6Selvage /20Selvage- the woven edge of fabric, running parallel to the warp. The selvage keeps the textile from fraying. It is often used to identify the manufacturer or provide a color check.Selvage
7PLAIN WEAVE 8/23Plain Weave- The most used basic weave. Each filling yarn alternates crossing over and under each warp yarn. Like a window screen or a tennis racket.
8TWILLWEAVE 8/24Twill Weave- One of three basic weaves. Recognized by the diagonal “twill line” or “rib” visible in the finished fabric.
9SATIN WEAVE /25Satin Weave- A weave in which each yarn crosses over four to twelve other yarns before going under another. The distance the yarn covers is called a “float.” Because of these long “floats” the satin weave is flat, smooth, and lustrous. Usually made of silk or man-made fibers that give a lustrous, shiny appearance.
10Basket Weave 8/26Similar to Plain Weave, but 2 weft threads are interlaced with two warp threads.
11Terry cloth 8/27A slack-tension, warp-yarn pile fabric with loops on one of both sides of the fabric. Two sets of warps and one set of filling yarns are used. It may have a jacquard pattern.
12Un-Cut Pile Weave 8/30Produced by additional threads in the weft and warp that form loops or tufts of yarn that stand out form the surface of the fabric. These loops may be cut, uncut or a combination.Terry cloth corduroy
13Cut-Pile Weave 8/31 Velvet 3 dimensional structure made by weaving an extra set of warp or filling yarns with the ground yarns so that cut yarn loops create a pileVelvet
14Leno Weavea locking type weave in which two or more warp yarns cross over each other and interlace with one or more filling yarns.used primarily to prevent shifting of yarns in open fabrics.Sheers, semi sheers, and casements (coarsely woven sheers
15Jacquard Weave 9/2Requires an intricate series of hole-punched cards that tell the machine which threads to raise and which threads to drop.produce patterned fabrics.costly because it involves more time and skill in making the Jacquard cards to produce new patternDamask , brocades tapestries
16Grain in Fabric 9/3 effects the way fabric will hang and drape refers to the way threads are arranged in a piece of fabricLengthwise grain runs parallel to the selvage-strongest and most stableCrosswise grain runs perpendicular to the selvedge of the fabric or the cut edge of the fabric as it comes off the bolt.Bias grain runs on a 45 degree angle to the selvage
179/ Microban®antimicrobial protection (microbes can double in number every 20 minutes)built-in to products during the manufacturing process to provide continuous antimicrobial protectionfights the growth of odor causing bacteria, mold and mildew to keep fabrics cleaner and fresher for the useful life of the fabric
189/ VELCRO®brand name of fabric hook-and-loop fasteners which have been used for 50 yearsconsists of two layers: a "hook" side, which is a piece of fabric covered with tiny hooks, and a "loop" side, which is covered with even smaller and "hairier" loops.X 20 magnification
199/ Natural FibersFound in nature and require little or no processing to be used.Made from plant and animal sourcesCellulosic - plantProtein- animalmineral
209/10 cellulosic Cotton Flax -Linen Jute Ramie Plant fibers include stems, leaves, and seed hairs found in plantCottonFlax -LinenJute RamieflaxJute
22Mineral Fibers 9/14 Asbestos Comes from deep in the earth’s crust Found in veins or cracks of solid rockFibers are resistant to fire, heat, and acidNonconductor of electricity –was used in insulationIs now banned in US because it was found to cause cancer
23Cotton 9/15Believed to have been grown in India during the 4th century B.C.Used in early RomeMost plentiful of natural fibersCotton bollseeds
24Cotton Gin 9/16 designed and constructed by Eli Whitney (Yale) in 1793 machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber (50 lbs. daily)
25Cotton 9/17 Advantages Disadvantages Takes and holds color well Washes easily, easy care, comfortableCan be woven into sheer or heavy weight fabricFlexibilityNot damaged by sunlight and most chemicalsNot as durable as other fibersWrinkles easilyCan mildew and fadeAbsorbs moisture easilyCost varies according to quality of fiber, weave, ad finish
26Quality of Cotton Fiber 9-27 Purity(absence of foreign matter) and quality of ginning processLength of fibers (inherited genetic characteristic of the seed variety) weather ,nutrient deficiencies and excessive cleaning may affect fiber lengthUSDA rates cottonDetermined by 3 factorsColor of ginned cotton (cotton fibers separated from cottonseed1. Color ranges from white to yellow white2. White, Light Spotted, Spotted Tinged, Yellow Stained
27Organic Cotton 9/29grown using methods and materials that have a low impact on the environmentProduced following state-fiber-certification standards where organic farming practices have been used for at least 3 yearsNo synthetic commercial pesticides or fertilizers are usedTwice as expensive as conventional cottonAdditional costs related to lower fiber yield per acre, requirements for processing in facilities free of harmful chemicals and smaller quantities of fibers processedrepresents 0.76 percent of global cotton production. (2009)
28ORGANIC COTTONSEED 9/28 used for animal feed Organic cottonseed oil is used in a variety of food products, including cookies and chips.
29EGYPTAIN COTTON /29comes ONLY from Egypt where the humid conditions and rich soil along the Nile River Valley create the perfect conditions to grow long cotton fibersfalls under the classification of an ELS (extra-long staple) cottonFiber staples can range from 1 1/2 inches to 2 1/4 inches. (about twice the size of other cotton fibers which allows fibers to be spun into very fine yarnsHighest quality is a fabric count of 1000 to 1200Softer and more durable than other cottonAmerican version of Egyptian cotton is known as Pima cotton. (Pima Indian Reservation in Arizona in early 1900’s to meet demand for quality long staple cottonEgyptian cotton logo was trademarked in 2001
30LINEN 9/30 lightweight and breathable fabric More expensive than cottonsince 1970, linen fabric production for apparel has increased from 5% to 70%.Today, Western Europe, Ireland in particular, dominates flax and linen production in both quantity and quality.Made from flax fibers (found in the stem of the flax plant)oldest of all fabricevidence has been found in Swiss lake dwellings dating from 8000 B.C.ancient Greece-evidence of a linen industry is shown on 4,000 year-old tablets
31LINEN 10/1 Advantages Disadvantages Strong, especially when wet Comfortable, pliable, lustrousNot damaged by sunlight and chemicalsWashableTakes and holds colorAbsorbentWrinkles easily if not chemically treatedFadesstiffDifficult to cleanAbsorbs moisture easily
32RAMIE 10/4 Also known as rhea, grasscloth, and China grass Been used for several thousand years in ChinaA tall perennial plant that requires a hot, humid climateFast growing and can be harvested every 60 daysHas to be cut, not pulledHas been grown in the Everglades and Gulf Coast regions of US, but not currentlyProduced in China, Philippines and Brazil
33Ramie October 6 bast fiber – part of a plant stem one of oldest textile fibers –used in mummy cloths in ancient Egypt during the period B.C.Very durablelong, fine fibers are naturally white and lustrous with an almost silky appearance.requires chemical processing to de-gum the fiber.Blends are more common than pure ramie - most typical is 55 %ramie/45 % cottonBlends - available in woven and sweater knit form. (Cotton and wool)
34RAMIE 10/7 Advantages Disadvantages High absorbency Greater strength when wethold shape well ,introduce a silky luster to the fabric appearancepossesses little elasticity and is somewhat brittle and stiff which causes fiber breakage where creased or folded repeatedlyWrinkles easilyWill not dye as well as cottonVery brittle and fibers will break if folded repeatedly
35JUTE 10/8 Used in Biblical times 61% cellulose One of cheapest fibers Grown throughout Asia-chiefly India and BangladeshPrimary fibers are short and brittleOne of weakest of the cellulosic fibersCreamy white to brown in colorUsed to produce coffee bags carpet backing, rope and twine
36Manufactured/ Synthetic Fibers 10/11 Originally designed to improve the quality, durability, and ease of care of fibersDesigned to resist soil, mildew, and insectsMade from substances such as wood pulp, petroleum, and coalProduced in labs through chemical processesMimic natural fibers because they look, feel, and act like themHave many desirable characteristics: generally strong, have ability to spring back to their original shape, don’t wrinkle and are easy to care for
37Protein Fibers 10/12 Are of animal origin Wool and specialty wools are the hair and fur of animalsSilk is the secretion of the silk caterpillarAre luxury fibers today
38Protein Fibers 10/13 Wool Silk Fiber formed from extruded filaments Animal hair fibers – sheep’s woolAlpaca, camel, cashmere goat, llama, vicuna, guanaco, and the angora goat (mohair), quivit (hair from musk ox), angora rabbit hairUsed since 4th century BCUsed for clothing and some household articles in early Egypt, Greece, Asia, an Middle East.Fiber formed from extruded filamentsAccording to legend –discovered about 2540 B.C.Produced from the larvae of silkwormsKnown as sericulture-was kept secret for manyyears
39Wool 10/14 ADVANTAGES Disadvantages Resilient Flame retardant Resists abrasion good insulatorCan be woven into a variety of texturesDyes wellCleans well, resists dirt\Absorbs up to 20% of its weight in moisture without feeling dampDoesn’t wrinkle easilyYellows with ageShrinksCan be damaged by mothsExpensiveRequires professional cleaningCan cause allergiesWeak, especially when wet
40Manufactured/Synthetic Fibers 10/19 During the past 5 decades, production and consumption has steadily increasedToday over 80% of fibers usedComprise 75% of U.S. textile marketUsed for: ApparelFurnishingsMedical applicationsConstructionTransportationAerospace applicationsEnvironmental applications
41Manufactured regenerated fibers 10/20 Produced from naturally occurring polymers (very large molecule made by connecting many small molecules)Polymers do not occur naturally as fibers and processing is needed to convert them into fiber formStarting material is cellulose and protein3 regenerated cellulosic fibers : rayon, lyocell and acetate
42Rayon 10/21First commercially successful manufactured regenerated fiberCellulose fiber regenerated from wood pulpProduction began around the beginning of 20th CenturyReferred to as “Artificial Silk”Name RAYON was not officially adopted until 1924Called VISCOSE IN EuropeUsed in apparel- from lingerie to suits, dresses, and sportswearOften blended with polyester
43Acetate 10/22 Originated in Europe Dreyfus brothers experimented with acetate in SwitzerlandBrothers moved to England during WWI –acetate was used as a coating for the fabric wings of WWI airplanesAfter war-they perfected the process of making acetate fibers1924 became the 2nd manufactured derivative cellulose fiber in U.S.Dry spun method-polymers are dissolved in a solvent of acetate to be formed into fibersFirst thermoplastic (heat-sensitive fiber)Fabric melts under a hot iron
44Lyocell 10/25 Developed by Courtlands, a European fiber manufacturer Introduced in early 1990’s as a type of RayonDevelopment was prompted by a concern about Rayon’s negative impact on the environmentFirst produced under brand name TencelSolvent spinning – cellulosic starting material (wood pulp) is directly dissolved in an organic solvent- fiber is regenerated from that solventProduced in both Europe and U.S.Properties are more like cotton than any other regenerated fiber
45Synthetic Fiber Production 10/26 Made from chemicals synthesized from petroleum by-products and other chemicalsChemists discovered that when a glass rod was pulled away from a chemical compound, it formed a fine filament that was strong, elastic, and flexibleAre produced in similar wayThick syrupy liquid is forced through tiny holes in a spinneretEach tiny hole produces a fiberA spinneret can produce a few dozen fibers or as many as several thousands at a time
46Synthetic Fiber Production 10/27 Shape of spinneret holes can be altered so that fibers of different cross –sectional shapes can be produced – round, octagonal, hollow, three-sided, or other shapesThe shape of the fiber gives certain qualities like luster, sparkle, and ability to hide soil, or hold heat to the bodyCan be solution dyed –color is added to the syrup before fiber is made – the color is more permanentMost fibers a ARE NOT solution dyed because the process makes the fibers more expensive and less responsive to changes in fashion colorsSolution dyed fibers cannot be dyed another color later
47Manufactured and Synthetic Fibers10/28 Can be engineered to enhance performance like:Fire resistanceSoil resistanceBacterial resistanceHeat resistanceExamples:Fibers for swimwear can be produced so that they resist fading from sunlight, salt water or swimming pool waterFibers for bath towels can be produced to provide continuous antimicrobial protection
48ACRYLIC 10/29 Declined from 15% to 5% of world fiber production Synthetic fiberDeveloped in the 1940’sBoth dry and wet spinning methods are usedHave been called the “warmth without weight”Wet spun fibers can have cross-sections varying from round to bean shapeDry spun methods have a dog-bone shapeFibers are soft, warm, lightweight and resilientFabricated into woven and knitted fabric constructionOften blended with other fibers especially woolGood fiber for sweaters, suits, coats, and socksSuperior to wool in their easy-care properties and are nonallergenicDeclined from 15% to 5% of world fiber productionManufacturing has moved from U.S and Europe to China, Taiwan, and India
49ACRYLIC Nov. 1 Advantages Disadvantages Resist wrinkling during use and careMildew, microorganisms, and moths will not harm acrylicLower cost competitor for woolResistant to sunlight –superior to polyester and nylonShrink when exposed to high temperaturesWill “pill”Low moisture absorbencyGenerate static electricity
50Nylon Nov. 3 First synthetic fiber and first fiber developed in U.S. Inventor was Wallace Carothers –chemist working for Dupont Company in 1928 (research program)Generic name NYLON was proposed in 1938 by DupontFirst nylon product a nylon bristle toothbrush which went on sale on Feb. 24, 1938Women’s stockings went on sale on May 15, 1940became unavailable to civilian consumers, because nylon was used extensively during WW II ( )During WW II Nylon replaced Asian silk in parachutesAlso used to make tires, tents, ropes, ponchos and other military suppliesCould be heat-set and permanent pleats became a reality
51NYLON Nov. 4 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Strong and Elastic Easy to launderDries quicklyRetains its shapeResilient and responsive to heat settingResistant to damage from oilsExtensive washing and drying in a dryer can lead to pilingWhite Nylon should be washed separately to avoid it turning grayHas a tendency to “Scavenge” colors picking up surface color easily from other fabrics
52POLYESTER 11/9English researchers experimented and manufactured polyester fibers called TeryleneIntroduced to U.S. in 1951 under name of DacronDupont bought the English patent and started manufactured polyester in March 1953Often referred to as the workhorse fiber of the industrymost widely used synthetic fiber in U.S.Used alone or blended with other fibersUsed for apparel and furnishingsFirst use of polyester filament fibers was in knit shirts for men and boluses for women
53POLYESTER 10/10 Advantages Disadvantages Lack absorption Good strengthWrinkle resistantMildew resistantRetains heat-set pleats and creaseResistant to stretching and shrinkingEasily washed –quick dryingPolyester is extensively recycled-products made from recycled polyester include apparel and carpetingLack absorptionConsumers like recycled polyester, but the cost is usually higher
54OLEFIN 11/11In the 1920’s attempts were made to polymerize ethylene (a byproduct of natural gas)Ethylene was polymerized (formation of polymers) and used as an important plastic during WW II, but filaments made from it did not have sufficiently consistent properties for use in textilesIn 1954 in Germany, Karl Ziegler developed a process that raised the melting point of polymerized ethylene filaments – but it was still too low for many usesIn Italy Giulio Natta successfully made linear polypropylene polymers of polypropylene polymers suitable for most textile applicationsBy 1957, Italy was producing olefin fibersU.S. production of olefin started in 1960Fibers are often called polyolefins, but the FTC(Federal Trade Commission) specifies the generic name olefin
59OLEFIN 11/15 Advantages Environmental Impact Colorfast Quick drying Stain and soil resistantSunlight resistantVery lightweight –(olefin fibers have the LOWEST specific gravity of all fibersDry hand (the way a fiber feels to the sense of touch)wicks (ability of a fiber to transfer moisture along its surface) body moisture from the skinEasier fiber to recycle than most other fibersOlefin is seldom dyed, so the environmental problems related to dyeing are minimalCan be engineered for specific end uses, so the problems related to recycling or disposing of finishing chemicals is of little concern
60SPANDEX 11/16First manufactured elastic fiber was introduced in 1958 and called LycraKnown as elastane in many other parts of the worldSuperior to rubber in strength and durabilityName was coined by shifting the syllables of the word expand
61Uses of Spandex 11/17used to support, shape, or mold the body or to keep textiles from stretching out of shape during useUsed primarily in knit foundation garments, action wear, intimate apparel, shape wear, hosiery, furnishings and narrow fabricsMedical uses-surgical an d support hose, bandages, and surgical wrapsBlends of 2% to 40% spandex with other fibers are commonSpandex yarns are woven or knitted
62SPANDEX 11/18 Advantages Disadvantages Spandex is resistant to the body oils, perspiration, lotions and cosmetics that degrade rubber.Has a good shelf life and does not deteriorate with age as quickly as rubberExtended exposure to light may cause discoloration of some types of white spandex but does not deteriorate the fiber seriouslyShould not be subjected to very hot water or excessive heat from ironing
63CARDING 9/28Carding- a process in which raw fibers (cotton, wool, etc.) are untangled and partially straightened by drawing them through a series of sharp points. After carding, fibers are combed.