Presentation on theme: "The Late Republic The Punic Wars and The Rebellion of Spartacus."— Presentation transcript:
The Late Republic The Punic Wars and The Rebellion of Spartacus
Objectives What was a Roman Legion? Why did the Romans decide to conquer Italy? How did the growth of territory help increase Roman trade? Why did the Romans borrow many ideas from Greek culture? What led to the beginning of the Punic Wars? Who fought in the Punic Wars? Who won? Who was Spartacus? How did the deaths of the Gracchus brothers change Roman politics?
Terms and People Legions were groups of up to 6,000 Roman soldiers. Punic Wars were fought between Rome and its archenemy, Carthage. Hannibal was the great general of Carthage. Gaius Marius made it possible for poor people to join the army. Spartacus led a slave revolt. Sulla was the assistant to Gaius Marius, but he became dictator and led Rome into a civil war. Rome shall be mine! Let’s help the poor to better careers. We should be free!
The Romans conquered most of Italy. In 305 BC By 280 BC By 264 BC
The Punic Wars Rome’s traditional enemy was Carthage. Only one of these powers could end up controlling the Mediterranean. The trouble began when Carthage expanded to the Island of Sicily.
To fight the Carthaginians, the Romans had to learn to fight on sea. The Carthaginians had the greatest navy in the Mediterranean. The Romans had always fought on land. Instead of fighting the Carthaginians at their own game, the Romans simply made ramps, boarded the ships, and fought as they had on land. The First Punic War
The main general of the Carthaginians made an oath with his son never to make friendship with Rome. The son’s name was Hannibal.
The Second Punic War Hannibal Barca grew up. He began to create a kingdom for himself in Spain. (Barcelona is named after him.) Eventually, Hannibal picked a fight with Rome. The Second Punic War was on.
The Romans split their forces. Half went to North Africa, toward Carthage, the enemy capital. The other half went to Spain, where they knew Hannibal was. Hannibal, however, chose to do what was considered impossible. He went to attack Rome. Even more boldly, he chose to cross the Alps to get there.
Hannibal defeated the Romans in battle after battle. Battle of Lake Trasimene - In an ambush, Hannibal destroyed the Roman army of Gaius Flaminius Nepos, who was killed. Battle of Ager Falernus Hannibal was trapped by Quintus Fabius in Ager Falernus, but he managed to escape. Battle of Geronium Hannibal trapped and inflicted severe losses on a Roman army under Minucius. Battle of Cannae - Hannibal destroyed the Roman army led by Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro in what is considered one of the great masterpieces of the tactical art.
Watch first 17 minutes.
Eventually, Rome won the Punic Wars. But the Romans had fought for many years, and many were ready to have a professional army.
Gaius Marius was a general that changed the Roman army. The Roman army was just ordinary men serving their country. Gaius Marius made it a professional army. To get poor people to serve, he gave them land after their service. Before Gaius Marius, the government was in control of the army. He made the army stronger, and soon it controlled the government.
Watch first 2:40
This led to a civil war, and Gaius Marius was defeated.
The Slave Revolt of Spartacus Spartacus was a gladiator. He used his training to create an army of slaves. It didn’t turn out well for them.
This is the LONG version of the Punic Wars. This story is in three parts.