Presentation on theme: "Head & Neck Unit – Lecture 4 د. حيدر جليل الأعسم"— Presentation transcript:
1 Head & Neck Unit – Lecture 4 د. حيدر جليل الأعسم The ScalpHead & Neck Unit – Lecture 4د. حيدر جليل الأعسم
2 The scalppart of the head that extends from superciliary arches anteriorly to the external occipital protuberance & superior nuchal lines posteriorly. Laterally, it continues to the zygomatic arch.Layers of scalp:five layers, the first three layers are intimately bound together and move as a unit (Scalp Proper)S- SkinC- Connective tissue (dense) (Scalp Proper)A- Aponeurotic layerL- Loose connective tissueP- Pericranium
3 Muscle of the Scalp (Occipitofrontalis muscle) It moves the scalp proper, wrinkle the forehead, and raise the eyebrows. It Has 2 bellies:Frontal belly: (origin) skin & superficial fascia of the eyebrows (insertion) aponeurotic tendon & is innervated by temporal branches of the facial nerve.Occipital belly: (origin) superior nuchal line of occipital bone & mastoid process of temporal bone (insertion) aponeurotic tendon & is innervated by posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve.
4 Scalp Innervation Two main sources: 1- Cranial nerves: (Ant. to ear & vertex)By Trigeminal nerve2- Cervical nerves:(Post. to ear & vertex)By C2 & C3 nerves.
5 Scalp Innervation Trigeminal branches: (Ant. to ears & vertex) A- Supratrochlear nerve:front of the forehead near the midline;B- Supra-orbital nerve: the scalp as far back as the vertex of the head;C- Zygomaticotemporal nerve:the scalp over a small anterior area of temporal region (temple)D- Auriculo-temporal nerve: the scalp over the temporal region.
6 Scalp Innervation Cervical nerves (C2 &C3) (Posterior to ears & vertex)A- Great auricular nerve:small area of the scalp just posterior to the ear & angle of mandible.B- Lesser occipital nerve: the scalp posterior & superior to earC- Greater occipital nerve: posterior scalp as far as the vertex;D- Third occipital nerve: a small area of the lower part of the scalp.
7 Arterial Supply Internal Carotid Artery Branches: The scalp has rich blood supply;It arterial supply is from internal and external carotid arteries.Internal Carotid Artery Branches:1- Ophthalmic artery:2- Supratrochlear artery3- Supra-orbital arteriesAs fas as the vertex.External Carotid Artery Branches:1- Posterior auricular artery (smallest)area of the scalp posterior to the ear;2- Pre-auricular artery (superficial temporal artery (a terminal branch of ECA)in front of the ear & supplies most of the lateral aspect of scalp.3- Occipital artery: large part of the posterior aspect of the scalp.
9 Lymphatic drainageLymphatics in the occipital region initially drain to occipital nodes then into the upper deep cervical nodes.Lymphatics from the upper part of the scalp drain in two directions:1- Posterior to the vertex: to posterior auricular nodes (mastoid nodes) then into the upper deep cervical nodes;2- Anterior to the vertex: to pre-auricular nodes (parotid nodes).Lymphatics from the forehead to the submandibular nodes through efferent vessels that follow the facial artery.