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Quality Management COMP 3663 Daniel L. Silver.

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Presentation on theme: "Quality Management COMP 3663 Daniel L. Silver."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quality Management COMP 3663 Daniel L. Silver

2 Quality Management Managing the quality of the software process and products Also known as … Quality Assurance (QA)

3 Objectives To introduce the quality management process and key quality management activities To explain the role of standards in quality management To explain the relationship between quality attributes and software metrics To explain how measurement may be used in assessing software quality

4 Software quality management
Concerned with ensuring that the required level of quality is achieved in a software product Involves defining appropriate quality standards and procedures and ensuring that these are followed Should aim to develop a ‘quality culture’ where quality is seen as everyone’s responsibility

5 What is quality? Quality simplistically, means that a product should meet its specification This is problematical for software systems Tension between customer quality requirements (efficiency, reliability, etc.) and developer quality requirements (maintainability, reusability, etc.) Some quality requirements are difficult to specify in an unambiguous way Software specifications are usually incomplete and often inconsistent

6 Software quality attributes

7 A high quality software product …
Satisfies clearly stated requirements Reacts in predictable ways to illegal inputs Has been inspected thoroughly Has been tested exhaustively Is been sufficiently documented Has a known defect rate

8 The quality compromise
We cannot wait for specifications to improve before paying attention to quality management Must put procedures into place to improve quality in spite of imperfect specifications Quality management is therefore not just concerned with reducing s/w defects but also with other product qualities True/False? … The quality of the process affects the quality of the product.

9 Process and product quality
The quality of a developed product is influenced by the quality of the production process Form (product) follows function (process) Particularly important in software development as some product quality attributes are hard to assess Complex and poorly understood relationship between software processes and product quality

10 Process-based quality
Straightforward link between process and product in manufactured goods More complex for software because: The application of individual skills and experience is particularly imporant in software development External factors such as the novelty of an application or the need for an accelerated development schedule may impair product quality Care must be taken not to impose inappropriate process standards

11 Process-based quality

12 Quality in the Software Process
Quality principles – overarching quality guidelines Quality planning – quality plan defines approach to quality Inspections – peer processes focused on quality Reviews and Audits – external quality assessment Defect management – ID, tracking, resolution of defects Process improvement – continuous upgrading of processes Organizational quality – engineering competence levels

13 Quality Principles Focus continuously on quality
A quality assurance process must be defined The organization must follow its quality assurance process Find and repair defects as early in the development process as possible

14 QA 2. QA reviews 1. QA Develops process for and/or reviews
1. Specify how to manage project documents 2. Identify process Quality Planning 2. QA reviews process for conformance to organizational policy 1. QA Develops and/or reviews configuration management plans, standards ... QM should have some independence from PM QA 3. QA develops and/or reviews provision for QA activities Quality Control 5. QA reviews, inspects & tests 4. QA reviews, inspects & tests 5. Deliver & main- tain the product 4. Design and build 3. Plan Adapted from Software Engineering: An Object-Oriented Perspective by Eric J. Braude (Wiley 2001), with permission.

15 Quality assurance and standards
Standards are the key to effective quality management Product standards define characteristics that all components should exhibit e.g. a common programming style Process standards define how the software process should be enacted

16 Importance of standards
Encapsulation of best practice- avoids repetition of past mistakes Education of new staff to expectations of quality Framework for the quality assurance process

17 ISO 9000 International set of standards for quality management
Applicable to a range of organisations from manufacturing to service industries ISO 9001 applicable to organisations which design, develop and maintain products ISO 9001 is a generic model of the quality process that must be instantiated for each organisation

18 ISO 9000 and quality management

19 Problems with standards
Not seen as relevant and current by developers Involve too much bureaucratic form filling Unsupported by software tools so tedious manual work is involved to maintain standards What would you suggest to overcome this problem? …

20 Overcoming the Problems
Involve practitioners in development. Engineers should understand the rationale underlying a standard Review standards and their usage regularly. Standards can quickly become outdated and this reduces their credibility amongst practitioners Detailed standards should have associated tool support. Excessive clerical work is the most significant complaint against standards

21 Agile - Overcoming the Problems
Focus continuously on quality Close customer contact, BDD, TDD, Paired-Programming A quality assurance process must be defined Less documentation, more rigour in development / testing The organization must follow its quality assurance process Report problems at Scrum meetings, ensure solutions Find and repair defects as early in the development process as possible A natural for Agile methdds

22 Quality planning A quality plan sets out the desired product qualities and how these are assessed ande define the most significant quality attributes It should define the quality assessment process It should set out which organisational standards should be applied and, if necessary, define new standards

23 IEEE Quality Documents
Project Management QA Plan 730 Explains quality policies Requirements Analysis V&V Plan 1012 Design Explains verification and validation procedures. Implementation Testing 829 Explains plans, procedures, and test cases.

24 IEEE Quality Assurance Plan

25 IEEE Quality Assurance Plan (cont.)

26 V&V Quality control Checking the software development process to ensure that procedures and standards are being followed Two approaches to quality control Quality reviews – inspections Assessment via software metrics - testing

27 Workshop - A Quality Challenge
Using 5 Cards and 2 pieces of tape construct a platform which can withstand the repeated drop (3 times) of a pack of post-it notes from 1 inch The end product must: Be at least one card high (either width or height of card) Not have any folded cards (not a wrinkle) Make efficient use of resources (minimize where possible) Be portable (can be moved to a different platform{:]) The end product should be of high quality: Adaptable (standup to minor changes in requirements) Extensible (capable of enhancement) Reusable (applicable to different situations)

28 Team Work (3-4 people) Quality assurance person / tester
Requirements analyst / Designer Developer

29 Quality attributes and software metrics
Software measurement is concerned with deriving a numeric value for an attribute of a software product or process Software metric is any type of measurement which relates to a software system, process or related documentation This allows for objective comparisons between techniques and processes There are few standards, no systematic use

30 Quality attributes and software metrics

31 Important software metric assumptions
A software property can be measured A relationship exists between what we can measure and a quality attribute This relationship has been formalized and validated

32 The measurement process
A software measurement process may be part of a quality control process Data collected during this process should be maintained as an organisational resource Once a measurement database has been established, comparisons across projects become possible

33 Product metrics A quality metric should be a predictor of product quality Classes of product metric Dynamic metrics which are collected by measurements made of a program in execution Static metrics which are collected by measurements made of the system representations

34 Dynamic and static metrics
Dynamic metrics are closely related to software quality attributes Collected by a program in execution (response time, number of failures) Help assess efficiency, effectiveness, availability and reliability Static metrics have an indirect relationship with quality attributes Collected from system representation (lines of code) Help assess complexity, understandability and maintainability

35 Software product metrics

36 Object-oriented metrics

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