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David Ortegel Steven Neidigk Tim Ngo Jason Maestas

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1 David Ortegel Steven Neidigk Tim Ngo Jason Maestas
Group 9 3 / 1 / Ch. 15: Extrusion and Drawing of Metal Ch. 16: Sheet-Metal Forming Process David Ortegel Steven Neidigk Tim Ngo Jason Maestas

2 Extrusion and Drawing Of Metals
CHAPTER 15 Extrusion and Drawing Of Metals

3 15.1 Introduction Extrusion
Rooted From Latin Term “Extrudere”(To Force out). A Cylindrical Billet is Forced Through A Die Same Concept as forming Play-Doe Die Geometry remains constant throughout the operation Forms a constant extruded cross-section Aluminum, copper, Steel Magnesium, lead are the most common material used in the Extruding process

4 Products Made by Extrusions
Railings for Sliding Doors Window Frames Aluminum Ladders Extrusions can be cut into desired lengths, allowing for discreet parts such to be produced as Gears, and Brackets

5 Economics of Extrusions
Extrusions can be economical for Large productions runs as well as short ones. Tool cost is generally low Manufactures are able to produce quantity because of the ability to cut individual parts from a single extrusion

6 Drawing Drawing – Cross-sections of solid rod, wire, or tubing is reduced or changed in shape by pulling through a die. Developed between AD Used to from shafts, automobile components, spindles, fasteners.

7 Depending on the ductility pf the material used extrusions can be caries out various ways:
Cold Extrusion – Extrusion carried out a ambient temperature. Often combined with forging operations Hot Extrusions – Extrusions carries out at elevated temperatures Impact extrusion – punch is rapidly descends on billet material Hydrostatic extrusion – pressure is applied by a piston through incompressible fluid medium surrounding the billet

8 15.2 The Extrusion Process 3 Basics Types of Extrusion:
Direct or Forward Extrusion: A billet is placed in a chamber and forced hydraulically through a die by a ram. Fig a Indirect Extrusion (Reverse, Inverted, Backward Extrusion): The Die Moves Toward the billet material. fig b

9 Hydrostatic Extrusion:
A Billet that is smaller that the chamber is used. The Chamber is filled with a fluid. Pressure is then applied to the pressing stem There is no friction to overcome

10 Variables Die Angle A ۪ – Initial cross-sectional Area
A – Final cross-sectional Area

11 k = Constant determined experimentally
Extrusion Force The force required for extrusions F = A*k*ln( A ۪ / A ) k = Constant determined experimentally The force required depends on: Strength of Billet Material Extrusion Ratio: A ۪ /A Friction between the billet material and the chamber Temperature Speed of the Ram Type of lubricants used

12 Extrusion constant k for various metals at different temperature

13 Metal Flow Flow patterns influence the quality and mechanical properties of the extruded product Material flows longitudinally (ex. Fluid flowing in a channel) The extruded product has a elongated grain structure

14 A common technique in investigating a flow is to section the round billet in half
Dead-Metal Zone – The corner of the material stays stationary. Bright finishes result due to material flowing past the die angle Fig a – flow patterns attained with low friction Fig b – flow patterns attained with high friction Fig c – flow pattern attained with high friction or cooling of the billets outer regions in the chamber

15 15.3 Hot Extrusion Extrusions carried out at elevated temperatures
Used for metals that do not have sufficient ductility at room temperature. Used when wanting to reduce forces on billet material

16 Special Requirements Due to excessive heat die wear becomes excessive and rapid cooling of the product after extrusion causes deformations. Pre-heated dies prolong the life of the die done my hot forging. This also reduces rapid cooling if the material Billet develops an oxide film. Oxides can result in a finished product that is unacceptable. Placing a dummy block, a little smaller than the chamber ahead of the ram, results in a thin shell of the oxide layer left in the container.

17 Die Design Main types of die designs:
1) Square dies: Used in extruding nonferrous metals - Develops dead metal zones that form the dies angle 2) Solid or Hollow Dies: Used in extruding tubing products - The ram is fitted with a mandrel that pierces a hole in the billet -Wall thickness is limited to 1 mm for aluminum. 3mm for stainless steels, 5mm to stainless steels

18 3) Spider, porthole dies ,and bridge dies: Used in creating hollow cross-section extrusions
-Created by welding chamber methods -Metal divides and flows around the supports for the internal mandrel -The extruded strands become welded back together by the high internal pressure existing in the chamber only suitable for aluminum and its alloys because of their capacity to create strong welds.

19 (a) (b) (c)

20 Die Materials Hot Worked dies Steels are used for hot extrusion
Coatings such as zirconia used to extend die life Not suitable for dies used for complex shapes because of the sever stress gradients that develop in the die.

21 Lubrication Lubrication Is important in hot extrusions because of major effects on: Material flow Surface finish on extrusion Product quality Extrusion forces

22 Sejournet process was developed in the 1940s uses Glass as a lubricant on high temperature steels.
A circular glass pad is placed in the chamber at the die entrance The head conducted cause the glass to melt around the extruded product acting as a lubricant

23 Jacketing: also known as canning, uses softer and lower strength metals metals such as copper or a mild steel. Used for materials that have a tendency to stick to the container and die Also used or toxic and radioactive material. The jacket that is formed over the extruded material acts as a protected barrier

24 15.4 Cold Extrusion Developed in the 1940’s, are extrusion produced at ambient temperature. Denotes combinations of operations, that consist of indirect extrusions and forgings

25 Cold extrusions are widely used
Automobile products Appliances Fasteners

26 Advantages cold extrusion has over hot extrusion
- Improved mechanical properties - Control over dimensional tolerances - Improved surface finishes - production rates and cost are competitive - magnitude of stress is extremely high

27 15.5 Extrusion Defects Surface Cracking: Cracking on billet materials occurs due to temperature, friction, punch speed. High Temperatures Crack from along the grain boundaries. Typically occur in aluminum, magnesium, zinc alloys Cold Temperatures Caused by sticking of billet material at the die land Known has the “Bamboo Defect” because of its similar appearance to bamboo

28 Internal Cracking: Center of extruded product develops cracks.
Pipe: The metal-flow pattern tends to draw oxides and impurities toward the center of the billet Internal Cracking: Center of extruded product develops cracks. Attributed to a state of hydrostatic tinsel stress Cracks increase with increasing die angle, impurities, and decreasing extrusion ratio and friction

29 15.6 Extrusion Equipment Basic horizontal press: Suitable because the stroke and speed of the press can be controlled Vertical Hydraulic press: used for cold extrusions. Take up less floor space

30 15.7 The Drawing Process A long rod or wire is reduces or changes by pulling through a die called a “draw die” Rod and wire is used in many applications such as drive shafts, machine and structural components, welding electrodes, spokes.

31 Drawing Force: used under ideal and frictionless conditions
F = YA * ln(A ۪ / A) Y- average true stress A ۪ – initial cross–sectional area A – Final cross-sectional area

32 F = Y*A* [(1 + u/s) * ln(A ۪ / A) + (2/3)*s]
Drawing Force used under frictional forces: F = Y*A* [(1 + u/s) * ln(A ۪ / A) + (2/3)*s] S – Die angle in radians U – Frictional forces

33 15.8 Drawing Practice Bundle Drawing: Drawing many wires simultaneously Produces wire in polygonal cross-sections Theses types of wire are cut into many shapes. Used in medical implant, electrically conductive material, filter media Reduces cost of production by producing 100 or more.

34 Die Design: Die Materials: Die angles range from 6 -15 degrees
Die designs go through many period of trial and error Die Materials: Die are made out of typical tool steels and carbides Cast steels are used for hot extrusions Diamond dies are used for drawing extremely fine wire Insert and nibs are used to support carbide and diamond dies because of their lack of tensile strength

35 Lubrication: Proper lubrication is essential to improve die life and product surface finish Particular in tube drawing, because of its difficulty to maintain for a thick lubrication film at the mandrel Wet drawing – Dies and rod are completely immersed in lubricant Dry Drawing – Rod is coated in a lubricant by passing through a box filled with lubricant

36 15.9 Drawing Defect and residual Stresses
Typical defects in a drawn rod or wire are similar to extrusion Internal Cracking with are longitudinal Seam may open Cold–drawn products have residual stresses, this causes stress-corrosion cracking over a period of time Quality control becomes a major problem in drawn defects and residual stresses

37 15.10 Drawing Equipment Draw Bench:
Contains a single die, design is long Pulling for is supplied by a chain drive that is hydraulically activated

38 Rotating Drum: Used in producing long rods and wires of smaller cross-sections less that 13mm A large drum is rotated

39 Introduction We utilize sheet metal for products such as
Cans Cookware Appliances Car bodies Low carbon steel is the most commonly used sheet metal for its strength and formability The most general sheet forming operations Press working Press forming

40 Shearing Shearing metal is like punching holes in paper with a hole punch. It can also be compared to using a cookie cutter The punch must be harder and stronger that the metal being sheared

41 Shearing Typical features of sheared edges are not smooth nor perpendicular to the cutting plane Edge quality can be improved by increasing punch speed Shearing is most commonly done with a punch and die

42 Shearing Having the correct between the punch and die is important
Too much and the sheared edge can become rough Too little and tools can be damaged Burr is a thin edge or ridge an the punched out piece of metal Can be caused by dull tool edges The size and shape of the burr can change subsequent forming operations

43 Shearing Operations Die cutting- perforating, parting, notching, lancing Parts produced by die cutting are commonly used in assembly with other components Fine blanking- used to produce smooth and square edges Nibbling- moves a small straight punch up an down rapidly into a die. One advantage of this technique is intricate slots and notches.

44 Shearing Operations Slitting- a pair of circular blades follow a line or path cutting as they go. much like a can opener Scrap in shearing- The sheets of metal that are not used. Can be as large as 30% of large stampings Increases manufacturing cost

45 Shearing Operations Tailor-Welded Blanks- Can be used of sheet metal with different shapes and thicknesses (often used in automotive industry) Reduction in scrap Eliminate need for subsequent spot welding Better control of dimensions Improved productivity

46 Punches and Dies Compound dies-Limited to simple shapes
Several operations on the same sheet may be performed in one stroke at one station with a compound die

47 Punches and Dies Progressive dies- good for making parts that require multiple operations to produce Use a series of punches Other operations include Laser beam cutting Water-jet cutting Friction sawing Flame cutting

48 Sheet-Metal Characteristics and Formability
After a blank is cut into a sheet it is formed into various shapes Elongation- Stretching the metal High elongation is desirable for good formability Yield-Point Elongation- Happens in low carbon steel and aluminum-magnesium alloys. Causes stretcher-strain marks, or worms Elongations, depressions along the surface

49 Sheet-Metal Characteristics and Formability
Dent-Resistance of sheet metal- refers to the dynamic yield or yield stress under high rate of deformation Ways to improve dent-resistance is to increase sheet thickness of decrease the metals elastic modulus

50 Formability Tests for Sheet-Metals
Formability- The ability to of the sheet-metal to undergo the desired shape without failure May undergo two basic modes of deformation- stretching and drawing Cupping Tests- earliest tests to determine formability Erichsen test- Sheet clamped between two circular dies then a steel ball of round punch is forced into the sheet until it cracks

51 Formability Tests for Sheet-Metals
Forming Limit Diagrams- They are made by marking a flat sheet with a grid pattern of circles, then it is stretched over a punch. The deformation of the circles is measured in regions where the sheet has failed. The information gathered from the test is then turned into a diagram.

52 Bending Sheets, Plates, Tubes
Bending is the most common industrial forming operation Adds stiffness to the part without adding weight (car door panels) Minimum bend allowance- refers to the radius at which a crack first appears at the outer fibers of a sheer being bent

53 Bending Sheets, Plates, Tubes
Bendability can be increased by heating the metal or by bending in a high-pressure environment. Edge cracking can be decreased by minimizing cold working when the part is sheared. Anisotropy of the metal is another important factor in bendability. (a) (b)

54 Bending Sheets, Plates, Tubes
Springback- when a sheet or tube recovers elastically when load is removed Usually compensated for by overbending the part

55 Ch.16 Sections – Miscellaneous Bending and Related Operations – Deep Drawing – Rubber Forming – Spinning

56 16.6 Miscellaneous Bending and Related Operations
Press-brake forming. Bending in a four-slide machine. Roll bending. Beading. Flanging. Roll forming. Tube bending and forming. Dimpling, piercing, and flaring. Bulging. Stretch forming.

57 Press-brake forming. Easily bends sheet metal or plates that are 7m (20ft) or longer, which is suitable for small production runs. This machine uses long dies in a hydraulic press, to create an up and down motion to bend the metals.

58 Material of the die: Hardwood – used for low strength materials and small production runs; Carbides- used for strong and abrasive sheet materials and last longer than other dies. Carbon-steel and gray iron is the most commonly used.

59 Bending on a four-slide machine.
Uses dies to bend short pieces of metal into tubing and conduits, bushings, fasteners, and various machinery components.

60 Roll bending. Plates are bent using a set of rolls.
By adjusting the rolls various curvatures can be obtained. The metals created can be use for boilers, cylindrical pressure vessel, and other curved structures.

61 Beading. A technique utilizing the cavity of a die to bend the periphery of the sheet metal. The purpose of the bead is to create stiffness and better appearance of the part and eliminates hazardous sharp edges.

62 Flanging. A process of bending the edge of a sheet metal into a 90o angle. Periphery wrinkling may occur in shrink flanging, due to excessive compressive hoop stress. Periphery cracking may occur in stretch flanging, due to excessive tensile stress.

63 Dimpling, piercing, and flaring.
Dimpling is a type of flanging operation that punches a hole in the sheet metal and expanded into a flange with a shaped punch.

64 Roll forming. Process where sheet metal strips are passed through consecutive set of rolls and bent in consecutive stages and then sheared into specific lengths and stacked continuously. Sheet thickness: – 20mm(0.005–0.75 in.) Forming speed: below 1.5 m/s (300 ft/min) Examples: Door panels, picture frame, and gutters.

65 Tube bending and forming.
Several methods are implemented to prevent buckling and folding of the tubes, such as filling the tubes with sand or the use of mandrels. Relatively thick tubes have a low tendency to buckle so it can be bent safely without the use of fillers.

66 Bulging. Process involving the expansion of a poly-urethane plug within the tube, and once the punch retracts, the plug goes through elastic recovery. Examples: coffee or water pitchers, beer barrels and bellows.

67 Stretch Forming Process where a sheet metal is clamped along it’s edges and stretched over a male die (form die or form punch). Examples: aircraft wing-skin panels, fuselages, and boat hulls.

68 16.7 Deep Drawing Blanking Deep Drawing Redrawing Ironing Doming
Earing Necking Seaming

69 Process in Manufacturing an Aluminum Can

70 Deep Drawing Process where a round sheet-metal blank is placed over a circular die and is held in place with a blank-holder, which is then forced downward into a die cavity by a punch; forming a cup.

71 Redrawing Operations used to redraw containers that are too difficult to draw in one operation. Ironing If clearance between the punch and the die is sufficiently large, the drawn cup will have thicker walls at its rim than its base. The thickness can be controlled by ironing, a process which the drawn cup is pushed through one or more ironing rings

72 Earing A phenomenon where the edges of cups become wavy during the drawing process. The ears have to be trimmed off since it serves no useful purpose and interferes with further processing of the cup. Earing is caused by planar anisotropy of the sheet.

73 Hemming and Seaming Hemming Seaming Sheet metal is folded over itself.
Increases stiffness, improves appearance and eliminates sharp edges. Seaming Joining two edges of sheet metal by hemming. Double seaming.

74 16.8 Rubber Forming Rubber Forming
One of the dies in the set is made of polyurethane membrane, which is a type of flexible material. Polyurethane is resistant to abrasion, cutting or tearing by the metal, and has a long fatigue life.

75 16.9 Spinning Conventional Spinning
Process where a circular piece of sheet metal is placed and held against a mandrel and rotated while a rigid tool deforms and shapes the material over the mandrel. May be performed at room temperature or at higher temperature for thicker metal.

76 Sheer spinning Also called power spinning, flow turning, hydrospinning, and spin forging. Process used to create axisymmetric conical or curvilinear shape, reducing the sheet’s thickness while maintaining its maximum diameter. Applications: Rocket motor casings and missile nose cones.

77 Tube Spinning The process where cylindrical blanks are reduced or shaped by spinning them on a solid, round mandrel using rollers. Applications: Rocket, missile, and jet engine parts, pressure vessels, and car and truck wheels.

78 Diffusion Bonding/Superplastic Forming
Figure Types of structures made by diffusion bonding and superplastic forming of sheet metal. Such structures have a high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Source: Rockwell International Corp.

79 Specialized Forming Processes
Explosive forming Magnetic-pulse forming Peen forming Laser forming Microforming Electrohydraulic forming

80 Explosive forming First used to form metals in the 1900’s. A sheet metal blank is clamped over a die, and the entire assembly is lowered into a tank filled with water. The air in the cavity is evacuated, and an explosive is detonated at a certain height above.

81 Magnetic-pulse forming
Also called electromagnetic forming. Energy stored in a capacitor bank is discharged rapidly through a magnetic coil. Magnetic field crosses metal tube (conductor) creating eddy currents which have an opposing magnetic field. (b) (a) Figure (a) Schematic illustration of the magnetic-pulse forming process used to form a tube over a plug. (b) Aluminum tube collapsed over a hexagonal plug by the magnetic-pulse forming process.

82 Other forming processes
Peen forming – A cast-iron or steel shot is discharged from a rotating wheel or by an air-blast from a nozzle. It is used for complex curvatures on thin sheet metals. Laser forming – Laser beams are directed in certain regions causing thermal stresses , which are high enough to cause localized plastic deformation of the sheet. Microforming – More recently developed for very small metallic parts and components. Typical components made include small shafts for micromotors, springs, screws, and a variety of cold-headed, extruded, bent, embossed, coined, punched, or deep-drawn parts. Electrohydraulic forming – Also called underwater spark or electric discharge forming. In this process, the source of energy comes from a spark between two electrodes connected by a thin wire.

83 Manufacturing of Metal Honeycomb Structures
Figure Methods of manufacturing honeycomb structures: (a) Expansion process; (b) Corrugation process; (c) Assembling a honeycomb structure into a laminate.

84 Design Considerations in Sheet-Metal Forming
Blank design – Material scrap is the primary concern. Poorly designed parts will not nest properly. Bending – Bending can cause material fractures or wrinkles. This is prevented with a flange, or relief notch which limit the stresses from bending. Do not put bends next to places with high-stress concentrations such as holes. A tab or ear can be used. Stamping and progressive-die operations – Limit features so that tooling and machining costs are minimal. Narrow cuts and protrusions must be are also problematic.

85 Equipment for Sheet-Metal Forming
Type of forming operation, size and shape of the die, and tooling required. Size and shape of workpiece. Length of stroke, number of strokes per minute, operating speed, and shut height. Number of slides. Maximum force required. Type of controls. Safety features

86 Economics of Sheet-Forming Operations
Die and equipment cost Labor and skill required Time Machining and tooling operations Level of automation and computer control required

87 References

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