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Great DepressionCollective Bargaining Deficit Spending F. D. Roosevelt (538) Fascism Totalitarian State Politburo Collectivization Benito Mussolini (541)

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Presentation on theme: "Great DepressionCollective Bargaining Deficit Spending F. D. Roosevelt (538) Fascism Totalitarian State Politburo Collectivization Benito Mussolini (541)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Great DepressionCollective Bargaining Deficit Spending F. D. Roosevelt (538) Fascism Totalitarian State Politburo Collectivization Benito Mussolini (541) Joseph Stalin (543) Reichstag Concentration Camp Adolf Hitler (548) Heinrich Himmler (551) Dawes Plan

2 Which person would you vote for to run your country? a. Person that doesn’t drink or smoke, deeply religious, wounded in combat, promises great things b. Person that smokes heavily, overweight, curses in public, promises great things, never served in the military c. Person that smokes heavily, promises great things, never served in the military, constantly deceives the country, crippled

3 The West Between the Wars The Search for Stability Chapter 17 Section 1

4  Treaties ending WWI created new boundaries and states  Many border disputes in nations  Germans upset with the Treaty of Versailles  The League of Nations was not successful in maintaining peace  U.S. did not join the league because many Americans didn’t want to be involved in European affairs  The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles

5 Reports on German Inflation  As soon as I received my salary I rushed out to buy what I needed. My daily salary was just enough to buy one loaf of bread and a small piece of cheese.... A friend of mine, a vicar, came to Berlin to buy some shoes with his month's wages for his baby. By the time he arrived, he only had enough to buy a cup of coffee.  A German woman writing about the effects of hyperinflation

6 Reports on German Inflation  Two women were carrying a laundry basket filled to the brim with banknotes. Seeing a crowd standing round a shop window, they put down the basket, for a moment to see if there was anything they could buy. When they turned round a few moments later, they found the money there untouched. But the basket was gone. (The memories of a German writer)  Two women were carrying a laundry basket filled to the brim with banknotes. Seeing a crowd standing round a shop window, they put down the basket, for a moment to see if there was anything they could buy. When they turned round a few moments later, they found the money there untouched. But the basket was gone. (The memories of a German writer)

7 Reports on German Inflation  Countless children, even the youngest, never get a drop of milk and come to school without a warm breakfast... The children frequently come to school without a shirt or warm clothing or they are prevented from attending school by a lack of proper clothing. Deprivation gradually stifles any sense of cleanliness and morality and leaves room only for thoughts of the struggle against the hunger and cold. (Report by the Mayor of Berlin, 1923)

8 Germany’s Problems  April 1921, the Allied Reparations Commission determined that Germany owed 132 German billion marks (33 billion U.S. $) for reparations; in installments of 2.5 billion a year  Germany made first payment in 1921  Afterwards said it can’t afford it; France sends troops to Ruhr Valley (German mining center) to collect money from these sources  German workers strike; government pays salaries by printing more money, adds to inflation  German mark becomes worthless – 4.2 marks = $1 U.S – 130 billion marks = $1 U.S. - end of trillion marks = $1 U.S. -people carried their salaries in wheelbarrows German kids playing with bank notes

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10 Plans for Peace  International Commission called The Dawes Plan – reduced reparations and coordinated Germany’s annual payments with its ability to pay; gave Germany a $200 million loan  More American investment in Europe  Short period of European prosperity from 1924 to 1929  1925 Treaty of Locarno – guaranteed Germany’s borders with France and Belgium – seen as a time of real peace  Germany joins the League of Nations 1926  Kellogg-Briand pact written by U.S. secretary of state and French foreign minister – pledged to “renounce war as an instrument of nation policy” Logic behind Dawes Plan)

11 The Great Depression  Depression--period of low economic activity and rising unemployment  Overproduction of wheat  International financial crisis  European prosperity built on U.S. bank loans; Germany needed U.S. loans  U.S. withdraws more money from Germany because of Depression in U.S.  Germany’s problems are getting worse  1/6 of Britain unemployed  40% of Germany’s labor force unemployed  Governments try to make more protective tariffs to exclude foreign goods  More government activity in the economy in the U.S. and Europe  Marx’s predictions that capitalism would destroy itself through overproduction seem true  People start to follow leaders who have simple solutions in return for dictator power German homeless person due to Depression; many Germans starved to death

12 Democratic States after the War - Germany  Women can’t vote in France until 1944, Italy 1945, Switzerland 1971  Germany became a democratic state called the Weimar Republic -no good leaders -President Hindenburg was a military man who didn’t like some of the ideas of a democratic republic -economic crisis -widows, teachers, others on fixed incomes saw their monthly incomes and life savings become worthless -Depression leads to rise of extremist parties Germany )

13 Democratic States after the War - France  France becomes the most powerful country on the European continent  Had financial problems after the war; also Depression hits in 1932  1936 coalition of communists, socialists, and radicals form the government and start the French New Deal – started collective bargaining – gave workers the right to negotiate 40 hour work week, two week paid vacation and minimum wage  This coalition does not work and by 1938 French people had no confidence in their political system

14 Democratic States after the War – Great Britain  Britain lost industrial markets to the U.S. and Japan  Industries like coal, steel and textiles decline after the war  1921, 2 million Britons unemployed  Some prosperity from  1929 Britain feels effects of Depression  Labour Party – largest political party in Britain cannot solve problems  Conservative party back in power in 1931 starts protective tariffs, balanced budgets

15 A New Idea from a British Economist  John Maynard Keynes published the General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1936) – Keyes said that unemployment did not come from overproduction but from a decline in demand and demand can be increased by putting people back to work building highways and public buildings and the government should fund this through deficit spending or going into debt to pay for it.

16 Democratic States after the War – The United States  1932 U.S. industrial production had fallen by almost 50%  More than 12 million unemployed  Franklin Delano Roosevelt elected president 1932  Thought capitalism must be reformed; started the New Deal  New Deal included Works Progress Administration (WPA)-put 3 million to work building bridges, roads, post offices, and airports  Social Security Act created-gave old- age pensions and unemployment insurance  Did not solve problems of the Depression  1938 unemployment still over 10 million  WWII will bring U.S. industry back and people back to full employment Picture of Dust Bowl U.S.)

17 Dust Storm South Dakota

18 Dust Storm Oklahoma

19 Dust Storm Colorado

20 Moving to California

21 Family moving during Depression

22 Moving West during the Great Depression

23 Wife and Children of a sharecropper

24 Alabama School during Depression

25 Family during Depression

26 Employment Agency 1935

27 CCC working – Civilian Conservation Corps

28 CCC planting

29 Shack during Depression

30 Soup Kitchen NYC

31 U.S. Depression Farm Foreclosures

32 Chapter 17 Section 2 The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

33 The Rise of Dictators  Democracy in Europe was short  1939 – France and Great Britain only major European countries who are democratic  Totalitarian states formed in Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union and other states; more central power  Totalitarian states wanted the total loyalty and obedience of their subjects  They were led by a single leader and a single party and rejected individual freedoms British Parliament

34 Fascism in Italy  Fascism--glorifies the state over the individual and a strong government led by a dictator  Italy had economic problems after WWI  Strikes, inflation etc.  People feared communism (it was already in Russia)  Benito Mussolini formed groups of Fascists called squadristi or Blackshirts  They attacked socialist offices  Broke up strikes with violence  Middle class and upper class who fear the poor support Mussolini  Mussolini demanded more land for Italy and used nationalism and patriotism to get support

35 Fascism in Italy  1922 Mussolini threatens to march on Rome if he is not given power  King Victor Emmanuel III was forced to make Mussolini Prime Minister  People’s rights taken, no one could criticize police or Mussolini and could be arrested for any reason  1926 Mussolini outlaws other political parties and creates a secret police called OVRA  He rules as Il Duce – “The Leader”  He censored newspapers, radio, film  Used propaganda to mole Italians into a single-minded Fascist community  Most propaganda said stuff like “Mussolini Is Always Right”  Fascists started “youth groups” wanted to make people fit, disciplined, and war- loving  Women were to be homemakers  Mussolini said, “their natural and fundamental mission in life” was to be mothers Blackshirts

36 The Catholic Church  1929 Mussolini recognized the independence of Vatican city (church had claimed this area since 1870); in return the Pope recognized the Italian state  Mussolini said Catholicism is the “sole religion of the state”  Hitler admired Mussolini Vatican

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38 Soviet Union  Peasants began to sabotage communism by hoarding food; huge drought and famine in USSR between  5 million died  Industry collapsed  1921-Industry output only 20% of its 1913 level  1921 Lenin starts New Economic Policy (NEP)  Peasants allowed to sell products  Small businesses allowed to be privately owned  Large industry, banking, and mines run by government  1922 Lenin and Communists formally create the state called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR  Agriculture gets better  The NEP saved the USSR from economic disaster Stalin (center)

39 Rise of Stalin - USSR  Lenin died in 1924  Law making body of communist body – Politburo began fighting for power  Leon Trotsky wanted to end the NEP, industrialize and spread communism  Joseph Stalin is also an official and seizes power; he eliminates the Politburo and creates a true dictatorship  Trotsky was expelled from the party and was went to Mexico; was eventually killed (probably ordered by Stalin) Lenin’s mausoleum

40 Five-Year Plans – Stalin - USSR  Stalin started the First Five-Year Plan, which set up goals for the next five years-wanted to produce heavy machines and machinery, and double oil production  Real wages declined, families lived in horrible conditions; laws limited where workers could move; the government stressed sacrifice  Collectivization of agriculture – private farms were eliminated; government owned land, peasants worked it  By 1934 Stalin had taken 26 million family farms  Peasants tried to hoard food and even killed livestock  10 million peasants died of famine in  People who resisted Stalin were sent to labor camps in Siberia 5 year plan poster

41 Stalin’s Great Purge of the 1930s  Old Bolsheviks were put on trial and sentenced to death  He arrested 8 million people for various reasons and sent them to Siberian labor camps – they were never heard from again  Many were executed  Women could get divorces; encouraged women to work; men who didn’t support their children were heavily fined Bolsheviks with Lenin in the middle

42 The Purge of Stalin  How many died?  In the original version of his book The Great Terror, Robert Conquest gave the following estimates of those arrested, executed, and incarcerated during the height of the Purge:  Arrests, about 7 million Executed - about 1 million Died in camps - about 2 million In prison, late about 1 million In camps, late about 8 million  Conquest concluded that "not more than 10 percent of those then in camp survived." Updating his figures in the late 1980s based on recently-released archival sources, he increased the number of "arrests" to 8 million, but reduced the number in camps to "7 million, or even a little less." This would give a total death toll for the main Purge period of just under ten million people. About 98 percent of the dead (Gendercide Watch's calculation) were male.  The estimates are "only approximations," Conquest notes, and "anything like complete accuracy on the casualty figures is probably unattainable." But "it now seems that further examination of the data will not go far from the estimates we now have except, perhaps, to show them to be understated"; and "in any case, the sheer magnitudes of the Stalin holocaust are now beyond doubt."

43 Eastern Europe - Authoritarian  Didn’t know much about democracy  Landowners feared peasants  Peasants uneducated  Feared communism  Only Czechoslovakia, which had a large middle class and strong industry maintained a democracy

44 Spain  Democracy fails in Spain  General Francisco Franco revolted against the democratic government in 1936  Bloody Civil War began – Germany and Italy helped Franco  Franco established dictatorship in 1939  It favors landowners, businesspeople, and Catholic clergy  He didn’t try to control all aspects of people’s lives  He was authoritarian, not totalitarian  (right: Franco and a propaganda poster during the Spanish Civil War for the republic and against fascism)

45 Hitler and Nazi Germany Chapter 17 Section 3

46 Hitler and his Views  Adolf Hitler was born in Austria (1989)  Failed in school, went to Vienna to become an artist, was rejected by art school  He was a racist, nationalist, understood propaganda, and how governments could use terror  He served in WWI for 4 years  Remained in Germany after war, entered politics  Joined the German Workers’ Party (right wing and nationalist)  1921 Hitler has control of party and it had been renamed National Socialist German Workers’ Party or Nazi Party; had a militia known as the Storm Troops or Brownshirts  Staged an uprising against the German government, it was crushed, Hitler sent to prison  He wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) while in jail which spoke of extreme nationalism, anti-Semitism, and anticommunism; says superior nations can expand, and leaders can have authoritarian leadership over the masses  (Hitler: baby, left, top right)

47 Nazism  Hitler realizes Nazis must become a mass political party and compete for votes  He expands party to all of Germany; it becomes largest party in the Reichstag (German parliament)  Depression made extremist parties attractive  Hitler promised a new Germany; talked of national pride, honor, and traditional militarism

48 Victory of Nazism  Parliament is not important, government not working  Many look to Hitler for leadership  Elite thought Hitler could save Germany from communism  1933 Hindenburg, under pressure allows Hitler to become chancellor and create new government  In two months, Hitler has complete control  Reichstag passed Enabling Act-says government can ignore the constitution for four years  Hitler becomes dictator appointed by the parliament  Nazis bring civil service under their control; no more Jews in government positions  People who opposed regime were sent to concentration camps  Unions were dissolved  All other political parties were outlawed  Summer of 1933 – Germany is a totalitarian state  1934 Hindenburg dies, presidency is abolished  Hitler is sole ruler of Germany  Government officials and soldiers had to take an oath of loyalty to Hitler, “the Fuhrer” or leader

49 The Nazi State ( )  Hitler wanted an Aryan racial state to dominate Europe and maybe the world  They thought Germans were descendants of Aryans and would make a new empire like the Romans  Nazis believed there had already been two empires or Reichs – The Holy Roman Empire and the Germany Empire of and Hitler would create a Third Reich, the empire of Nazi Germany  Terror was used to get people to conform

50 The Terror of the Nazi State  Hitler was absolute ruler  The SS (Schutzstaffeln “Guard Squadrons”) maintained order under Heinrich Himmler  SS was the secret police and regular police  SS had two principles: terror and ideology  They used repression, murder, concentration camps, execution squads, death camps  Himmler’s goal was to further the Aryan master race

51 Economic Policies  Hitler created arms program and gave grants to private firms to put people back to work and end Depression  Unemployment dropped from 6 million in 1932 to less than 500k in 1937  Hitler took credit for this, and this helped him get more support from people Hitler with SS

52 Organizations and Women under Nazism  Rallies held in Nuremberg to gain enthusiasm  Catholic and Protestant Churches and primary and secondary schools were brought under the control of the Nazis  Professional organizations and youth organizations were taught Nazi beliefs  Women were crucial as bearers of children of the Aryan race  Nazis believed men were to be warriors and political leaders  Women were meant to be wives and mothers  Women were encouraged to work in social work and nursing  Propaganda said: “Get a hold of pots and pans and broom, and you’ll sooner find a groom” Rally at Nuremberg

53 Anti-Semitic Policies  Sept 1935 new racial policies were announced at a rally in Nuremberg called the Nuremberg laws - Excluded Jews from citizenship - Forbade marriage between Jews and German citizens - Required to wear Stars of David and carry ID cards saying they are Jewish Nov. 9, 1938 – Kristallnacht – Night of the Shattered Glass – Nazis burned synagogues and destroyed Jewish businesses; at least 100 Jews were killed; 30k Jewish males were sent to concentration camps Jews were banned from public transportation/buildings, schools, hospitals -- Prohibited from owning, managing or working in retail stores -- Forced to clean up the damage from Kristallnacht -- Encouraged to leave Germany Temple after Kristallnacht

54 Kristallnacht

55 Jews lined up to concentration camp from Kristallnacht

56 Kristallnacht

57 Kristallnacht

58 Kristallnacht

59 Kristallnacht


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