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以内容为依托的输出驱动型学术英语课程: 以《学术英语(医学)》 Unit 2 为例 孙庆祥 复旦大学外文学院大英部 2014.04.19.

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Presentation on theme: "以内容为依托的输出驱动型学术英语课程: 以《学术英语(医学)》 Unit 2 为例 孙庆祥 复旦大学外文学院大英部 2014.04.19."— Presentation transcript:

1 以内容为依托的输出驱动型学术英语课程: 以《学术英语(医学)》 Unit 2 为例 孙庆祥 复旦大学外文学院大英部 2014.04.19

2 Outline of the Talk 1. “Output-driven” Paradigm in EAP 2. Output via Interaction 3. Importance of Subject Knowledge 4. Output-driven Classroom Activities 5. A Summary

3 “Output-driven” Paradigm in EAP

4 Output Hypothesis Proposed by Swain (1985)  Comprehensible input alone not enough for development of second language  Comprehensible output playing a crucial and active role in conducive to the overall development of the interlanguage

5 “ 输出驱动 ” (文秋芳, 2013) 经济学术语:以需求促供给

6 Output via Interaction

7 Four Types of Interactions Interaction between learner and content Interaction between learner and instructor Interaction between learner and learner Interaction between instructor and content (Adapted from Moore, 1989)

8 Importance of Subject Knowledge in EAP

9 Subject Knowledge Matters! ESP is a material-led field. (Dudley-Evans, 2001, p135)

10 Unit 2: Resurgent and Emergent Diseases Subject Knowledge (1) Resurgent and emergent diseases are mostly infectious. Emergent Diseases, e.g., AIDS, West Nile virus, SARS  causes  new pathogens: virus and bacterium Resurgent Disease: e.g., flu, TB, polio  reasons,  drug-resistance, multi-drug resistance, all-drug resistance  mutation

11 Unit 2: Resurgent and Emergent Diseases Subject Knowledge (2) Occurrence of the disease Sporadic, outbreak, epidemic, pandemic Treatment, antiviral, antibiotics, antifungal Control and prevention vaccination surveillance global cooperation

12 Output-driven Classroom Activities

13 Types of Interactive Activities Interactive Lead-in An Integrative Activity of Text and Video Group Translation Presentation

14 Interactive Lead-in

15 Option 1 Do as Designed in the Textbook

16 Option 1 Talk with your partner and share with the class the information you get. OutbreakYearCausePrevalence SARS?? Starting in China and spreading globally Avian flu?H5N1? Swine flu2009H1N1?

17 Option 2 A Gap-filling Exercise

18 Option 2 Divide the Class into groups of 3. Each member of the group will be provided with a brief introduction of either SARS, or avian flu, or swine flu.brief introduction Fill in the missing information in the Table by asking each other questions. Check the answer.

19 Option 2 Check against each other’s notes and share your answer. OutbreakYearCausePrevalence SARS 2002 - 2003 SARS Starting in China and spreading globally Avian flu1995H5N1 First reported in Hong Kong and becoming a global outbreak Swine flu2009H1N1 A pandemic starting in Mexico Page 26

20 Option 3 A note-taking exercise

21 Option 3 Watch the video clip, take notes and fill in the information you obtain.video clip OutbreakYearCausePrevalence SARS?? Starting in China and spreading globally Avian flu?H5N1? Swine flu2009H1N1? Page 26

22 Option 3 Check against each other’s notes and share your answer. OutbreakYearCausePrevalence SARS 2002 - 2003 SARS Starting in China and spreading globally Avian flu1995H5N1 First reported in Hong Kong and becoming a global outbreak Swine flu2009H1N1 A pandemic starting in Mexico

23 Option 3 Based on the information in the video, we can cay that SARS is a(n) ____________ disease, while avian flu and swine flu are _________ afflictions. new emergent emerging resurgent reemerging

24

25 Objectives of the Interactive Lead-in To introduce the topic of the unit To develop students’ ability to retrieve vital information from aural/visual input To create opportunities for output To acquire subject-specific language

26 An Integrative Activity of the Text and a Video

27 Use of Video in Language Classes The use of video clips are justifiably increasing in language classes. The use of the same video varies by instructor. The two sources can be interactive

28 Key Messages in the Text (Par. 5) The battle has been joined. WHO and CDC have revved up their efforts to check infectious diseases, including re-emergent ones. WHO established a new division devoted to worldwide surveillance and control of emerging diseases. Congress raised fund for CDC’s efforts. Public awareness may have influenced Congress’ outlook.

29 Key Messages in the Text (Par. 6) WHO has identified six diseases whose worldwide re-emergence should be monitored. World health is indivisible. We cannot satisfy our most parochial needs without attending to the health conditions of the globe. Borders are meaningless to pathogenic microbes.

30 A Pertinent Video Watch the video clip first.video clip

31 Key Messages in the Video Diseases cross borders. What happens in one country may affect the other country. It's very possible for diseases to move from one corner of the earth to another within a day. There is no better way to protect American population against new disease threats than by strengthening our partners. SARS is a wake-up call for DCD. SARS occurred as a local problem but became an international problem. Work with Chinese government to build a modern surveillance system enable scientists to detect the outbreak. They serve the best interest of the public health both of the USA and of other places.

32 Themes Covered in the Text and Video In the text (Par. 5-6, P27) The world health is indivisible. Borders are meaningless to pathogenic microbes In the video Infectious diseases are borderless. Joint efforts are warranted in the control and prevention of the infectious diseases.

33 Specification of the Activity (1) Divide the class into groups of 4/5. Play the video and ask the class to take notes. Ask each group to work out, in 8 min, an outline for a 3-min presentation on the following two themes (half groups on theme 1 and the other half on theme 2). 1. Infectious diseases are borderless. 2. Joint efforts are warranted in the control and prevention of the infectious diseases.

34 Specification of the Activity (2) Integrate in their speech outline the notes on the video and the information from Par. 5-6. Make sure any group member can deliver the message of their group based on the outline. Play the video for the second time if need be. Check the work at random. Provide each students with a Worksheet.

35 Worksheet Name _______ ID _______ Class ______ Group Members ____________________ Theme ___________________________ Key Words _________________________ Outline of the Speech

36 Subject-specific Language (1) WHO and CDC to check infectious diseases re-emergent ones (diseases) worldwide surveillance and control of emerging diseases public awareness …six diseases whose worldwide re-emergence should be monitored.

37 Subject-specific Language (2) world health attending to the health conditions of the globe pathogenic microbes SARS occurred as a local problem but became an international problem. surveillance system to detect the outbreak

38 Objectives of the Integrative Activity To develop ability to integrate information from different media sources To develop ability to draft an outline of a speech To develop ability to organize an speech on an outline To help acquire subject-specific language knowledge by using

39 Group Translation

40 Specification of the Activity Choose some parts from the text, either beautifully written or of great pertinence to the theme. Assign each part to a small group to do translation (The same part can be done by two groups for comparison). Ask them to show off when finished. Provide each group with a Worksheet.Worksheet

41 Sentences from Par. 8-12 Every returning condition marches to the beat of a different drum. “These reemerging infections each have a little wrinkle to them that is important.” “TB is the result of socioeconomic conditions and human behavior.” With our help, strains of TB have also developed drug resistance; incomplete courses of antibiotic therapy allow the hardiest bugs to survive and develop new, more powerful lineages. TB also hitched a ride on the HIV wagon by attacking the immunocompromised — an emerging disease thus helping reignite an old one. Flu likewise changes its coat and in turn its level of virulence. “If there is anything in this business you can safely put on a list of diseases that are coming, it’s flu.” “Those processes in nature that have given us the pandemic influenzas are not finished. The flu virus is a trickster, constantly changing its surface antigens, so that our immune systems need to relearn how to fight it every time it adopts a new costume. A larger-scale genetic shift could also make the virus something like new wine in new bottles.

42 A Suggested Translation (1) Every returning condition marches to the beat of a different drum. “These reemerging infections each have a little wrinkle to them that is important.” “TB is the result of socioeconomic conditions and human behavior.” With our help, strains of TB have also developed drug resistance; incomplete courses of antibiotic therapy allow the hardiest bugs to survive and develop new, more powerful lineages. 再现疾病的回归方式各异, 各不不同。 “ 这些再现疾病中,每种疾 病的特征都与以前有所不同 ,这点很重要, ” “ 结核病是社会经济条件和 人类行为的结果。 ” 托了我们人类的福,结核菌 株也产生了抗药性;如果抗 生素治疗疗程不坚持到底, 最顽强的细菌就会存活下来 ,从而产生毒性更强的新族 系。

43 A Suggested Translation (2) TB also hitched a ride on the HIV wagon by attacking the immunocompromised — an emerging disease thus helping reignite an old one. Flu likewise changes its coat and in turn its level of virulence. “If there is anything in this business you can safely put on a list of diseases that are coming, it’s flu.” 结核病也搭了 HIV 的顺 风车,借机攻击免疫 力受损者:一种新病 就这样煽风点火,让 一种旧病死灰复燃。 同样,流感换了外衣 ,然后提高了致病力 。 “ 在流行病中,要说 哪种疾病肯定会被列 入再现疾病的名单, 那非流感莫属, ”

44 A Suggested Translation (3) “Those processes in nature that have given us the pandemic influenzas are not finished. The flu virus is a trickster, constantly changing its surface antigens, so that our immune systems need to relearn how to fight it every time it adopts a new costume. A larger-scale genetic shift could also make the virus something like new wine in new bottles. “ 那些带来流感大流行的自 然活动还未结束。 ” 流感病毒是魔法师,不停 地改变其表明抗原。如此 一来,病毒每次更衣换装 后,我们的免疫系统需要 重新学习,学会如何与之 战斗。 大规模的基因改变也使病 毒有点像新瓶装新酒。

45 Objectives of the Group Translation To provide opportunities for negotiation of meaning To develop translation competence with subject- specific texts To help acquire subject-specific language knowledge

46 Prepared Oral Presentation

47 Specification of the Activity Prepare and deliver a 2-3-minute presentation on the given topics (Topics for presentation of Text A). The presentation will be integrated into other classroom activities when the related part is discussed. Your presentation is judged by PREPARATION, PERTINENCE, FLUENCY, PRONUNCIATION AND REACTION from the audience. The presentations account for 10% in the final grade.

48 Presentation Topics for Unit 2 (P33) 1. What does the author imply by mentioning two choices? 2. Describe the heady days of victory declarations and what followed ever since. 3. Elaborate on the joined battle. 4. Justify “the realization that world health is indivisible”. 5. Exemplify the statement that “Every returning condition marches to the beat of a different drum.” 6. Vaccination practices are at the heart of the most infectious diseases. Use examples to prove it. 7. What are the four areas of focus according to Bob Howard? 8. “Old enemies never dies.” Justify it medically.

49 A Sample 7. What are the four areas of focus according to Bob Howard? …This will no doubt mean close cooperation with the CDC, which has four areas of focus. “First, you need surveillance,” says Bob Howard of the CDC’s National Center for Infectious Diseases. Worldwide systems for tracking blips on the disease radar screen are already being established. “You also have to have science that is up-to-date and capable of dealing with what you discover in the field,” Howard continues. “Once you do, you want to have appropriate prevention and control in place, and that includes communication to let people know what the threats are and how to control or prevent the spread of that disease threat. “Finally,” Howard adds, “there’s got to be that strong public health infrastructure in place. If you don’t have a system in place, the three previous things will not work.” The CDC estimates that a fully functional prevention strategy would cost about $125 million annually - slightly more than it cost to produce “Outbreak.” Video

50 Objectives of the Presentation To develop ability to prepare and deliver subject-specific presentation To provide opportunities for output To help students build up confidence in using English in subject-specific context To check out if the students really understand the material

51 A Summary of the Talk

52 Carrier content matters in EAP courses. Overcome our inertia in preparing class operation: Change we can! Don’t believe in one-size-fits-all way or method. Tailor our class activities. Create opportunities to engage the students. The more the better. Learning by using works, and in most cases works well. To Sum Up

53 Students’ Comments 1. 很充实,上课内容贴近医学 2. 老师上课认真,且注重与学生的互动,鼓励学生发 言,课程内容丰富 3. 这门不仅拓宽了我的知识面,同时还锻炼了我在别 人面前发表自己看法的能力 4. 上了您的课之后真心感觉学到了知识,教材编得很 好,知识点也很实用,频繁的 pre 也让我对这个原来 我很惧怕的东西感到了习以为常,站在台上也没有 以前那么紧张了,真的要感谢孙老师一个学期以来 的指导,祝顺利!

54 References Dudley-Evans, T. (2001). English for Specific Purpose in R. Carter, & D. Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Moore, M. G. (1989). Three types of interaction. American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-7. Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. Cited in Gass, S. & Madden, C. (eds): Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 文秋芳. (2013.4). “ 输出驱动假设 ” 与课程教学创新. 全国 高校大学英语教学发展学术研讨会.

55 Thank you!


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