Presentation on theme: "Paper mulch controls purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) in processing tomato A. Cirujeda 1, J. Aibar 2, C. Zaragoza 1 1 Unidad de Sanidad Vegetal, Centro."— Presentation transcript:
Paper mulch controls purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) in processing tomato A. Cirujeda 1, J. Aibar 2, C. Zaragoza 1 1 Unidad de Sanidad Vegetal, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria (CITA), Zaragoza; 2 Universidad de Zaragoza. Escuela Politécnica Superior Huesca Huesca, September 7th, 2011 EWRS Joint Workshop. 4-8 September 2011. Huesca, Spain
Cyperus rotundus L. is considered one of the world’s worst weed.
Despite its low size, this species can cause a reduction of up to 28% in the development of tomato (Morales-Payan et al., 2003).
CYCLE OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L. in the North of Spain (continental area) SPRINGSUMMERAUTUMNWINTER LIGHT Tª 21A LONG DAY 12h Tª>20ºC LIGHT Tª SHORT DAY 9h LIGHT Tª 21J 21S21D non- viable seeds Tª<5ºC Tª>15ºC
Cyperus rotundus infestation in a commercial farm without mulch.
IX Congreso SEAE: Calidad y Seguridad Alimentaria Plastic mulch with black polyethylene (PE) is generally used in extensive horticultural crops in north-eastern Spain, like in tomato.
In this work we present the effect of some types of paper used in tomato crop infested with C. rotundus during five years. Objectives
Table 1. Description of the treatments. TrialYearMaterialCompanyColourWeight (gm2) All2005-10Untreated control --- All2005-10PESolplastBlack16.4 All2005-10Mater-Bi 1 NovamontBlack22.3 Aula Dei2005, 06Saikraft 200 2, 3 SaicaBrown200 Aula Dei, S. Bruno 2007, 08Saikraft 140 2, 3 SaicaBrown140 S. Bruno2008, 09Mimgreen 2 MimcordBlack90 S. Bruno2009, 10Karpan Liner 2 Smurfit- Kappa Brown120 S. Bruno2009, 10MG 2 Smurfit- Kappa Black50 Material and methods 1 Biodegradable plastic 2 Paper 3 Paper coated on one side with an estiren-acrylate copolymer at 150 g/t.
Mimcord MG Saikraft Karpan Liner
Figure 1. Cyperus rotundus density 42 days after transplantation. Results
Paper mulch does not prevent Cyperus emergence but as far as it stands the physical pressure and does not break, the plants are not able to reach the light, develop chlorotic leaves, do not flower and die. Results
Drawbacks: If rainfall is frequent, the paper becomes soft and do not dry and the control effect on Cyperus is not reached (Méndez et al., 2006 Northern Spain). This can also happen if the irrigation emitters are placed upwards and the paper is continously wet. Another unconvenient of paper mulch is that in clay soils the degradation of the underground part of the paper mulch may be quite fast and the paper breaks down in the contact line of the mulch with the soil surface allowing the wind to damage it. Results
Tomato yield at the paper mulch treatments was very similar to that obtained in the PE all 5 years of experiments.
Mulching type€/kg*g/m 2 €/ha**%Coments Black PE 15 µ1.8516.4202100 Add aprox.150 € removal cost. Saikraft 125 recycled Paper Saikraft 140 recycled Paper 0.47 0.46 125 140 391 429 193 212 Shorter rolls for same weight MaterBi (biodegradable plastic)15µ 4.7522.3706350 - Biofilm (biodegradable plastic) 17µ 5.821818404 - Black Paper Mimcord 135µ1.590.3903446 Good installation. Shorter rolls for same weight *It does not include installation. Prices in Spain, 2010 **2/3 field area covered (1,50m between rows, 1,20m mulch width) Economic aspects
Conclusions Paper mulch is an efficient weed control method including Cyperus spp. unless the mulch is not under continous moisture conditions. Another advantage is the complete degradation of the paper after burial. The main constraints compared to PE is the price (nowadays), the slower installation and the heavier weight of the rolls.
Thanks for your attention! EWRS Joint Workshop. 4-8 September 2011. Huesca, Spain