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Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Chapter 6 Gut Instincts The Gastrointestinal System
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Digestive System The digestive system is referred to as the –digestive system (or tract) –alimentary system –GI system (or tract) The digestive system is basically a long, muscular tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Digestive System Functions of the digestive system –intake and digestion of food and water –absorption of nutrients –elimination of solid wastes The combining form for nourishment is aliment/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Structures of the Digestive System Mouth or oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestines Large intestines Accessory organs of digestion
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Structures of the Mouth Mouth or oral cavity –Contains the lips, cheeks, palates (hard and soft), salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and periodontium –Combining forms are or/o and stomat/o Boundaries of the mouth are the maxilla and mandible (jaw) –Combining form for jaw is gnath/o –Prognathia means having an elongated mandible (overshot) –Brachygnathia means having a shortened mandible (undershot)
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Structures of the Digestive System Mouth or oral cavity –Lips form the opening to the oral cavity Combining forms are cheil/o and labi/o –Cheeks form the walls of the oral cavity Combining form is bucc/o –The palate forms the roof of the mouth Combining form is palat/o Rug/o = wrinkle or fold Tongue is a movable muscular organ –Combining forms are gloss/o and lingu/o –Papillae are the elevations on the tongue Filiform = threadlike Fungiform = mushroom-like Vallate = cup-shaped
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Structures of the Mouth Teeth are arranged in the maxillary and mandibular arcade –Combining forms are dent/o, dent/I, and odont/o Dentition refers to the teeth as a whole –The primary dentition is temporary and known as the deciduous dentition decidu/o = shedding –The secondary dentition is permanent Dental formula represents the type and number of each tooth type found in that species –Adult dog is 2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3)
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Tooth Names Types of teeth –incisor = front, cutting tooth –canine = long, pointed bonelike tooth for grasping and tearing –premolar = cheek tooth that grinds food –molar = caudal cheek tooth that grinds food
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Tooth Anatomy The anatomy of a tooth consists of –enamel = outer surface located in the crown –cementum = outer surface located in the root –dentin = connective tissue surrounding the pulp –pulp = inner part of tooth that contains nerves, vessels, and loose connective tissue
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Other Mouth Structures Gingiva is the mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth –The combining form for gingiva is gingiv/o Salivary glands are groups of cells that secrete saliva –Named for their location –Combining forms are sialaden/o and sial/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Throat The pharynx is the cavity in the caudal oral cavity that joins the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems –Also known as the throat –Combining form is pharyng/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Gullet The esophagus is a collapsible, muscular tube that leads from the oral cavity to the stomach –Also known as the gullet –Combining form is esophag/o –Enters the stomach through an opening that is surrounded by a sphincter Sphincter is a ringlike muscle that constricts an opening
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Abdomen The remaining digestive organs are found in the abdomen –Also known as the peritoneal or abdominal cavity –Located between the diaphragm and pelvis –Combining forms are abdomin/o and celi/o –Combining form for abdomen or flank is lapar/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Abdominal Structures The peritoneum is the membrane lining that covers the abdominal and pelvic cavity and some of the organs in this area –The layer that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities is called the paxetal peritoneum –The layer that covers the abdominal organs is called the visceral peritoneum –The omentum is a fold of the peritoneum that connects the stomach to the other visceral organs
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning The Stomach The stomach is a saclike organ that aides in digestion of food –Combining form is gastr/o –Animals can be classified as monogastric or ruminant Monogastric animals have one true, glandular stomach (one that produces secretions) Ruminants have one true, glandular stomach plus three forestomachs
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Stomach Parts Parts of the stomach include –cardia (entrance near esophagus) –fundus (cranial, rounded part) –body (main part) –antrum (caudal part) –pylorus (narrow passage between the stomach and duodenum) –pyloric sphincter (muscle ring that controls flow of material from the stomach to the small intestine) –rugae (folds in the mucosa)
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Ruminant Stomach Parts Ruminants regurgitate and remasticate their food Parts of the ruminant stomach include –rumen: largest part that serves as a fermentation vat –reticulum: most cranial portion –omasum: third part that squeezes fluid out of the food bolus –abdomasum: fourth part that is the true glandular stomach
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Small Intestines Small intestine extends from the pylorus to the large intestine It is held in place by the mesentery Enter/o means small intestine Three segments of the small intestine are –duodenum: proximal part duoden/i or duoden/o –jejunum: middle part jenun/o –ileum: distal part ile/o
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Large Intestines Large intestine extends from the ileum to the anus Four segments of the large intestine are –cecum: pouch that takes food from the ileum cec/o –colon: varies among species col/o –rectum: caudal portion rect/o –anus: caudal opening an/o proct/o means anus and rectum together
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Accessory Organs Liver: located caudal to the diaphragm –hepat/o Gallbladder –chol/e = bile –cyst/o = sac –doch/o = receptacle Pancreas –pancreat/o Salivary glands –previously covered
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Digestion Digestion is the process of breaking down foods into nutrients that the body can use Metabolism is the processes involved in the body’s use of nutrients –Meta- means change or beyond –Anabolism is building up of body cells –Catabolism is breakdown of body cells
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Absorption Absorption is the process of taking digested nutrients into the circulatory system –also called assimilation Absorption occurs in the small intestine –Villi are tiny hairlike projections that help increase the surface area of the small intestine allowing more nutrients to be absorbed Vill/i means tuft of hair –The valleys that result from the projections of the small intestine are called crypts
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Path of Digestion Food is grasped and collected into the oral cavity –This is called prehension Mastication (chewing) breaks food into smaller pieces Deglutition moves chewed food into the pharynx and on into the esophagus –The epiglottis closes off the entrance to the trachea Food moves down the esophagus by gravity and peristalsis –Peristalsis is a series of wavelike contractions of smooth muscle -stalsis means contraction
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Peristalsis versus Segmentation Food moves through the small intestines by peristalsis and segmentation Peristalsis is a series of wavelike contractions that move ingesta caudally toward the anus Segmentation involves the side-to- side mixing of ingesta
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Medical Terms for the Digestive System Additional terms for digestive system tests, pathology, and procedures can be found in the text Review the Flash! CD program to make sure you understand these terms
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