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Taxonomy of AGN - circa 1980 Seyfert 1 galaxy Seyfert 2 galaxy QSO Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSO Liner Quasar Fanaroff/Riley FR1 and FR2 galaxy Broad.

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Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy of AGN - circa 1980 Seyfert 1 galaxy Seyfert 2 galaxy QSO Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSO Liner Quasar Fanaroff/Riley FR1 and FR2 galaxy Broad."— Presentation transcript:

1 Taxonomy of AGN - circa 1980 Seyfert 1 galaxy Seyfert 2 galaxy QSO Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSO Liner Quasar Fanaroff/Riley FR1 and FR2 galaxy Broad line radio galaxy Narrow line radio galaxy Flat Spectrum Core Dominant Radio Source Steep Spectrum Lobe Dominant Radio Source BL Lac object Optically Violent Variable Quasar “Radio-quiet” “Radio-loud”

2 Two Basic Resources on Unification Antonucci, R.R.J. 1993, ARAA, 31, 473 – Unification models for AGN & Quasars Urry & Padovani 1995, PASP, 107, 803 – Radio loud objects only

3 Spectral “Types” of Emission-Line AGN Type 2 Type 1 HH HH HH [O III] 4959,5007

4 Ancient History (Rowan-Robinson 1977)

5 Early Evidence for Aspect-dependent Classification Alignment of optical polarization PA with radio structure in Type 1 objects (polarization typically <1%). Anti-alignment of optical polarization PA with radio structure in Type 2 objects (polarization 1-5+%). General alignment of “ionization cones” with radio structure.

6 Radio Structure vs. Optical Polarization (Antonucci 1983)

7 The Hidden Seyfert 1 Nucleus in NGC 1068 (Antonucci & Miller 1985) 8 minutes of data in 1998 vs. 20 hrs in 1984! 7500 km/sec Polarized flux Total flux

8 The Hidden Seyfert 1 Nucleus in NGC 1068 (Antonucci & Miller 1985) Dusty, molecular torus

9 A Slightly More Modern Picture  v ~ 100 R ~ pc  v ~ 0.01? R ~few kpc

10 How the Torus Unifies AGN Classifications Type 1 Type 2 Type 1 in polarized light Type 1.5 Dust grains NLR BLR Torus axis does not align with the axis of the galaxy!

11 Polarization at High Inclination (Type 2) 1)Strong polarization 2)Perpendicular to torus axis

12 Polarization at Low Inclination (Type 1) 1)Weak polarization 2)Parallel to torus axis

13 Clinching Evidence: Direct imaging of Torus (Ford et al. 1997)

14 Clinching Evidence: Images of Ionization Cones (e.g., Zakamska et al. 2006)

15 The LINER Galaxy NGC 4258 N E D = 7 Mpc

16 H 2 0 Maser Emission from NGC 4258 (Miyoshi, Cecil et al ) N E From Keplerian velocities of masers, central (black hole) mass is 3.6x10 7 M  v  r  1/2 Keplerian velocity curves

17 Polarized Emission Lines from NGC 4258 (Wilkes et al. 1995)  v = 1000 km/s P.A. = 86 o

18 Red and Polarized QSOs from 2MASS (Smith et al. 2000)

19 A Type 2, Red QSO Comes out of the Closet (Schmidt et al. 2002)  v = 30,000 km/s!

20 What is Wrong with these QSOs? (Smith et al. 2003)

21 Red Type1 QSOs are Polarized! (All show broad lines) Type 1 objects

22 Hypothesis for Reddened, Polarized Type 1 QSOs Dust grains NLR BLR Reddening/scattering by considerable dust, even in polar directions

23 Increased Scattering will Cause Reddest QSOs to Appear as Type 1 Regardless of Orientation Surplus of [O III]Deficit of [O III]

24 Unification of Radio-Quiet AGN Seyfert 1 galaxy Seyfert 2 galaxy Liner? Type 1 QSO BAL QSO? Type 2 QSO Luminosity “Face-on” “Edge-on”

25 Unification of Radio-Loud AGN Broad line radio galaxy FR1, FR2, Narrow line radio galaxy Flat Spectrum Core Dominant Radio Source Steep Spectrum Lobe Dominant Radio Source Quasar BL Lac object = Optically Violent Variable Quasar “Face-on” “Edge-on” Luminosity


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