Presentation on theme: " I can identify a question that can be tested scientifically. LEARNING OBJECTIVES."— Presentation transcript:
I can identify a question that can be tested scientifically. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY? An organized process we use to find answers to questions about the natural world.
ASKING SCIENTIFIC QUESTIONS
DEFINE THE QUESTION/PROBLEM What question is being answered, problem solved, or hypothesis tested. What is the purpose of doing the experiment? For example, “How many drops of water can a penny hold?” testable Questions must be testable.
SCIENTIFIC QUESTIONS Discovery Clip: The Question: the Starting Point for All Scientific Inquiry
WHAT MAKES A TESTABLE QUESTION? QuestionTestable? Why do blackberry bushes have thorns? How much gas is produced by dissolving 1 Alka Seltzer tablet in water? How does temperature change as ice melts into water? Why is the sky blue? Which brand of paper towel is most absorbent?
WHAT MAKES A TESTABLE QUESTION? natural world. Testable questions ask about objects, organisms, and events in the natural world. investigations experiments, observations, or surveys Testable questions can be answered through investigations that involve experiments, observations, or surveys. collecting and analyzing evidence that is measurable Testable questions are answered by collecting and analyzing evidence that is measurable. scientific ideas Testable questions relate to scientific ideas rather than personal preference or moral values. do not supernatural Testable questions do not relate to the supernatural or to non-measurable phenomena. Not in your notes…just listen
WORKING WITH QUESTIONS 1.Work in teams of 4 2.Evaluate the questions: Are they testable—yes or no? 3.If they are, what would you do to answer this question? How would you go about it? 4.If they are NOT, how could you make it a testable question?
HOW IS BUG BLOOD DIFFERENT FROM HUMAN BLOOD? Do all bugs have blood? Does bug blood contain white blood cells and red blood cells? What is the composition of bug blood?
WHY DO YOUR FINGERS WRINKLE AFTER YOU TAKE A BATH? What happens to your fingers if you soak them in other liquids, such as dish-washing detergents? Do fingers wrinkle faster in hot or cold water? How long do you have to soak your fingers before they wrinkle?
IS ROCK MUSIC BETTER THAN HIP HOP MUSIC? Does rock music make more money than hip- hop music? How do music sales vary by geographical distribution and by type of music? How do music sales vary by age and gender of the buyer and by type of music?
WHY DOES BRIGHT LIGHT CAUSE SOME PEOPLE TO SNEEZE? What physiological changes trigger sneezing? Do sunglasses prevent sneezing? Does breathing through your mouth versus breathing through your nose make a difference in sneezing when you are exposed to bright light?
DO SMELLS AFFECT PEOPLE’S MOODS? Are septic workers unhappy? (subjective) Changed to: Do results of psychological tests designed to measure happiness show that sanitation workers score lower than other types of workers? Do people who work in florist shops have fewer psychological problems than those who work in less pleasantly fragrant environments?
IS VEGETARIANISM BETTER THAN EATING MEAT? Do vegetarians experience fewer heart attacks than meat eaters do? Does a vegetarian diet contain the same vitamins and minerals as a meat-containing diet? How do vegetarian and meat-containing diets compare nutritionally?
DO SOME RESEARCH DO SOME RESEARCH: WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Use books and/or the internet Has anyone done similar or related experiments before? Even if someone has done similar research, can the results be repeated? The more times you do an experiment and get the same results, the more CERTAIN we can be of those results.
Always support your idea with a reason! (I think that…because…) (If…then…because…….) Make a Hypothesis Make a Hypothesis: an idea that can be tested by an experiment; an educated guess about the results.
What are some hypotheses you can come up with about the penny? Write yours down! Hypothesis
MAKING HYPOTHESES 1.Work in teams of 4 2.Come up with a hypothesis for each of your testable questions.
I can identify controlled variables in an experiment. I can identify the manipulated (independent) variable in an experiment. I can identify the responding (dependent) variable in an experiment. I can conduct a controlled experiment to test a hypothesis. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Manipulated Variable (Independent): The factor that you are testing or changing Should only have ONE manipulated variable at a time. Responding Variable (Dependent): The factor that you are measuring depends on all other variables… Identify VARIABLES Identify VARIABLES —Factors that can affect the results of an experiment.
Control Group Control Group: the part of the experiment that is LEFT ALONE or “natural”. Used to compare back to. Experimental Group Experimental Group: the part of the experiment in which a factor or variable is changed. Controlled Variables (Constants) Controlled Variables (Constants)— anything that you will keep the same throughout the experiment
IDENTIFYING VARIABLES PRACTICE What is the manipulated (changed) variable? What is the responding (measured) variable? What are some controls to consider? Control group? Experimental Group?
I can list the materials needed for an investigation I can write logical procedures (that address all variables) to test a scientific question. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
GATHER MATERIALS & EQUIPMENT: GATHER MATERIALS & EQUIPMENT: ITEMS USED TO PERFORM THE EXPERIMENT. What would we need for the penny experiment? Write yours down… How many drops can the heads side of a penny hold?
PLAN YOUR PROCEDURES: PLAN YOUR PROCEDURES: STEPS FOLLOWED DURING EXPERIMENT. numbered Generally written in a numbered list Should be detailed enough that anyone can follow exactly what you did. Be sure to address all your variables! times How many times you are going to do the experiment? It should be written here! Generally, experiments are done more than once to ensure accuracy!
GIVE IT A TRY: GIVE IT A TRY: PLAN OUT STEPS FOR THE PENNY EXPERIMENT. Note Note: You don’t have to list “Gather Materials as a step”. Its implied. Try writing on your own and then we’ll compare…
EXAMPLE: 1.Set clean, dry penny on flat surface, heads side up. 2.Drop water on the heads side of the penny, one drop at a time. 3.Count how many drops land on the penny until water spills over the side. 4.Record your results in your data table. 5.Repeat 2 more times, always using a clean/dry penny and heads side up.
I can collect data from a lab in an organized way (using a data table). I can use results from a data table/graph/diagram to explain the results, show patterns and make predictions. I can write a 4 point conclusion that addresses my investigative question LEARNING OBJECTIVES
GATHER OBSERVATIONS/DATA: COLLECTED GATHER OBSERVATIONS/DATA: ALL THE INFORMATION COLLECTED WHILE PERFORMING THE EXPERIMENT. table o Record number data in an organized Way (use a data table… more on this to come) o Descriptions can be recorded like diary entries in a science journal (ie: The heads side of the penny has Abraham Lincoln’s face on it.)
Notice Notice: Organized into rows & columns Space for more than one trial + an average *More on building data tables to come…
You may also want to include DESCRIPTIVE data about what you observe happening as you collect NUMBER data during your trials!
NOW NOW : Gather your Data!! Each person will do this individually! CONTROLS What are some CONTROLS to consider ?
ANOTHER SAMPLE DATA TABLE WITH DESCRIPTIVE DATA DATECloud Observation at noon August 4 th Low clouds, light rain August 5 th Big puffy white clouds, some sun August 6 th High white wispy clouds, sunny August 7 th Low clouds; no blue sky August 8 th Heavy rain, thunderstorms
A NOTE ABOUT INFERENCES VS. OBSERVATIONS: o Observation o Observation = information you gathered using one of your senses (sight, touch, smell, sounds, taste) o Inference o Inference = a conclusion based on observations
What OBSERVATIONS or INFERENCES can you make about this picture?
ANALYZING and CONCLUDING
CREATE A GRAPH (IF APPROPRIATE) o Graphs help you represent your data as a picture and sometimes allow you to see patterns that you might not otherwise notice. o More on data & graphs to come!
SAMPLE DATA: WHAT BRAND OF PAPER TOWEL IS MOST ABSORBENT? PAPER TOWEL BRANDS Amount of liquid absorbed (mL)
RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS Analyze your data to determine the final outcome of the experiment. What do you now believe as a result of the experiment or observations?
CONCLUSIONS, CONTINUED Answer the question you were investigating (and relate your findings to your hypothesis) 2 pieces of data Support your claim with at least 2 pieces of data (usually high and low, average OR describing data) Use good explanatory language! Use your science content knowledge to explain why you got these results.
PRACTICE CONCLUSION WRITING minimum Conclusions should be a minimum of 4 sentences!
PRACTICE CONCLUSION WRITING I found that a penny can hold about 20 drops of water. I thought it could only hold 5! On the heads side of the penny, I calculated an average of about 22 drops. On the tails side of the penny, I calculated an average of about 18 drops. (or you can write about descriptive data—other things you noticed!) On average, my penny held about 20 drops. I think this happened because the water molecules stick together and build a “dome” over the top of the penny.
SHARE YOUR RESULTS Publish your findings so that others may benefit from your work. Write a lab report, create a poster or PowerPoint, etc.
Scientific Method by Brainpop 1. What is the first step of the scientific method? 2. Why do we say that a hypothesis is an educated guess? 3. We test a hypothesis by doing an _________________. 4. In science, a THEORY is an explanatory statement that has been _r_______________ confirmed through scientific testing.