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Horizontal Drilling Potential of the Middle Member Bakken Formation, North Dakota Julie A. LeFever North Dakota Geological Survey.

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Presentation on theme: "Horizontal Drilling Potential of the Middle Member Bakken Formation, North Dakota Julie A. LeFever North Dakota Geological Survey."— Presentation transcript:

1 Horizontal Drilling Potential of the Middle Member Bakken Formation, North Dakota Julie A. LeFever North Dakota Geological Survey

2 MT WY SD ND MB SKAB North Dakota Williston Basin Study Area

3 Stratigraphy Three Forks Formation Bakken Formation Lodgepole Formation lower middle upper Pelmatozoan limestone “False Bakken” Devonian Mississippian “Sanish”

4 Isopach Map of the Middle Bakken Member Contour Interval: 5 ft

5 Prairie Salt Bakken Middle Member Prairie Salt Montana NorthDakota North Dakota Contour Interval ft

6 Lithofacies 5 - Siltstone Lithofacies 4 – Interbedded Dark Grey Shale and Buff Silty Sandstone Lithofacies 3 - Sandstone Lithofacies 2 – Interbedded Dark Grey Shale and Buff Silty Sandstone and Buff Silty Sandstone Lithofacies 1 - Siltstone (From LeFever and others, 1991) Lower Shale Upper Shale Lithofacies of the Middle Member Productive Productive

7 Stratigraphy Bakken Limit in North Dakota NorthSouth Devonian Three Forks Mississippian Lodgepole Formation Mississippian Bakken Formation Upper Shale Member Lower Shale Member Transitional Facies – L5 Transitional Facies - L1 Lithofacies 2 Upper (Productive) Lower

8 Stratigraphy Central Bakken Basin in North Dakota Devonian Three Forks Mississippian Lodgepole Formation Mississippian Bakken Formation Upper Shale Member Lower Shale Member Transitional Facies – L5 Transitional Facies - L1 Lithofacies 2 Lithofacies 3 Lithofacies 4 Central Basin Facies NorthSouth

9 Bottom & Top Seals SESW Sec. 13, T.23N.,R.56E ft ft ft. Devonian Three Forks Fm Mississippian Lodgepole Fm

10 Lower Bakken Shale Member Contour Interval: 5 ft NESE Sec. 27, T150N., R97W

11 Upper Bakken Shale Member Contour Interval: 5 ft NESE Sec. 27, T150N., R97W

12 Matrix porosity Matrix porosity Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Fracture porosity Fracture porosity Related to Tectonics Related to Tectonics Regional Regional Salt tectonics Salt tectonics Related to HC Generation Related to HC Generation Middle Member Bakken Porosity

13 Regional Fractures Heart River Fault ? Montana Canada Lower Bakken Shale ? ? Antelope Structure

14 North Dakota Montana VF/E HF/E M SWSW Sec. 5, T43N, R99W Fracturing Upper Bakken Shale

15 Balcron Oil - #44-24 Vaira SESE Sec. 24, T.24N., R.54E. Neutron Porosity Density Porosity GR Lodgepole Fm. Three Forks Fm. Bakken Fm. upper middle

16 GRGR Shell Oil Company - #32-4 Young Bear BIA SWNE Sec. 4, T148N, R92W Bakken Formation L2 L3 GRDen

17 Lithofacies 3 Conoco, Inc. - #17 Watterud “A” SENW Sec. 11, T160N, R95W Upper L2 Facies GRRes Central Basin Facies

18 Bakken Formation Highly overpressured – 5500 to 5800 psiHighly overpressured – 5500 to 5800 psi MigrationMigration Bakken Source SystemBakken Source System Hydrocarbon GenerationHydrocarbon Generation High volumes – 200 to 413 billion bbls (ND + MT)High volumes – 200 to 413 billion bbls (ND + MT) Bulk volume change in the rockBulk volume change in the rock Formation of micro- and macro- fracturesFormation of micro- and macro- fractures Common in zones with higher organic contentCommon in zones with higher organic content ProducersProducers High Gravity Oil – 39 to 46 o APIHigh Gravity Oil – 39 to 46 o API No waterNo water

19  ND bottom hole temperature is higher  ND is clastic versus carbonate  ND bottom hole pressure is higher ( psi/ft)  Bakken shale open hole is not stable  Rock properties  Naturally fractured  Oil wet  Swelling and migrating clays Differences – MT to ND

20 Non-confidential Drilling Results to Date Ten (10) wells total Ten (10) wells total Single lateral - Open hole re-entry (1) Single lateral - Open hole re-entry (1) Re-Entry – Open hole – Lodgepole liner uncemented (1) Re-Entry – Open hole – Lodgepole liner uncemented (1) Dual lateral – Open hole or perforated liners – Lodgepole liner uncemented (4) Dual lateral – Open hole or perforated liners – Lodgepole liner uncemented (4) Proppant fractured (3), Unstimulated (1) Proppant fractured (3), Unstimulated (1) Single lateral - Perforated liner (4) Single lateral - Perforated liner (4) Dual lateral - Co-planar – Perforated liners (0) Dual lateral - Co-planar – Perforated liners (0)

21 Results Single lateral - Open hole re-entry (1) Single lateral - Open hole re-entry (1) IP 332 BO / 34 BW / 95 MCFD (Cum BO – 25,000) IP 332 BO / 34 BW / 95 MCFD (Cum BO – 25,000) Marginally successful Marginally successful 1 st Attempt 1 st Attempt Hole stability problems in the upper shale? Hole stability problems in the upper shale? Proppant fracture growth into Lodgepole? Proppant fracture growth into Lodgepole?

22 Re-Entry – Open hole – Lodgepole liner uncemented Re-Entry – Open hole – Lodgepole liner uncemented IP 263 BO / 0 BW / 177 MCFD (Cum BO – 23,000) IP 263 BO / 0 BW / 177 MCFD (Cum BO – 23,000) Proppant Fractured after 4 months and 19,000 BO Proppant Fractured after 4 months and 19,000 BO 304 BO / 0 BW / 172 MCFD 304 BO / 0 BW / 172 MCFD Current 304 BO / 0 BW / 172 MCFD Current 304 BO / 0 BW / 172 MCFD Successful! Successful! Liner maintained hole stability? Liner maintained hole stability? Liner hanger packer kept proppant fracture in zone? Liner hanger packer kept proppant fracture in zone? Pressure drawdown kept proppant fracture in zone? Pressure drawdown kept proppant fracture in zone? Results

23 Dual lateral – Open hole or perforated liners – Lodgepole liner uncemented Dual lateral – Open hole or perforated liners – Lodgepole liner uncemented IP 51 BO / 171 BW / 44 MCFD (Cum BO – 11,000) IP 51 BO / 171 BW / 44 MCFD (Cum BO – 11,000) Proppant Fractured immediately to after 1 month Proppant Fractured immediately to after 1 month 134 BO / 179 BW / 125 MCFD 134 BO / 179 BW / 125 MCFD Current 32 BO / 37 BW / 72 MCFD Current 32 BO / 37 BW / 72 MCFD Not successful! Not successful! Liner maintains hole stability? Liner maintains hole stability? Proppant fracture growth into Lodgepole or higher zones? More pressure drawdown to keep prop fracture in zone? Proppant fracture growth into Lodgepole or higher zones? More pressure drawdown to keep prop fracture in zone? Results

24 Dual lateral – Open hole or perforated liners – Lodgepole liner uncemented Dual lateral – Open hole or perforated liners – Lodgepole liner uncemented IP 463 BO / 12 BW / 512 MCFD (Cum BO – 22,000) IP 463 BO / 12 BW / 512 MCFD (Cum BO – 22,000) Not proppant fractured yet Not proppant fractured yet Current 172 BO / 0 BW / 166 MCFD Current 172 BO / 0 BW / 166 MCFD Fairly Successful! Fairly Successful! Liners maintaining hole stability? Liners maintaining hole stability? Complicated mechanically? Complicated mechanically? Pressure drawdown may keep proppant fracture in zone? Pressure drawdown may keep proppant fracture in zone? Mechanical problems may prevent proppant fracturing? Mechanical problems may prevent proppant fracturing? Results

25 Single lateral - perforated liner – Lodgepole cemented Single lateral - perforated liner – Lodgepole cemented IP 275 BO / 107 BW / 264 MCFD (Cum 12,000 BO) IP 275 BO / 107 BW / 264 MCFD (Cum 12,000 BO) Proppant Fractured immediately to after 3 months Proppant Fractured immediately to after 3 months 179 BO / 110 BW / 183 MCFD 179 BO / 110 BW / 183 MCFD Current 83 BO / 20 BW / 126 MCFD Current 83 BO / 20 BW / 126 MCFD Fairly Successful! Fairly Successful! Casing maintains hole and stops fracture growth into Lodgepole? Casing maintains hole and stops fracture growth into Lodgepole? Mechanically simple? Mechanically simple? More pressure drawdown to improve keep proppant fracture in zone? More pressure drawdown to improve keep proppant fracture in zone? Results

26 Conclusions  The Lithofacies are present basinwide.  Primary reservoir porosity may be enhanced by diagenesis, tectonic fractures, and/or fractures from HC generation.  Porosity enhancement is not restricted to a single lithofacies within the Middle Member.  Type of fluid used while drilling may have adverse effects on production.  The presence of vertical fractures in areas of intense HC generation may affect the outcome of stimulation treatment.

27 Conclusions  Production prior to fracture stimulation treatment may increase the potential of staying in zone  Additional fracture stimulation treatments may increase reserves.


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