3Form- the structure of the writing (what it looks like on the page) Innocent If love were a crime, And you were jailed because you claimed that you loved me, And evidence was sought of your guilt or innocence, You’d get away scott free.
4The FourthOhCRASH!myBASH!it’sBANG!theZANG!fourthWHOOSH!OfBAROOOM!JulyWHEW!Graphical Elements- elements that make up the form and affect the meaning of a poem. Some examples are: CAPITAL LETTERS, line length, and word position.
5All poems are broken up into lines All poems are broken up into lines. The length of each line and where it breaks, or ends, contributes to the poem’s meaning and sounds. Lunchroom I was so hungry I could have eaten my algebra book. I smelled what we were having before I even saw it. Mystery Meat, green mushy peas, instant potatoes with lumpy gravy, bread pudding, and milk. It’s a good thing I like milk.
6A stanza is a group of lines A stanza is a group of lines. Stanzas work together to convey the overall message of the poem.FogThe fog comeson little cat feet.It sits lookingover harbor and cityon silent haunchesand then moves on.
7Just as a story has a narrator, a poem has a voice that “talks” to readers. This voice, or speaker, is sometimes a fictional character rather than the poet. Mother to Son Well, son, I’ll tell you: Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair. It’s had tacks in it. And splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor- Bare. -Langston Hughes
9‘Twas the night before Christmas, A When all through the house B Rhyme is the repetition of sounds at the ends of words, as in sun and one.Rhyme scheme is the pattern that the end-rhyming words follow. To identify rhyme scheme, assign a letter to each sound.‘Twas the night before Christmas, AWhen all through the house BNot a creature was stirring, CNot even a mouse; B
10Repetition is a technique in which a sound, word, phrase, or line is repeated for emphasis or unity. Repetition often helps to reinforce meaning or create an appealing rhythm.Mi MadreI say feed me.She serves red prickly pear on a spike cactus.I say tease me.She sprinkles raindrops in my face on a sunny day.I say frighten me.She shouts thunder, flashes lightning.I say comfort me,She invites me to lay on her firm body.
11Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. “Over a Bunsen burner bubbled a big earthenware dish of stew” -A Wrinkle in TimeThe repetition of the “b” sound reproduces the motion of the stew simmering in its pot.Say to them,Say to the down-keepers.The sun-slappers,The self-spoilers, -Gwendolyn Brooks
12“It’s had tacks in it,” -Langston Hughes Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in a series of words: e.g., the words “cry” and “side” have the same vowel sound so they are said to be in assonance.“It’s had tacks in it,” -Langston Hughes“True, I do like Sue.”
14Imagery is defined as language that appeals to one or more of our senses-sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Vivid images help readers more clearly understand what a poet does.“They were standing in a sunlit field, and the air was moving about them with the delicious air that comes only on the rarest of spring days when the sun’s touch is gentle and the apple blossoms are just beginning to unfold.” (sight and smell)
15Simile is a comparison of two things using the words like or as. The sun spun likeA tossed coin.It whirled on the azure blue sky,It clattered into the horizon,It clicked in the slot,And neon-lights poppedAnd blinked “Time expired,”As on a parking meter.-Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali
16all things are doubled: Long buildings hang and Metaphors are comparisons of two things that do not use the words like or as.In the pond in the parkall things are doubled:Long buildings hang andwriggle gently. Chimneysare bent legs bouncingon clouds below.”-May Swensen
17A hundred years should go to praise Hyperbole is an exaggeration used to create an image or to show emotion.A hundred years should go to praiseThine eyes and on thy forehead gaze-Andrew Marvell
18Personification is a description of an object, animal, or idea as if it has human qualities and emotions. Directly ahead of her was the circular building, its walls glowing with violet flame, its silvery roof pulsing with a light that seemed to Meg to be insane.” “The little waves with their soft, white hands.”