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Chapter 14 The Civil War 1860-1865 Essential Question Could Texas Have Avoided Joining the Confederacy?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 The Civil War 1860-1865 Essential Question Could Texas Have Avoided Joining the Confederacy?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 The Civil War 1860-1865 Essential Question Could Texas Have Avoided Joining the Confederacy?

2 Political and social issues divided the country in the early 1860s. Many southern states, including Texas, decided to separate themselves from the United States. Section 1 Texas Secedes 1860-1865

3 A Nation Divided By 1860, nation was divided and many southern states were threatening to secede from Union Both sides were willing to fight for what they believed in…war was looming Republican Party: formed in 1854 –goal to stop western spread of slavery –Rep party members thought slavery counter to democracy and American ideals –Also wanted to end slavery in states where slavery already existed –Supported economic change and a higher tariff –Tariff: tax placed on imported or exported goods Tariff would help American industry in North by raising prices on competing imports

4 A Nation Divided, cont Most Texans were Democrats and were opposed to new Republican Party Thought that Republican tariff would destroy southern economy because it depended on foreign trade and slave labor Democrats wanted to prevent Republicans from gaining control of US government Debate between Dem/Rep lead to arguments over state’s rights –Many in south didn’t think federal govt should have power to decide whether a state could have slavery or not –Also, they thought each state should have right to withdraw from Union if citizens voted to –Northern states disagreed and said that federal laws applied to all states and states could not legally separate from Union –These topics were strongly debated in Presidential Election of 1860

5 Presidential Election of 1860 Democratic Party held convention on Charleston, SC to select Dem candidate…even within the party, they couldn’t agree on issue of slavery As a result, most southern delegates (including Texas) left convention on protest Remaining Democrats met in Baltimore, MD and selected Stephen A. Douglas (IL) as candidate for President Democratic delegates who left Charleston, selected current VP John Breckinridge as candidate Republican Party met in Chicago, IL and nominated Abraham Lincoln as their candidate

6 Presidential Election, cont Split in Democratic Party, gave Republican Party better chance to win Southern states threatened to secede from the union if Republican candidate won To prevent this, a new party was formed –Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee as their candidate. –Goal was to keep any of the 4 candidates from getting enough votes to win. Then, House of Representatives would have to choose new president Texas Governor Sam Houston wanted to keep Union together –He wanted to be the Constitutional Union Party Candidate… –He didn’t get nomination but he fought hard to keep Texas in Union…didn’t want war at all

7 Presidential Election, cont Texans voted for Breckinridge, then Bell, then Douglas (only 410 votes) Lincoln didn’t receive any votes in Texas. His name wasn’t even on ballot But, Lincoln received most Northern votes and won the election –He became the 16 th president of the US

8 Reaction to Lincoln’s Election Soon after Lincoln was elected, SC seceded from Union –Then, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana seceded from Union –They joined together as the Confederate States of America Many Texans wanted to secede, too –They wanted a convention to vote on issue but Gov Sam Houston ignored request –Other leaders formed the convention anyway and the delegates who would vote were elected

9 The Secession Convention in Texas Jan. 28, 1861: delegates met in Austin Elected Judge Oran M. Roberts of Texas Supreme Court as leader Meeting was very tense but outcome was clear…they met to vote to secede They voted 166-8 to adopt an Ordinance of Secession Ordinance: an official order

10 Secession Convention, cont F eb. 23, 1861: Texas citizens voted to approve the ordinance Some counties voted against the ordinance –mostly where the German immigrants lived, some counties along Red River and in Angelina County (East Texas) The Texas Constitution of 1845 was changed to reflect Texas’ vote –Revised constitution changed United States of America to Confederate States of America –New constitution defended state’s rights and slavery Stated that freeing slaves was illegal On March 2, 1861: Texas became 7 th state to secede from Union

11 Texas Secession Vote Map, 1861

12 Governor Houston’s Response Sam Houston couldn’t prevent secession He wanted Texas to remain independent and not join Confederacy but that didn’t happen Texas was immediately accepted into the Confederacy During process of secession, Lincoln offered Houston federal troops to forcefully keep Texas in the Union –Houston refused use of the troops –He had fought for Texas and refused to fight against it –The troops remained in Texas even though Houston refused to use them –Dealing with the troops became first goal of new Confederate State of Texas

13 Governor Houston’s Response, cont All Texas government officials had to take oath of office to the Confederacy but Sam Houston refused to take the oath –When his name was called 3 times to take the oath, he sat silently and office of Governor of Texas was declared vacant –Lieutenant Gov Edward Clark became the first ad interim governor of Confederate Texas After he was removed from office, he left Austin and went to Galveston for awhile. Then he went to Huntsville to his “steamboat house” (see p. 307) He died there on July 3, 1863 (70 yrs old)

14 John Breckinridge Edward Clark John Bell

15 Abraham Lincoln

16 cles/ccs06 /sh1.shtml places/ Sam Houston

17 Section 2 Texans Fight for the Confederacy Texas contributed to the Confederate military efforts by supplying soldiers to fight in important battles and defending the Gulf Coast.

18 Organizing the Confederacy Francis R. Lubbock: Texas’ first Confederate governor Confederate President: Jefferson Davis 2700 Federal troops still stationed in Texas…were asked to leave Confederate Brigadier General Ben McCulloch had to force federal soldiers out of Texas…done peacefully

19 Organizing the Confederacy, con’t All 11 Confederate States demanded that Union surrender all federal property in their states Many forts taken peacefully…good for Confederate states because they got the supplies that were in forts Union troops refused to leave Fort Sumter, in Charleston, SC. –Fighting broke out Civil War began in Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861

20 Military Strength of Texas About 60,000-70,000 Texas volunteers fought in Civil War Hood’s Texas Brigade: sent to Virginia to fight; named after their commander, John Bell Hood –Confederate General Robert E. Lee respected their courage and military ability; called them “my Texans” Terry’s Texas Rangers: commanded by General Benjamin “Frank” Terry Ross’s Brigade: commanded by General Lawrence “Sul” Ross Texans fought in the Army of Northern Virginia, the Army of Tennessee, and the Army of the Trans-Mississippi

21 Sending More Troops to Fight Texas had no more men who volunteered to fight so Texas started a draft: –Draft: the enlisting of persons for required service in the armed forces The draft made people mad –Didn’t want to fight in war –Exceptions: if owned more than 20 slaves didn’t fight –Draft threatened cotton production John Bankhead Magruder : commanded Texas troops during Civil War

22 Military Affairs in Texas During the Civil War, Texans expected Confederate soldiers to guard frontier –But they couldn’t…too busy fighting –Texans had to defend against Native Americans No major battles were fought in Texas During Civil War, most fighting in Texas was centered on keeping Gulf Coast ports open Texas called “Storehouse of the Confederacy”: supplied food, weapons, and supplies for Confederacy

23 Military Affairs, cont John R. Baylor: led troops into NM to claim as part of Confederacy General H. H. Sibley: led more Confederate troops into NM. Defeated Union at Valverde but lost at Battle of Glorieta. So, NM became Union again Battle of Galveston Island: Pres Lincoln ordered a blockade: –Blockade: action to stop transportation of goods or people into or out of an area

24 Civil War Battles In or Near Texas

25 Battle of Galveston Island Supplies were shipped in and out of Galveston Bay Because of the blockade, Union troops captured the island…wanted to use it as a base to guard Gulf of Mexico Texas General John B. Magruder launched attack to retake island on Jan 1, 1863 –One group of Confederate soldiers sailed into Galveston Harbor on Cottonclads: flat bottom boats lined with bales of cotton to protect soldiers from bullets –Another group of Confederate soldiers crossed railroad bridge from mainland –Confederate forces took over Galveston Island and remained in control till end of Civil War

26 Other Military Campaigns Battle of Sabine Pass: Sept 8, 1863 –Sabine Pass is narrow channel along border of Louisiana –Union General Banks planned to move Union troops by ship up channel and then march north to cut of TX railroad connection to Louisiana –But, Confederate Lieutenant Dick Dowling stationed his soldiers along channel –When Banks’ ships entered channel, Confederate troops fired on them and sank 2 ships. No other Union ships tried to get through –Confederacy won that battle

27 Other Military Campaigns, cont Union Gen Banks tried to get into Texas again by sending troops up Mississippi River and then up Red River…he wanted to take over North Texas But, many Confederate soldiers met Union forces in Mansfield, LA (25 miles east of TX border) Smaller Confederate forces (led by General Richard Taylor) defeated Union forces and forced them to retreat Texas was safe from invasion

28 Other Military Campaigns, con’t Battle of Sabine Pass, con’t –Confederate forces under command of John “Rip” Ford and Santos Benavides took over area on July 30, 1864 –On May 13, 1865, Union forces fought Confederate troops in a land battle at Palmito Ranch. Confederates won battle but war was actually already over –General Robert E. Lee had already surrendered by the time the Battle at Palmito Ranch was fought

29 Other Military Campaigns, con’t Battle of Dove Creek: –Jan 8, 1865 –600 Kickapoos were migrating from Kansas to Mexico –160 Confederate soldiers thought they were Comanches and Kiowas –22 Confederate soldiers killed 14 Indians

30 Other Military Campaigns, cont Battle at Palmito Ranch: –last land battle of Civil War –fought at Palmito Ranch in South Texas near Brownsville…on May 12, 1865 Union blockade of southern ports forced Confederate troops to find another way to get cotton out and supplies in Cotton transported through Brownsville to Mexican port of Matamoros. Then it was loaded on ships for Europe…not affected by blockade But, in Nov, 1863, Union forces took over Brownsville to try to enforce the blockade

31 Facts Civil War started: April 12, 1861 Confederate (South) –President: Jefferson Davis –General in Charge: Robert E. Lee Union (North/US) –President: Abraham Lincoln –General in Charge: Ulysses S. Grant Civil War ended: April 9, 1865 Pres Lincoln Assassinated : April 14, 1865 11 Confederate States: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia

32 Terry’s Texas Rangers Benjamin Frank Terry Terry’s Brigade Sul Ross

33 Section 3 The Civil War Affects Life at home Like the rest of the nation, people in Texas were deeply affected by the Civil War. A shortage of supplies, a declining economy, and friends and relatives gone to fight in the war created a difficult life for all.

34 The Effects of War Read: A Real Life Story p. 315 Read: Women in Combat p. 315 Because no major battles were fought in Texas, land didn’t suffer as much damage as other southern states But, many Texans fought in the war…left behind families, homes, job…more work left to do for those left behind

35 The Effects of War, cont Problems after the war: –Tensions between those who supported Confederacy and those who supported Union –Union blockades reduced sale of farm products (cotton) and the economy suffered –Supplies in Texas were scarce

36 Union Supporters in Texas Most supported Confederacy but about ¼ were against secession…remained loyal to Union during Civil War North Texas: in 1862, Texans who opposed Confederate draft formed a secret society called the Peace Party –Confederate supporters thought Peace Party would help Union defeat Confederacy –Some vigilantes took matters into their own hands by hanging 40 members of the Peace Party at Gainesville to stop support of Union –Vigilantes: people who punished criminals or took control without authority to do so

37 Union Supporters, cont German Texans: some supported Union/opposed slavery and some supported slavery…depended on where they lived…some fought for Confederacy Opposition to Confederate Draft caused some German Texans to organize a Union Loyal League to serve in Union army –Led by Major Fritz Tegner, left Texas to join Union army –But, some Confederate soldiers led by Lieutenant CD McRae followed them

38 Union Supporters, con’t –McRae’s men caught up with German Texans at Nueces River…they fought in the Battle of the Nueces –Many Union German Texans died or were executed –Some survivors reached Union troops in New Orleans –A monument was built in Comfort, TX to honor the Germans & one Mexican American who died fighting for Union

39 Wartime Economy During War, Texans still grew cotton and raised cattle but the agriculture was greatly affected –By blockades…ports for shipping closed –Union victories along Mississippi River closed land routes –Texans couldn’t sell cotton –Farmers started growing more wheat and corn instead of cotton

40 Wartime Economy, cont Women took over men’s jobs –Stores, post offices, farms, plantations, ranches, teachers, doctors, factories Weapons factory in Austin and Tyler…made 800 weapons/month Iron furnaces opened in East Texas Prisoners in Huntsville made clothes –Women made bandages and clothes for soldiers –Sent boxes filled with food and supplies to troops

41 Wartime Economy, cont Because Union blockades kept goods from entering or leaving Confederate states, people couldn’t sell as much so weren’t making as much money But, expenses were going up…taxes went up to support war Confederate money lost value See Linking History to Economics about prices: p. 318

42 Home Front Hardships Because of blockades, many items were in short supply –Clothes, shoes –Medicines and hospital supplies…they were sent to battlefield instead of towns –Paper…some newspapers stopped publishing –People got creative: brewed acorns or corn to drink instead of coffee; used honey instead of sugar, herbs instead of medicine

43 Refugees During war, thousands of slaves were sent to Texas from other states –Slave owners hoped that would prevent them from running away or being taken away –Many slave owners came to Texas with their slaves…not happy to be there –Read Texas voices p. 318 about Kate Stone

44 The War’s End April 9, 1865: Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia. This ended war the Civil War Some fighting still continued, though, as it took time for word to spread that war was over June 2, 1865: Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith signed official surrender of Trans-Mississippi area which included Texas…2 months after Lee surrendered Soldiers went home to families Much of the old Southern Way of life had ended Much uncertainty…nobody knew what to expect next

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