Presentation on theme: "San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 1 IET - Institute for Energy and Transport Joint Research Centre, European Commission Petten - The Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 1 IET - Institute for Energy and Transport Joint Research Centre, European Commission Petten - The Netherlands B. Acosta, P. Moretto, N. Frischauf, F. Harskamp and C. Bonato Hydrogen Tank Filling Experiments at the JRC-IET GasTeF Facility International Conference on Hydrogen Safety - 4 September 12-14, 2011 San Francisco, California, USA
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 2 OUTLINE Hydrogen storage at high pressures Fast filling issues GasTeF: Compressed hydrogen Gas Testing Facility JRC-IET GasTeF temperature evolution experiment Experimental results Next steps
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 3 hydrogen storage at high pressures A type 1 tank, or a standard compressed gas cylinder, is simply a stainless steel casing holding compressed gas. It has no extra covering or accessories, except for the coating of paint on the outside that identifies the contained gas. A type 2 tank is slightly more durable than a type 1. It has a base cylinder shell made of aluminium or stainless steel, and a partial wrapping around the outside of the cylinder. This wrapping is usually made of a polyester resin containing glass, aramid or carbon. A type 4 tank is a fully wrapped composite tank with a non- metallic liner. The mechanical loads are therefore only supported by the composite wrapping; the liner itself does not support the loads “non-sharing-load” liner Type 3 and 4 tanks may also have an additional glass fibre wrapping to protect the tank against external effects A type 3 tank is a fully wrapped composite tank with a metal liner made out of aluminium or stainless steel. The composite is wrapped around the liner. The mechanical loads of the cylinder are supported by both liner and wrapping.
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 4 Tank (re)-fuelling Requirements: Avoid exceeding high temperatures in tank Operating range -40 °C to 85 °C Reasonable short filling duration Max. 3-5 minutes … however… The shorter the filling duration The higher the temperatures inside the tank Higher gas temperatures Higher filling end pressures to assure a “complete tank filling” Three major risks to damage tank materials: Over-pressurisation Temperatures higher than the maximum allowed 85 °C (for example SAE J2579) Over-filling if fuelling occurs at low ambient temperature The JRC-IET facility GasTeF is an EU reference laboratory designed to carry out performance verification tests of full-scale high pressure vehicle tanks for hydrogen or natural gas or of any other high-pressure components fast filling : safety and convenience aspects
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 5 GasTeF: Compressed Hydrogen Gas Testing Facility Half-buried bunker with an attached gas storage area. Designed to endure a sudden energy release equivalent to 50 kg TNT with a safety factor of 10. Double walls of heavy-concrete, covered by a 3 meter thick sand layer armoured by geotextile every thirty centimetres The bunker is closed by a gas-tight inner door and after that by a hydraulically operated 40 tons massive concrete door sliding on Teflon plates The gas detectors form the heart of the safety monitoring system of the bunker Operated under remote control – inertised during testing GasTeF: safe testing of tanks and components
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 6 55 kW two-stage piston compressor up to 880 bar H 2 / He / CH bar package GC and O 2 free H 2 detectors 2 nd Containment Aluminium Sleeve 1 st Containment pressure vessel The cylinders are placed into a sleeve which contains an inert gas (He, N 2...) and serves as chamber to detect permeation. The H 2 level is measured using gas chromatography. GasTeF layout
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 7 Static permeation measurement as a function of time on tanks filled up to 70 MPa and up to temperatures to 100 °C. GasTeF : fast-filling, cycling and permeation tests on any type of hydrogen (and methane) tanks Fast-filling cycling, in which storage tanks are fast filled and slowly emptied using hydrogen pressurized up to 70 MPa, for at least 1000 times to simulate their lifetime in a road vehicle. During the cycling process the tank is monitored for leaks and permeation rates using gas chromatography.
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 8 Temperature measurement at 3 axial (displaceable) and 5 radial positions Measurement with He and with H 2 Local measurement of H 2 temperature a boom with thermocouples is inserted into the tank Tank: Raufoss Type 4, 700 bar (29.8 l)
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS H 2 inflow 8 T Top T Bottom T Boss T Line The temperature evolution experiment is also used to validate software models for tanks (see next presentation) Experimental data presented hereafter are preliminary results of the on-going testing campaign to map local temperature evolution inside the tank as a function of filling rate under different starting conditions (T i, p i ) and final pressure p f
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 10 He versus H 2 The graph summarises experiments with different filling rates for different p i, p f and T i In general H 2 features a smaller temperature increase than He (evident only at high fill rates) Preliminary Results Position T5: Axial: 500 – 525 mm from gas inlet Radial: 15 to 35 mm from liner
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 11 The graph summarises experiments with different filling rates and slightly different p i, p f and T i Temperature rise influenced by filling rate Variation in temperature rise at a given filling rate is caused by p f, as well as (T i, p i ) Measured temperatures at the inside and outside of the tank differ significantly Top_inside Top_outside Preliminary Results Max allowed T H2 ?
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 12 After filling finishes, the temperature sharply decreases due to heat transfer from inside the tank to its outer surface As temperature decreases, pressure does as well and hence it takes several hours to reach equilibrium values Long term static pressure tests 30 hours
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 13 Example of fill & emptying cycle Filling Pressure holding Emptying non-linear filling induces a complex (non monotonic) gas temperature evolution as soon as filling is finished, gas temperatures inside the tanks follow a stratification pattern
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 14 a system to cool down the hydrogen when it is supplied to the tank environmental control system to allow simulation of -40°C ambient temperature Next step: temperature control in GasTeF
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 15 control of gas inlet temperature is not easy! Example of tank temperature dependence on inlet temperature TC8, Gas inlet temperature TC5, gas temperature top of the tank With pre-cooling Without pre-cooling even without cooling, inlet temperature can increase
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 16 Conclusions results show that the maximum gas temperature during filling of a type 4 tank can locally exceed the limit established in current regulations and standards. The results serve to validate the computed fluid dynamic modelling of the fast filling process, also performed at JRC-IET – See next presentation! First results suggest that the low thermal conductivity of the plastic liner limits the effect of local temperature peaks on the liner itself as well as on the material of the external shell Is this maximum allowed temperature too limiting? Is this “historical” limit justified for the materials used? Is it important to consider the duration of the temperature overshoot? Next experimental step is to place the thermocouples touching or as close as possible to the tank internal surface to obtain accurate measurements of the liner temperature during filling and emptying measurements are in good agreement with those found in literature
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 17 Thank you for your attention
San Francisco on 13 September 2011 – 4 th ICHS 18 In normal operation the facility runs fully automatically and the tests are operator controlled from a control room situated in an adjacent building control by PLCs and specific software tools