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I. CAUSES OF US ENTRY INTO WWI WWI Lecture 2. A. Background 1. President Wilson proclaims US Neutrality (August 4, 1914) Almost ALL Americans supported.

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Presentation on theme: "I. CAUSES OF US ENTRY INTO WWI WWI Lecture 2. A. Background 1. President Wilson proclaims US Neutrality (August 4, 1914) Almost ALL Americans supported."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. CAUSES OF US ENTRY INTO WWI WWI Lecture 2

2 A. Background 1. President Wilson proclaims US Neutrality (August 4, 1914) Almost ALL Americans supported Neutrality but… Most favored the Allies Language & cultural ties British News reports of German atrocities Militaristic goals of Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II US Propaganda favored Allies 1915 – British cut the Transatlantic cable that brought news to the US from Germany = News biased toward Britain

3 2. British Naval Blockade Used to cut off the Central Powers from supplies 1909 – Declaration of London Attempt to update international law Not ratified because Britain, in control of the seas, would not accept limitations on her sea power 3. German Naval Blockade February 4, 1915 declared the waters around the British Isles a submarine war zone Considered this a blockade ag. Britain (submarine war zone on your map)

4 4. International Law 1. Neutral trade ships could not carry contraband Illegally transported war material – like guns and ammunition 2. Warring nations allowed to stop and inspect neutral vessels  to check enemy ships hiding under neutral flags 3. Before sinking a merchant ship, had to : Give Warning Do everything possible to save civilian lives (passengers & crew)

5 a. British Violations Made ALL neutral ships headed for Germany be searched in British ports Seized non contraband cargoes Blockaded Neutral nations (Netherlands, Denmark) Declared the North Sea a military area (war zone) filled it with mines

6 b. German Violations German Submarines (U-boats) could not follow the rule of warning a ship before firing U-Boats did not have room to rescue survivors US Criticism focused on German sub attacks because = loss of life

7 c. German Submarine sinks the British luxury liner the LUSITANIA (May 7, 1915) En route to Great Britain from America Carrying contraband & passengers 128 Americans killed Americans outraged Sunk off the coast of Ireland Within the German Sub war zone

8 1. Wilson sends strong protest message to Germany 2. Germany refused to disavow the attack claiming that : Lusitania = war vessel carrying contraband passengers had been warned in newspaper advertisement c. German Submarine sinks the British luxury liner the LUSITANIA (May 7, 1915)

9 3. William Jennings Bryan Wilson’s Secretary of State A pacifist ( one who is strongly opposed to war) Resigned in protest believing Wilson’s insistence on the right of Americans to travel into the war zone would draw the US into the war c. German Submarine sinks the British luxury liner the LUSITANIA (May 7, 1915)

10 TOTAL WAR

11 Philip Sheridan - U.S. Army General during American Civil War The proper strategy in war consists …in inflicting as telling blows as possible upon the enemy’s army, and then causing the inhabitants so much suffering that they must long for peace, and force their government to demand it. The people must be left nothing but their eyes to weep with over the war.”

12 Peter Strasser -Commander of the German Zeppelin Fleet during WWI “We who strike the enemy where his heart beats have been slandered as baby killers and murderers of women. What we do is repugnant to us too, but necessary. Very necessary. Nowadays there is no such animal as a noncombatant. A soldier cannot function without the factory worker, the farmers and all the other providers behind them. Modern warfare is total warfare.”

13 5. TOTAL WAR Civilians (non-combatants) as targets Winning by whatever means necessary

14 Video Clip: Total War TERMS: a. Rules of Engagement b. Zeppelin = dirigible

15 HOMEWORK Read and Answer the thought questions Dulce et Decorum…. ~ Wilfred Owen Total War ~ Peter Strasser War Reflection 5 = civilians as targets

16 WAR REFLECTION 5 Just War Principle # 3 : In a just war civilians must not be targets of the fighting and great care must be taken to avoid casualties. Do you agree/disagree with this just war principle? Do you think it is a valid criteria? Why or Why not ?

17 B. Factors & Events that drew America into World War I

18 1. Economic Factors that drew America into World War I US TRADE with Britain and allies SOARED with Germany PLUMMETED due to the effectiveness of the British blockade US Bankers loaned large amounts of money to Allies (U.S. Treasury Secretary William McAdoo) so they could afford to continue to buy US goods the LOANS made the US financially tied to the Allies winning the war

19 Jan Germany promised to STOP unrestricted submarine warfare Does Germany want the US to enter the war ?????

20 2.Political Factors that drew America into World War I a. Peace and Preparedness program 1. March 1916 : National Defense Act Increased US military forces a policy of “peace” (= neutrality) and “preparedness” (= military buildup in peacetime = militarism)

21 2. November 1916 : US Presidential Election Woodrow Wilson re-elected campaign slogan “He Kept us out of war”

22 b. Peace without victory speech (January 1917) Directed at European powers to negotiate a peace Wilson offers his assistance as mediator Europeans reject proposal “What would happen, I wonder if the armies suddenly and simultaneously went on strike and said some other method must be found of settling the dispute ?”~ Winston Churchill

23 c. Zimmerman Note Published (Feb. 24, 1917) message Britain intercepted from Germany proposing a German alliance with Mexico IF the United States entered the war on the side of the Allies Mexico rejected the proposal

24 3. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

25 a. Sussex Pledge (May 31, 1916) The Sussex (French liner) sunk by German submarine Wilson issued an ultimatum Germany must stop submarine warfare “OR ELSE” the US will sever diplomatic relations Germany accepted = Sussex Pledge But…demanded US address Britain’s illegal acts

26 Jan.31, 1917 (8 mos. later & no action by US to curb British violations) Germany resumes unlimited submarine warfare Feb, 1917 US breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany

27 b. Armed Neutrality (March 1917) Wilson asked Congress to authorize arming US merchant vessels US Senators La Follette & Norris lead filibuster Filibuster = Senate minority tactic to stop a bill w/ majority support from coming to a vote by “talking the bill to death” Is this : obstructing majority rule OR protecting minority view ? Wilson criticized them as “little band of willful men” Wilson used executive order to carry out armed neutrality w/out Congress

28 READ !!!! Profiles in Courage Book chapter on Norris Chapter 8 – George Norris Why does John F. Kennedy believe George Norris was courageous ? Do agree or disagree with JFKs assessment of George Norris’ actions ? HOMEWORK

29 C. Rationales ( justifications) given for US entry 1. Making the World Safe for Democracy

30 a. Russian Revolution (March 1917) Nicholas II was the Russian Tsar (dictator) overthrown The new temporary (provisional) DEMOCRATIC government set up made Russia an acceptable ally to the US This is BEFORE the second revolution in December that brings the Bolsheviks/Communists to power

31 2. Wilson’s Declaration of War speech (April 2, 1917) War to make the world safe for democracy Democracy Against Autocracy (dictatorships) War to end all wars New World Order world democracy

32 April 6, 1917: US Declares War on Germany Summary of Main reasons : Unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany Financial ties between America and the allies American fears that Germany would help Mexico

33 HOMEWORK : BRAINSTORM LISTS of … Reasons FOR U.S. entry into WWI (at least 6-10 reasons) Reasons AGAINST U.S. entry into WWI (at least 6-10 reasons)

34 President Woodrow Wilson Read aloud Wilson’s Request for War speech Listen/List reasons he states FOR U.S. entry into WWI

35 Before simulation VIDEO CLIP Democracy

36 Senate Simulation Ask for show of hands ( how many wrote for how many wrote against) If too few against war will need to read Norris & Kitchen speeches to provide balance Deliver your speeches

37 Senator George W. Norris List reasons AGAINST U.S. entry into WWI

38 Representative Claude Kitchin List reasons AGAINST U.S. entry into WWI

39 HOMEWORK : If you were a member of Congress in 1917 would you have voted for or against US entry into World War I ? Write a speech (1 ½ pages max ! ) regarding your position to give in class “next time we meet” (use your answers to questions on “Motivations for US entry…” handout)

40 Before simulation VIDEO CLIP Democracy

41 HOMEWORK summary 1. Read and Answer the thought questions Dulce et Decorum…. ~ Wilfred Owen Total War ~ Peter Strasser 2. READ Chapter 8 - Profiles in Courage Book on George Norris WRITE REFLECTION : Why does John F. Kennedy believe George Norris was courageous ? Do agree or disagree with JFKs assessment of George Norris’ actions ? 3. BRAINSTORM LISTS of … Reasons FOR (at least 6-10 reasons)/ Reasons AGAINST U.S. entry into WWI (at least 6-10 reasons for each position) 4. Write a speech (typed 1 ½ pages max ! ) If you were a member of Congress in 1917 would you have voted for or against US entry into World War I ? 5. War Reflection on Just War Principle 3

42 American foreign policy leading up to involvement in the First World War was greatly influenced by our definitions of the rights of neutrals and our assertions of “freedom of the seas.” At what point and to what extent was Germany justified in considering the United States an enemy and acting on that perception accordingly? DBQ Prompt : Homework: Prompt Analysis (Doc. Analysis)

43 Jeanette Rankin Women in Congress ongress.gov/con gresswomen/chr ono.asp ongress.gov/con gresswomen/chr ono.asp

44 Jeannette Rankin “I believe that the first vote I cast was the most significant vote and a most significant act on the part of women, because women are going to have to stop war. I felt at the time that the first woman (in Congress) should take the first stand, that the first time the first woman had a chance to say no to war she should say it.”

45 Senator Robert La Follette

46 Lecture 2: II. “War Without Stint” A. Entering the War 1. U-boats (42) 2. Anti-submarine mines in North Sea (43) 3. Bolshevik Revolution (44) 4. V.I. Lenin (45)

47 B. The American Expeditionary Force 1. draft (46) 2. conscript (47) 3. Selective Service Act (48) 4. American Expeditionary Force (AEF) (49) 5. “IQ” (50)

48 Bailey Outline Lecture 2 (Chapter 31 p ) CH. 31 The War to End War I. War by Act of Germany II. Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned III. Wilson’s Fourteen Potent Points IV. Creel Manipulates Minds V. Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent VI. The Nation’s Factories Go to War VI. Workers in Wartime


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