is desired. There is a critical window of opportunity, specifically between 3-12 months of age, when the head is actively growing. The symmetrical helmet creates a pathway for growth to occur.
How does the STARband improve the head shape of babies with deformational plagiocephaly? A cast or scan is taken of the infant’s head and poured or carved to get a positive model. The flattened areas are built up with plaster in the posterior-lateral quadrant to obtain symmetry. The flattened frontal area is also built up with plaster to obtain symmetry. Contact will be maintained over the prominent or bossed areas to deter growth in those areas.
How does the STARband improve the head shape of babies with brachycephaly? Primary build-up on the positive mold will occur across the central occipital region to obtain improved proportions of the head. The Cephalic Ratio of babies in 2006 is about 83-85%. Cephalic Ratio + Width divided by Length of the head. Contact is maintained over the frontal and parietal regions to deter growth.
How does the STARband improve the head shape of babies with scaphocephaly? Scaphocephaly—mild, moderate or severe. – Primary build-up on the plaster mold will occur at the right and left parietal areas to obtain improved proportions of the head. Normally, the cranial width is approximately 80% of the cranial length. – Contact will be maintained over the frontal and posterior (bossed) regions to deter growth.
Documentation: Visual Examination Note areas of – Flattening – Bossing Increased head height Ear shift Unusual side to side or anterior-posterior forehead slope
Visual Assessment Note areas of bossing. Note areas of flatness. Ear alignment. Facial asymmetry: – Eyes – Nose – Mouth – Cheeks
Evaluate the baby from every side.
The deformity may not be obvious in the frontal view.
After a three month trial of repositioning, who should be referred for a cranial remolding orthosis? Mild: 1 quadrant Involvement and minimal ear shift. (Refer for baseline measurements and monitor.) Mild Mild- Moderate Moderate Severe Moderate: 2 quadrant involvement and ear shift.(Refer for a cranial orthosis.) Severe: 3-4 quadrant involvement, ear shift, and facial involvement.(Refer for a cranial orthosis.)
Moderate to severe head plagiocephaly Moderate to severe brachycephaly Continued post-operative remodeling for mild to severe head deformations 1/2” liner allows adjustability over shunts
STARband General Information Active orthosis—active on part of the orthotist and the baby’s growth. Modified to full or partial symmetry. Considerable adjustments available through removal of liner material. Requires frequent follow-up for ongoing adjustments. Requires basic skill/knowledge.
STARlight Side Opening Band Proximal opening Side opening band Approximately 2/4” clear plastic shell 1 1/2” Velcro strap and chafe closure Indications: – Deformational Plagiocephaly – Deformational Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Brachycephaly
STARlight Bi-valve Anterior and posterior shells Approximately 1/4” clear plastic shell Overlap design Superior sliding mechanism 1” Velcro strap and chafe closure Indications: Post-op, Scaphy
STARlight Bi-valve Moderate to severe plagiocephaly Moderate to severe brachycephaly Moderate to severe scaphocephaly Continued post-operative remolding for mild to severe head deformation Shunt can be monitored through clear plastic.
STARlight Bi-valve Active orthotic treatment process. Modified to full or partial symmetry. Growth accommodation available through overlapping shells. Plastic can be heated and stretched. Design mechanism allows tri-planar adjustability. Requires advanced skill/knowledge.
STARband Bi-valve Deformational scaphycephaly. Following surgery for craniosynostosis. Trim lines can be modified to allow growth in specific areas. Sliding top mechanism allows A- P control. Orthotist can cut plastic out where growth is desired. Design developed by Orthomerica and Frank Vicari, Children’s Memorial Of Chicago.
Contraindications Craniosynostosis – Contraindicated until the synostotic suture is removed. – STARband can be used post-operatively as an adjunct to surgery. Hydrocephalus – Contraindicated until the volume is stabilized. – STARband can be used post-operatively with special care taken to prevent occlusion of the shunt. Children younger than three months – Aggressive repositioning efforts are recommended. Children older than eighteen months – Case by case assessment, minimal change expected.
Ruling out Craniosynostosis A premature fusion of the cranial suture(s) resulting in disproportionate growth of the cranial bones and as a sequence the growth of the facial bones are also involved. Cranial orthoses are contraindicated until the fusion is released. Post-operatively, the orthosis can be used as either a remolding or protective orthosis.
Hydrocephalus Cranial orthoses are contraindicated with hydrocephalus unless it is controlled with a shunt. The fluid may be shunted into the heart or the abdominal cavity.
Hydrocephalus is a contraindication for cranial remolding orthoses. Shunt is often visible through the skin.
Orthotic Management with the STARband Cranial Remolding Orthosis
Preparation for casting with plaster wrap: – “Poncho” made of stockinette. – Helps to keep the baby warm and clean. – Caregiver also needs cover as they will be “helping”. Traditional method of taking an impression of the infant’s head
Traditional Casting Process Casting with flexible fiberglass casting tape is faster and cleaner Casting is accurate, safe and quick for the patient and parents Changes are documented monthly with hand- measurements.
Fitting Orthotist trims helmet to fit patient Break in instructions are provided Wearing instructions are provided One week follow-up appointment is scheduled
Modifications to STARband TM Progressive Adjustments During the Orthotic Treatment Program Monthly appointments with others on a as needed basis
Frontal modifications The orthotist removes material from the inside of the STARband about every two weeks to direct head growth into a more symmetrical and well proportioned shape. Specialized equipment is needed for the fitting and follow up appointments.
Modifications cont. Orthotist can heat and press out the plastic Pads can be added for relief and rotation control
Who covers Helmets? Medicaid Aetna Select Health DMBA Other plans are based on wether it is an exclusion or not Each insurances have various requirements for authorization
Medicaid Under one year of age Diagonal difference >1.0 cm Requires authorization prior to treatment Brachycephaly & Scaphocephaly not currently not covered
Aetna Older than 4 months Younger than 12 months Diagonal difference >.6cm Requires authorization prior to treatment Covers all three diagnoses Brachycephaly >2 SD above the norm
IHC Older than 4 months Younger than 12 months Diagonal difference >.6cm 3 months positioning therapy Requires authorization prior to treatment Covers all three diagnoses Brachycephaly >2 SD above the norm
DMBA Diagonal difference >.6cm Student plan requires authorization Traditional DMBA plan does not require authorization Covers all three diagnoses Brachycephaly >2 SD above the norm