5Define the Question/Problem What question is being answered, problem solved, or hypothesis tested.What is the purpose of doing the experiment?For example, “How many drops of water can a penny hold?”Questions must be testable.
6Scientific QuestionsDiscovery Clip: The Question: the Starting Point for All Scientific Inquiry
7What Makes a Testable Question? Why do blackberry bushes have thorns?How much gas is produced by dissolving 1 Alka Seltzer tablet in water?How does temperature change as ice melts into water?Why is the sky blue?Which brand of paper towel is most absorbent?NoYesYesNoYes
8What Makes a Testable Question? Testable questions ask about objects, organisms, and events in the natural world.Testable questions can be answered through investigations that involve experiments, observations, or surveys.Testable questions are answered by collecting and analyzing evidence that is measurable.Testable questions relate to scientific ideas rather than personal preference or moral values.Testable questions do not relate to the supernatural or to non-measurable phenomena.Not in your notes…just listen
9Working with questions Work in teams of 4Evaluate the questions: Are they testable—yes or no?If they are, what would you do to answer this question? How would you go about it?If they are NOT, how could you make it a testable question?
10How is bug blood different from human blood? Do all bugs have blood?Does bug blood contain white blood cells and red blood cells?What is the composition of bug blood?
11Why do your fingers wrinkle after you take a bath? What happens to your fingers if you soak them in other liquids, such as dish-washing detergents?Do fingers wrinkle faster in hot or cold water?How long do you have to soak your fingers before they wrinkle?
12Is rock music better than hip hop music? Does rock music make more money than hip- hop music?How do music sales vary by geographical distribution and by type of music?How do music sales vary by age and gender of the buyer and by type of music?
13Why does bright light cause some people to sneeze? What physiological changes trigger sneezing?Do sunglasses prevent sneezing?Does breathing through your mouth versus breathing through your nose make a difference in sneezing when you are exposed to bright light?
14Do smells affect people’s moods? Are septic workers unhappy? (subjective) Changed to: Do results of psychological tests designed to measure happiness show that sanitation workers score lower than other types of workers?Do people who work in florist shops have fewer psychological problems than those who work in less pleasantly fragrant environments?
15Is vegetarianism better than eating meat? Do vegetarians experience fewer heart attacks than meat eaters do?Does a vegetarian diet contain the same vitamins and minerals as a meat-containing diet?How do vegetarian and meat-containing diets compare nutritionally?
16Do Some Research: What is already known about the topic? Use books and/or the internetHas anyone done similar or related experiments before?Even if someone has done similar research, can the results be repeated? The more times you do an experiment and get the same results, the more CERTAIN we can be of those results.
17Make a Hypothesis: an idea that can be tested by an experiment; an educated guess about the results. Always support your idea with a reason!(I think that…because…)(If…then…because…….)
18HypothesisWhat are some hypotheses you can come up with about the penny?Write yours down!
19Making hypotheses Work in teams of 4 Come up with a hypothesis for each of your testable questions.
21LEARNING OBJECTIVESI can identify controlled variables in an experiment.I can identify the manipulated (independent) variable in an experiment.I can identify the responding (dependent) variable in an experiment.I can conduct a controlled experiment to test a hypothesis.
22Identify VARIABLES —Factors that can affect the results of an experiment. Manipulated Variable (Independent): The factor that you are testing or changingShould only have ONE manipulated variable at a time.Responding Variable (Dependent): The factor that you are measuringdepends on all other variables…
23Controlled Variables (Constants)—anything that you will keep the same throughout the experiment Control Group: the part of the experiment that is LEFT ALONE or “natural”. Used to compare back to.Experimental Group: the part of the experiment in which a factor or variable is changed.
24Identifying Variables Practice What is the manipulated (changed) variable?What is the responding (measured) variable?What are some controls to consider? Control group? Experimental Group?
27LEARNING OBJECTIVESI can list the materials needed for an investigationI can write logical procedures (that address all variables) to test a scientific question.
28Gather Materials & Equipment: items used to perform the experiment. How many drops can the heads side of a penny hold?What would we need for the penny experiment? Write yours down…
29Plan your Procedures: Steps followed during experiment. Generally written in a numbered listShould be detailed enough that anyone can follow exactly what you did.Be sure to address all your variables!How many times you are going to do the experiment? It should be written here! Generally, experiments are done more than once to ensure accuracy!
30Give it a try: plan out steps for the Penny experiment . Try writing on your own and then we’ll compare…Note:You don’t have to list “Gather Materials as a step”. Its implied.
31EXAMPLE: Set clean, dry penny on flat surface, heads side up. Drop water on the heads side of the penny, one drop at a time.Count how many drops land on the penny until water spills over the side.Record your results in your data table.Repeat 2 more times, always using a clean/dry penny and heads side up.
33LEARNING OBJECTIVESI can collect data from a lab in an organized way (using a data table).I can use results from a data table/graph/diagram to explain the results, show patterns and make predictions.I can write a 4 point conclusion that addresses my investigative question
34Gather Observations/Data: All the INFORMATION collected while performing the experiment. Record number data in an organized Way (use a data table… more on this to come)Descriptions can be recorded like diary entries in a science journal (ie: The heads side of the penny has Abraham Lincoln’s face on it.)
35rows columns LABELS Notice: Organized into rows & columns AVERAGErowscolumnsNotice:Organized into rows & columnsSpace for more than one trial + an average*More on building data tables to come…
36Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Heads Tails Side of PennyHeadsTailsYou may also want to include DESCRIPTIVE data about what you observe happening as you collect NUMBER data during your trials!
37NOW: Gather your Data!! Each person will do this individually! Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3AverageSide of PennyHeadsTailsNOW: Gather your Data!! Each person will do this individually!What are some CONTROLS to consider?
38Another Sample Data Table with Descriptive data DATECloud Observation at noonAugust 4thLow clouds, light rainAugust 5thBig puffy white clouds, some sunAugust 6thHigh white wispy clouds, sunnyAugust 7thLow clouds; no blue skyAugust 8thHeavy rain, thunderstorms
39A note about Inferences vs. observations: Observation = information you gathered using one of your senses (sight, touch, smell, sounds, taste)Inference = a conclusion based on observations
40What OBSERVATIONS or INFERENCES can you make about this picture?
42Create a Graph (if appropriate) Graphs help you represent your data as a picture and sometimes allow you to see patterns that you might not otherwise notice.More on data & graphs to come!
43Sample data: What brand of paper towel is most absorbent? Amount of liquid absorbed (mL)PAPER TOWEL BRANDS
44Analyze your data to determine the final outcome of the experiment. RESULTS & conclusionsAnalyze your data to determine the final outcome of the experiment.What do you now believe as a result of the experiment or observations?
45Conclusions, continued Answer the question you were investigating (and relate your findings to your hypothesis)Support your claim with at least 2 pieces of data (usually high and low, average OR describing data)Use good explanatory language! Use your science content knowledge to explain why you got these results.
46Practice conclusion writing Conclusions should be a minimum of 4 sentences!
47Practice conclusion writing I found that a penny can hold about 20 drops of water. I thought it could only hold 5!On the heads side of the penny, I calculated an average of about 22 drops.On the tails side of the penny, I calculated an average of about 18 drops. (or you can write about descriptive data—other things you noticed!)On average, my penny held about 20 drops. I think this happened because the water molecules stick together and build a “dome” over the top of the penny.
48Publish your findings so that others may benefit from your work. Share Your ResultsPublish your findings so that others may benefit from your work.Write a lab report, create a poster or PowerPoint, etc.
49Scientific Method by Brainpop . What is the first step of the scientific method?. Why do we say that a hypothesis is an educated guess?. We test a hypothesis by doing an _________________.. In science, a THEORY is an explanatory statement that has been _r_______________ confirmed through scientific testing.epeatedly