4CELL TYPES IN EPIDERMIS Keratinocytes – produce keratin (tough fibrous protein)MelanocytesMerkel cells – associated with sensory nerve endings, specialized in the perception of light touch.Langerhans cells – Bone marrow origin, located in basal, spinous and granular layers, act as antigen-presenting cells.
5LAYERS OF DERMIS 1.PAPILLARY LAYER Composed of loose areolar connective tissue.Fingerlike projections called papillae, that extend towards the epidermis.The dermal papillae interdigitates with the epidermal ridges, strengthening the connection between the two layers of skin.
62.RETICULAR LAYERSThe reticular region lies deep in the papillary region and is usually much thicker contains the skin appendagesIt is composed of dense irregular connective tissueFibers: mainly collagen, also elastic and reticular fibers present, giving the dermis its properties of strength, extensibility, and elasticity.Cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, WBCs
8Skin Color of skin depends upon: Blood flow (Hemoglobin) Thickness of skinDegree of pigmentation (Melanin, carotene)Skin is the best indicator of general health
9APPENDAGES OF SKIN SWEAT GLANDS SEBACEOUS GLANDS HAIR FOLLICLES NAILS EccrineApocrineSEBACEOUS GLANDSHAIR FOLLICLESNAILS
10ECCRINE SWEAT GLANDSAre coiled tubular glands that discharge their secretions directly onto the surface of the skinAre smaller than apocrine sweat glandsThey do not extend deep into the dermisThey are supplied by cholenergic sympathetic fibers
11Cont… Are distributed all over the skin except: Tympanic membranes Lip marginsNipplesSome parts of external genitaliaGreatest concentration is in thick skin of palms and soles, and on the face
12APOCRINE SWEAT GLANDSAre large modified sweat glands composed of a coiled secretory portion located at the junction of the dermis and subcutaneous fat, from which a straight portion inserts and secretes into the infundibular portion of the hair follicle or may open directly on the skin surface.
13Cont…In humans, apocrine sweat glands are found only in certain locations of the body: the axillae (armpits), the areola of the nipples, and the genital and perianal regions.Specialized types of apocrine sweat glands present on the eyelids are called Moll's glands.
14Cont…secrete a milky, viscous, odorless fluid which only develops a strong odor when it comes into contact with bacteria on the skin surface.They enlarge at puberty and undergo cyclic changes in relation to menstrual cycle in females.They are supplied by adrenergic sympathetic fibers
15SEBACEOUS GLANDSThe sebaceous glands are branched type of acinar gland in the skin that secrete an oily/waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair
16Cont…Present throughout the skin except in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.Sebaceous glands can usually be found in hair- covered areas, where they are connected to hair follicles.
17Cont… Sebaceous glands are also found in non-hairy areas of lips ,eyelids, nose, penis, labia minora and nipples and areolae Here, the sebum traverses ducts that terminate in sweat pores on the surface of the skin.At the rim of the eyelids, meibomian glands are a specialized form of sebaceous gland. Their secretion slows the evaporation of tears.
18HAIRHard keratin that grows out of the follicle by invagination of epidermis into the dermisThe follicles lie obliquely to the skin surfaceThe hair follicle may be divided anatomically into four parts:
19HAIREach hair is formed from hair matrix, a region of epidermal cells at the base of follicle, which extends deeply into the dermis and subcutaneous tissueAs cells move up they loose their nuclei and become converted into hard keratin hair shaftMelanocytes in the hair matrix impart pigment to hair cells
20PILOSEBACEOUS UNITThe structure consisting of hair, hair follicle, arrector pili muscle, and sebaceous gland is known as a pilosebaceous unit.
21NAILSAre the keratinized plates on the dorsal surfaces of fingers and toesNail plate. The nail plate is the actual fingernail, made of translucent keratin.Nail folds: The nail is surrounded and overlapped by the folds of skin on three sides.Nail bed: is the skin beneath the nail plate and contains nerves, lymph and blood vessels. Nail plate. The nail plate is the actual fingernail, made of translucent keratin. The pink appearance of the nail comes from the blood vessels underneath the nail. The underneath surface of the nail plate has grooves along the length of the nail that help anchor it to the nail bed. Nail folds This is the skin that frames each of your nails on three sides. Nail bed Your nail bed is the skin beneath the nail plate. Cuticle The cuticle of the fingernail is also called the eponychium. The cuticle is situated between the skin of the finger and the nail plate fusing these structures together and providing a waterproof barrier. Your cuticle tissue overlaps your nail plate at the base of your nail. Lunula The lunula is the whitish, half-moon shape at the base of your nail. Perionychium The perioncyhium is the skin that overlies the nail plate on its sides. It is also known as the paronychial edge. The perionychium is the site of hangnails, ingrown nails, and an infection of the skin called paronychia. Hyponychium The hyponychium is the area between the nail plate and the fingertip. It is the junction between the free edge of the nail and the skin of the fingertip, also providing a waterproof barrier
22Cont…Matrix/Root of the nail: is the hidden part of the nail bed that lie beneath the proximal nail fold. The matrix is responsible for producing cells that become the nail plate.Lunula: is the visible part of matrix at the base of nail. It is the whitish and half-moon shaped part
23Cont…Cuticle / eponychium: This tissue overlaps the nail plate at the base of the nail, providing a waterproof barrier True cuticle: The skin on the underside of the nail fold sheds constantly. These dead skin cells attach to the nail plate and become visible as the nail grows. These needs to be removed.
24Cont…Perionychium: is the skin that overlies the nail plate on its sides.Hyponychium: is the area between the nail plate and the fingertip. It is the junction between the free edge of the nail and the skin of the fingertip, also providing a waterproof barrier
25Cutaneous blood supply The dermis contains horizontally arranged superficial and deep plexuses, which are interconnected via communicating vessels oriented perpendicular to the skin surface.
26LymphaticsBlind-ended lymphatic capillaries arise within the interstitial spaces of the dermal papillae. These unvalved, superficial dermal vessels drain into valved deep dermal and subdermal plexuses.
27Skin InnervationFree nerve endings in the basal layer of the epidermis detect painMerkel cells of the epidermis detect light touch.Meissner’s corpuscles also detect light touch. These are found in the dermal papillae and are most concentrated in the fingertips.Pacininian corpuscles are found deep within the dermis or even in the subcutaneous tissue. These structures detect pressure.
28Surface tension linesForm a network of linear furrows which divided the surface into polygonal or lozenge shaped areas . These lines to some extent correspond to variations in the pattern of collagen fibers in the dermis.
29Tension lines/Cleavage lines/Langer lines The tension lines of skin forms due to the patterns of arrangement of collagen fibers in the dermis.These lines were first described by Langer in 1861 on cadaver.Tend to spiral longitudinal in the limbs and run transversely in the neck and trunk.At the elbow , knee, wrist and ankles are parallel to the transverse creases that appear when the limbs are flexed.
30Skin incisionsSkin incisions that are given parallel to the tension lines usually heal well with minimal scarring because of minimum disruption of collagen fibers.
31Stretch marks in skinDamage to the collagen fibers in dermis due to over stretching as in pregnancy or abdominal enlargement.
32Wrinkle linesCaused by contraction of underlying muscles, present perpendicular to their axis of shortening.On face, they are known as lines of facial expression, aging makes them permanent due to loss of skin elasticity.
33Flexure lines or joint lines Major markings found in the vicinity of synovial joints where the skin is attached strongly to underlying deep fascia.Prominent on the flexor surfaces of palms, soles and digits.Skin lines don't necessarily coincide with the underlying joint line.
35Papillary/epidermal/friction ridges A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the fingers and toes, palms and soles.Are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary (rete) pegs of the epidermis.Along the summit of each ridge the apertures of sweat ducts open at regular intervals.Dermis determines the developmental pattern of epidermis
36FINGER PRINTA fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human fingerThis is genetically determined, unique to the individual, stable through out life & serves as a mean of personal identification.The analysis of ridge patterns by studying finger and foot prints is known as dermatoglyphics.
37The dermis is the receptive site for the pigment of tattoos