Presentation on theme: "Head & Neck Unit – Lecture 4 د. حيدر جليل الأعسم"— Presentation transcript:
1Head & Neck Unit – Lecture 4 د. حيدر جليل الأعسم The ScalpHead & Neck Unit – Lecture 4د. حيدر جليل الأعسم
2The scalppart of the head that extends from superciliary arches anteriorly to the external occipital protuberance & superior nuchal lines posteriorly. Laterally, it continues to the zygomatic arch.Layers of scalp:five layers, the first three layers are intimately bound together and move as a unit (Scalp Proper)S- SkinC- Connective tissue (dense) (Scalp Proper)A- Aponeurotic layerL- Loose connective tissueP- Pericranium
3Muscle of the Scalp (Occipitofrontalis muscle) It moves the scalp proper, wrinkle the forehead, and raise the eyebrows. It Has 2 bellies:Frontal belly: (origin) skin & superficial fascia of the eyebrows (insertion) aponeurotic tendon & is innervated by temporal branches of the facial nerve.Occipital belly: (origin) superior nuchal line of occipital bone & mastoid process of temporal bone (insertion) aponeurotic tendon & is innervated by posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve.
4Scalp Innervation Two main sources: 1- Cranial nerves: (Ant. to ear & vertex)By Trigeminal nerve2- Cervical nerves:(Post. to ear & vertex)By C2 & C3 nerves.
5Scalp Innervation Trigeminal branches: (Ant. to ears & vertex) A- Supratrochlear nerve:front of the forehead near the midline;B- Supra-orbital nerve: the scalp as far back as the vertex of the head;C- Zygomaticotemporal nerve:the scalp over a small anterior area of temporal region (temple)D- Auriculo-temporal nerve: the scalp over the temporal region.
6Scalp Innervation Cervical nerves (C2 &C3) (Posterior to ears & vertex)A- Great auricular nerve:small area of the scalp just posterior to the ear & angle of mandible.B- Lesser occipital nerve: the scalp posterior & superior to earC- Greater occipital nerve: posterior scalp as far as the vertex;D- Third occipital nerve: a small area of the lower part of the scalp.
7Arterial Supply Internal Carotid Artery Branches: The scalp has rich blood supply;It arterial supply is from internal and external carotid arteries.Internal Carotid Artery Branches:1- Ophthalmic artery:2- Supratrochlear artery3- Supra-orbital arteriesAs fas as the vertex.External Carotid Artery Branches:1- Posterior auricular artery (smallest)area of the scalp posterior to the ear;2- Pre-auricular artery (superficial temporal artery (a terminal branch of ECA)in front of the ear & supplies most of the lateral aspect of scalp.3- Occipital artery: large part of the posterior aspect of the scalp.
9Lymphatic drainageLymphatics in the occipital region initially drain to occipital nodes then into the upper deep cervical nodes.Lymphatics from the upper part of the scalp drain in two directions:1- Posterior to the vertex: to posterior auricular nodes (mastoid nodes) then into the upper deep cervical nodes;2- Anterior to the vertex: to pre-auricular nodes (parotid nodes).Lymphatics from the forehead to the submandibular nodes through efferent vessels that follow the facial artery.