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Chapter 1 Chemistry: An Introduction CHY 105: Fundamentals of Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Chemistry: An Introduction CHY 105: Fundamentals of Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Chemistry: An Introduction CHY 105: Fundamentals of Chemistry

2 Chapter Outline  Chemistry defined Examples of chemistry in everyday life Examples of chemistry in everyday life  Chemistry in context The natural sciences The natural sciences  Branches of chemistry  Chemistry in history  Methods of science Basic vs. applied science Basic vs. applied science Public vs. private funding Public vs. private funding

3 Chemistry  Chemistry – study of the matter Materials) of the universe and the changes that this matter undergoes Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space Examples of matter and “non-matter”Examples of matter and “non-matter”

4 Chemistry  What chemists study about the matter: Composition Composition Structure Structure Properties Properties Related to composition and structureRelated to composition and structure Chemical changes the matter will undergo Chemical changes the matter will undergo Relationship between the matter and: Relationship between the matter and: The environmentThe environment Human healthHuman health

5 Chemistry and Everyday Life  Better (?) living through chemistry Wrinkle-free cotton Wrinkle-free cotton Dr. Ruth Benerito (page 4)Dr. Ruth Benerito (page 4) CFCs and the ozone layer CFCs and the ozone layer Lead paint Lead paint

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7 Chemistry in Context Natural Sciences Physical Sciences Study of matter and How energy affects matter Biological Sciences Study of living organisms

8 Chemistry in Context  Physical Sciences  Biological Sciences

9 Branches of Chemistry  Inorganic Study of matter this is primarily of mineral (non-living origin) Study of matter this is primarily of mineral (non-living origin)  Organic Study of carbon containing compounds Study of carbon containing compounds Once believed that all carbon containing compounds were of living originOnce believed that all carbon containing compounds were of living origin

10 Branches of Chemistry  Analytical Study of matter to determine the identity and quantity of its components Study of matter to determine the identity and quantity of its components Forensic chemistry is a sub-branchForensic chemistry is a sub-branch  Physical Study of the structure of matter and the influence of energy on matter Study of the structure of matter and the influence of energy on matter Materials chemistry is a sub-branchMaterials chemistry is a sub-branch

11 Kevlar Inventor Joins Women's Hall of Fame  Chemical Week, October 8, 2003 — Retired DuPont scientist Stephanie Kwolek, whose research led to the discovery of Kevlar aramid fiber, was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, NY, on October 4. Kwolek joined DuPont in 1946 as laboratory chemist in Buffalo, NY and spent 40 years with the company, mostly at its experimental station at Wilmington, DE. DuPont says nearly 3,000 law enforcement officers have survived potentially fatal or disabling injuries because they were wearing body armor made from aramid fiber. All U.S. combat soldiers have worn Kevlar helmets since the 1991 Gulf War, it says.

12 Branches of Chemistry  Environmental Chemistry Study of pollutants to identify their sources, to determine the quantities present, and to discover ways to address the issues associated with them Study of pollutants to identify their sources, to determine the quantities present, and to discover ways to address the issues associated with them Often considered a branch of _____________ Often considered a branch of _____________

13 Branches of Chemistry  Biochemistry Study of reactions that take place in living organisms Study of reactions that take place in living organisms Links the biological and physical sciencesLinks the biological and physical sciences Branch of science most important to the medical sciencesBranch of science most important to the medical sciences

14 History of Chemistry  Metals Gold, copper (3000 BCE), bronze (copper/tin alloy, 2000 BCE), iron (1500 BCE) Gold, copper (3000 BCE), bronze (copper/tin alloy, 2000 BCE), iron (1500 BCE)

15 History of Chemistry  Chemical Arts Pottery Pottery Ceramics Ceramics Dyes Dyes Embalming techniques Embalming techniques Perfumes Perfumes Brewing of alcoholic beverages Brewing of alcoholic beverages

16 History of Chemistry  Greek Philosophers, ~400 – 300 BCE First to speculate about the nature of matter First to speculate about the nature of matter Proposed that all matter is composed of 4 elements Proposed that all matter is composed of 4 elements Air, earth, fire, waterAir, earth, fire, water Aristotle added a 5 th element Aristotle added a 5 th element Ether – to glowEther – to glow

17 History of Chemistry  Greek Philosophers, ~400 – 300 BCE Democritus proposed an alternate explanation of the matter of the universe Democritus proposed an alternate explanation of the matter of the universe All matter is composed of tiny indivisible particles called atomusAll matter is composed of tiny indivisible particles called atomus “theory not well supported by Aristotle “theory not well supported by Aristotle Therefore, Democritus’ “theory” was not widely accepted at the time Therefore, Democritus’ “theory” was not widely accepted at the time

18 History of Chemistry  Alchemy - Two pursuits 1. Search for a means to convert “base” metals into gold 2. Search for the elixir of life Substance that would lead to immortalitySubstance that would lead to immortality

19 History of Chemistry  Advances from Alchemy Many new substances where identified Many new substances where identified Plaster of Paris, nitric acid….Plaster of Paris, nitric acid…. New lab techniques and equipment developed New lab techniques and equipment developed New medicines identified New medicines identified

20 History of Chemistry  Modern Chemistry, ~1600 on First to use scientific method First to use scientific method Methodical approach to problem solving Methodical approach to problem solving Based on hypothesis testing Based on hypothesis testing

21 Modern Chemistry, ~1600 on  Boyle (1600’s) Studied the affect of pressure on the volume of gasesStudied the affect of pressure on the volume of gases  Priestly (1700’s) Among other things, first to discover and study the properties of oxygenAmong other things, first to discover and study the properties of oxygen Came to US to avoid religious persecution Came to US to avoid religious persecution Some give Schele in Sweden credit for discovering oxygen Some give Schele in Sweden credit for discovering oxygen

22 Modern Chemistry  Lavoisier (mid/late 1700’s) Called the father of modern chemistryCalled the father of modern chemistry Proposed the law of conservation of matter – matter can neither be created nor destoyedProposed the law of conservation of matter – matter can neither be created nor destoyed

23 Modern Chemistry  John Dalton (1800’s) Proposed atomic theoryProposed atomic theory  Marie and Pierre Curie ( ’s) First to study radioactivityFirst to study radioactivity Identified several new radioactive elementsIdentified several new radioactive elements Polonium and radium Polonium and radium  Neils Bohr (1900) Proposed theory of atomic structureProposed theory of atomic structure

24 The Curies Niels Bohr

25 Scientific Method 1. Make observations Observations must be recordable and repeatableObservations must be recordable and repeatable Observations may be:Observations may be: Quantitative Quantitative Qualitative Qualitative

26 Scientific Method 2. Develop hypotheses to explain the observations Hypothesis – tentative explanation of the observations Hypothesis – tentative explanation of the observations

27 Scientific Method 3. Perform Experiments Make predictions based on the hypothesis Make predictions based on the hypothesis If the hypothesis is true……what else will be trueIf the hypothesis is true……what else will be true Test accuracy of the predictionTest accuracy of the prediction Repeat for all hypotheses Repeat for all hypotheses Experiments often lead to new observations and more hypotheses to test Experiments often lead to new observations and more hypotheses to test

28 Scientific Method  Analyze results and share findings and conclusions Publish results in journals Publish results in journals Present findings at conferences….. Present findings at conferences…..  Public versus Private Research

29 Natural Laws and Theories  From scientific research come theories and laws Theory (also called a model) - explanation of observed behavior based on significant data Theory (also called a model) - explanation of observed behavior based on significant data Natural Law - statement/summary of observed behavior Natural Law - statement/summary of observed behavior Law of conservation of matterLaw of conservation of matter

30 Types of Scientific Research  Basic research scientific research for the sake of knowledge, no immediate application in mind. scientific research for the sake of knowledge, no immediate application in mind.  Applied research scientific research with the short-term goal of solving a specific problem scientific research with the short-term goal of solving a specific problem begin the research with an application in mind.begin the research with an application in mind.


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