Presentation on theme: "American History 1950 - 2012. 1950’s Facts Population – 151.7 million Average Salary - $2,992 Loaf of Bread - $.14 Gallon of Gas - $.18 New House - $8,450."— Presentation transcript:
1950’s Facts Population – 151.7 million Average Salary - $2,992 Loaf of Bread - $.14 Gallon of Gas - $.18 New House - $8,450 New Car - $1,510
1950’s Facts The Presidents – Harry Truman and Dwight Eisenhower. The Names – The Rosenberg's, Joseph McCarthy, Rosa Parks. The Events – Korean War, The Start of the Civil Rights Movement, Creation of the Interstate Highway, Alaska and Hawaii become states.
Post WW II Following WW II world is split between Communist nations and Democratic nations. Truman Doctrine – Passed by President Truman – Proclaimed that the US would help anywhere communism would attempt to spread. – Starts the Cold War – Would virtually decide American policy until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Korean War Starts when Communist forces invade Democratic South Korea on June 25, 1950. US and 16 other nations pledge full support to South Korea. China pledges support to North Korea.
Korean War Battle of Pusan – North Korean forces have nearly captured the entire peninsula by the late summer of 1950. – American forces arrive and stop the advance. – With overwhelming fire power from land, air and sea, the American forces drive back the North Koreans. Battle of Inchon – to put pressure on the NK’s US command launches attacks 100 miles behind enemy lines. – US forces push the NK army out of South Korea. – Battle will bring in Chinese forces and halt the American advance into the northern edge of the peninsula.
Korean War Fighting continued heavily along the 38 th Parallel. Fighting was intense enough for the US commander Douglas MacArthur to consider using the atomic bomb (White House said no). From 1951 – 1953 neither side gained ground. July 27, 1953 a cease fire was declared and the war ended. Nearly 2.4 million casualties from both sides – 36,940 dead, 92,134 wounded, 3,737 mia, 4,439 pow. Cease fire remains in place today. – In the last 10 years North Korea has pushed the limits of cease fire (sinking South Korean ships and firing at South Korea) – North Korea also is developing a nuclear bomb. Most of the world has condemned the idea---US has issued strong warnings of what would happen if a bomb were created.
The Rosenberg's Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Communist spies worked to pass along nuclear secrets to Soviet Union. Were arrested, tried and executed. – Since execution much debate has been made about how much Ethel knew. Heightened the tension between the US and the Soviet Union.
Joseph McCarthy US Senator from Wisconsin (1947 – 1957) Claimed there were large numbers of communists working in the American government. McCarthy launched investigation into US Army in 1953. – Investigation was complete failure and resulted in no solid evidence. – McCarthy was censured (gave up all roles in senate without having to leave senate) following investigation. The term McCarthyism is coined – making wild accusations without proof.
Rosa Parks Throughout America Jim Crow Laws had segregated African Americans and Whites. – Segregated seating on public transportation, dinning, rest rooms, and movie theaters. December 1, 1955 in Birmingham, AL. Tailors assistant Rosa Parks tired after work refuses to give her seat to a white man. – She was taken from the bus and arrested for public disobedience. – Her refusal ignited the Civil Rights Movement and started the Bus Boycotts led by a charismatic newcomer named Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
1960’s Facts Population – 177.8 million Average Salary - $4,743 Loaf of Bread - $.21 Gallon of Gas - $.25 New House - $12,700 New Car - $2,600
1960’s Facts The Presidents – John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon. The Names – The Kennedys, Dr. King, The Beatles The Events – Vietnam War, Civil Rights Movement, Cuban Missile Crisis, Moon Landing, King Assassination, Kennedy Assassination(2x).
Civil Rights Movement Began in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education – Ruling decided separate but equal was not legal. Ruling aided by Rosa Park’s decision to refuse giving up her bus seat. – Sparks Bus Boycotts – Lead by a charismatic young preacher named Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil Rights con’t Freedom Riders – people who sat where they weren’t supposed to in public facilities and sat where they weren’t supposed to on buses. – Most hated of all civil rights activists. Civil Rights Act of 1967 – passed by President Johnson. – Provided even more defined rights for African – Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – assassinated on April 4, 1968 by James Earl Ray.
Newspaper headlines the day the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was illegal.
Actual poster from FBI about 3 missing Civil Rights workers.
Martin Luther King Jr. Baptist Minister from Montgomery, AL (born in Georgia). – Held doctorate in Theology. Most prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement. – Created the Southern Christian Leadership Council to advance the rights of African Americans. August 28, 1963 – King delivers “I have a Dream Speech” – One of the most quoted speeches in history.
Martin Luther King Jr. Was considered a dangerous man by the FBI. – They built a large case file on him. – FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover sent a notice to President Johnson letting him know that he believed King was acting like a revolutionary and was threatening to undermine his presidency. Assassinated on April 4, 1968 while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis.
Room where James Earl Ray shot King from. Looking out the window the balcony King was on was to the right.
Stone tablet that sits outside the Lorraine Motel.
Behind the wreath is the spot King was standing when killed. Room 306 was his.
The Kennedys Iconic family from Massachusetts. Joe and Rose Kennedy had 9 children. Joe Kennedy – Was a prominent businessmen and government official. – Was ambassador to England before World War 2 and helped prevent war from starting. – Driving force behind getting sons into politics. Kennedys build powerful political family – John was the United States President – Bobby was the United States Attorney General and later leading Democratic candidate for president. – Ted was a longtime (37 years) powerful Senator. Kennedy Curse – several family members have died tragically – John and Bobby by assassins, Grandson John Jr. in plane crash, Kathleen in plane crash, Joe Jr. KIA in WW2.
John F. Kennedy Elected president in 1960. Presidency is marred by scandals – Failed invasion of Cuba ---Bay of Pigs (8-1962) Many anti-communist Cuban fighters (trained by US) are killed Kennedy goes on TV and admits mistake, helps popularize him with American people – Known to have cheated on the First Lady numerous times. Secret Service had plans in place to make sure the First Lady didn’t interrupt the President if he had female guests. Mrs. Kennedy actually planned to divorce the president, but was talked down by her father in law. – Would have been a huge scandal on JFK’s presidency and could have ruined his re-election bid. – The two reconciled shortly before leaving for Dallas, TX in November 1963.
Kennedy con’t Cuban Missile Crisis--- October 14 – October 28, 1962. – Conflict that nearly resulted in nuclear war between Soviets and US. – We told Soviets to remove all weapons from Cuba. – We blocked ships from sending more supplies. – Ships were in a standoff before Soviets turned around. – Hotline between countries was created to prevent war. Sent small amounts of troops to determine if greater American involvement needed in Vietnam.
Kennedy con’t Kennedy assassinated on November 22, 1963 while riding through Dallas, Texas. Murdered by Lee Harvey Oswald (acted as a single shooter according to the government) – Oswald is shot by Dallas businessman Jack Ruby while in police custody. Warren Commission – investigation into Kennedy’s death, later proved no conspiracy existed. Later congressional investigation proved likely conspiracy existed, but files are all sealed.
Robert F. Kennedy 7 th of 9 children. Was rumored to be the favorite of his mother. Helped brother get elected president. – Wanted to leave politics forever and was in the process of creating his own law firm. Became the United States Attorney General under his brother. Ran for President in 1968.
RFK Assassination June 5, 1968. Had just won the California Primary and gone to the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, CA. Shortly after midnight he gave a short speech to supporters and exited the ballroom through the kitchen (his bodyguard begged him not to go). Sirhan Sirhan a Palestinian man opened fire. 3 shots hit RFK and 5 others were wounded. – Sentenced to life in prison. – Has recently asked to be released. His lawyer claims to have evidence that he was innocent. RFK died 26 hours later. Was buried next to his brother in Arlington National Cemetery.
RFK moments after being shot. The boy holding him is Juan Romero, he was shaking his hand when he was shot.
Apollo 11 First man on the moon July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first to walk on the moon. Would go back 5 times before stopping in 1972. Considered a major victory for the US against the Soviet Union. – Space race changed America including schools as more math and science courses were added to students course loads.
Vietnam War November 24, 1963 newly sworn in President Lyndon Johnson escalates American involvement by sending in more troops. 58,220 American soldiers are killed before troops are pulled out in April 1975. War brought great protests around the country. Kent St Massacre – May 4, 1970. – National Guard fired 67 shots in 13 seconds killing four students and wounding 9 others. – Students refused to stop protesting when authorities opened fire… My Lai Massacre – nearly 500 civilians are murdered by US troops. – 26 soldiers were originally brought up on crimes, but only one was found guilty. – He was sentenced to life in prison and served 3 and half years under house arrest before being released. – Government tried to cover up the massacre for years.
1970’s Facts Population – 204.9 million Average Salary - $7,564 Loaf of Bread - $.24 Gallon of Gas - $.33 New House - $23,400 New Car - $3,900
1970’s Facts The Presidents – Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. The Names – Nixon, Watergate Hotel, Munich. The Events – Nixon Resigns, Watergate Scandal, Gas shortages, Munich Massacre.
Richard Nixon Resigns Elected President in 1968. Vice – President for 8 years under President Eisenhower. Helped end American involvement in Vietnam. Resigned from office on August 9, 1974 following investigations into his role in the Watergate Scandal. – All signs pointed to him being impeached had he not resigned.
Watergate Scandal 5 men are arrested for breaking into the Watergate Hotel on June 17, 1972. – The hotel was the home of the Democratic Party. Funds used by the robbers were traced back to the President. Investigations revealed that Nixon and his staff were directly involved in the robbery and had attempted to cover their involvement. Further investigations revealed secret recordings Nixon had made in the White House. – Recordings were key in the investigation and resulted in dozens of guilty verdicts.
Gas Shortages In 1973 an oil embargo was placed on the United States for the US support of Israel. Gas shortages were reported throughout the United States. – Stations that had gas often had cars lined up for blocks. – Gas prices spiked because of the shortage. Iranian Civil War cut oil production forcing a second gas shortage in 1979.
Munich Massacre Tension was high in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s between Israel and Muslim Countries in the Middle East. A terrorist group called Black September decided to target Israeli Athletes participating in the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. In the nearly 24 hour ordeal the terrorists took hostages. – They attempted to flee with the hostages only to face a barrage of bullets at the airport. – 11 Israeli athletes and coaches were killed. – 5 of the 8 terrorists were killed. The 3 others were caught but eventually released. Israel responded with Operation Wrath of God – They systematically hunted down those responsible for the situation and killed them.
1980’s Facts Population – 227.4 million Average Salary - $17,710 Loaf of Bread - $.50 Gallon of Gas - $1.19 New House - $68,700 New Car - $7,200
1980’s Facts The Presidents – Ronald Reagan and George H. Bush. The Events – Fall of the Berlin Wall, Challenger Disaster, AIDS epidemic, Chernobyl Disaster, Murder of John Lennon, Attempted assassination of President Reagan, America goes crazy with video games!
John Lennon Founding member of The Beatles. Considered one of the greatest music writers in history. – Solo album entitled Imagine is considered one of the greatest albums ever made. Protested the Vietnam War so much he was nearly deported by Richard Nixon. Was shot and killed December 8, 1980 as he arrived home with his wife by fan Mark Chapman. – He was sentenced to 20 years to life and is still in prison today.
Attempt on the life of President Reagan March 30, 1981. Reagan was shot by John Hinckley Jr. – Hinckley was hoping to attract the attention of movie star Jodie Foster. – He was found not guilty by reason of insanity and remains in a psychiatric hospital. Recently has been given rights to visit family and doctors are claiming he is cured from his psychiatric problems. While no one died in the shooting, one man was left paralyzed. – Reagan was hit by ricochet. The bullet entered under the arm and lodged in his lung stopping an inch from his heart.
Reagan assassination attempt moments after the shooting. Reagan is already in the car.
Challenger Disaster January 28, 1986. Space Shuttle Challenger exploded shortly after take off from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Shuttles mission was highly publicized because New Hampshire teacher Christa McAuliffe was chosen from a pool of 11,000 teachers for the right to be the first teacher in space. Event was shown live in schools. NASA grounded all flights for several years.
AIDS Epidemic Acquired Immunodeficiency Disorder. – Disease caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). – People can live long lives with HIV. Dangerous disease that prevents the immune system from doing its job. First observed in 1981 in the United States. Currently a major epidemic in Africa. 30 million people worldwide have died from the disease. Magic Johnson of the Los Angeles Lakers retired from the NBA in 1991 after contracting HIV. (still alive today and currently the owner of the Los Angeles Dodgers)
Video Game Craze Nintendo released the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in 1985. The success of the NES brought other creators into the field (Sega and Sony). Annually clears $7billion in sales each year! Nearly 71% of all houses in the United States have multiple video game systems in their homes.
Berlin Wall Comes Down Wall was built August 13, 1961 splitting Berlin into eastern and western halves. Soviet Union wanted to rebuild Germany as a Communist nation while the US wanted to stop the spread of Communism. Soviets and West Berliners built the wall to guarantee a Communist block of Germany.
1990’s Facts Population – 281.4million Average Salary - $28,960 Loaf of Bread - $.70 Gallon of Gas - $1.34 New House - $123,000 New Car – $16,950
1990’s Facts The Presidents – George H. Bush and Bill Clinton. The Events – Soviet Union Collapses, Persian Gulf War, Y2K, World Wide Web, 1993 World Trade Center bombing, Oklahoma City Bombing.
End of the Soviet Union By the late 1980’s the Soviet empire began to crumble under heavy economic problems. Citizens in Soviet occupied countries began to riot for their freedom. Communist governments throughout Europe began to fall. August 1991 the rebellion hit the Soviet Union. On December 25, 1991, the Soviet leaders announced the end of the Soviet Union.
Persian Gulf War Iraq’s dictator Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait in August of 1990. After refusing to leave, American forces launched Operation Desert Storm in January 1991. War lasted six weeks before Iraq was pushed back. President George Bush decides not to invade further into Iraq.
1993 WTC Bombing February 26, 1993. Bomb was detonated below the North Tower. – Bomb was supposed to knock the North Tower into South Tower. 6 people were killed and nearly 1000 suffered minor injuries. Informants led to the arrest of 4 men who received life sentences for their involvement.
Oklahoma City Bombing April 19, 1995 @ the Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City. 168 people were killed and 680 were injured. – 19 were under the age of 6. The bomb was detonated under the floor of a daycare. Army Veteran Timothy McVeigh was arrested 90 minutes after the attack for having no license plates on his car and a concealed weapon. – He was quickly tied to the attack by evidence. – He was tried, convicted and executed on June 11, 2001. – A second conspirator Terry Nichols received life in prison.
Technology Booms WWW – World Wide Web gives birth to the internet. Speeds were slow and had to be run through a telephone line. Cell phone – by the end of the 1990’s cellular devices went from packaged phones to smaller devices. CD’s and DVD’s – out with tapes and in with new technology. Sony’s Walkman CD player became an instant hit! DVD’s began to slowly replace VHS tapes by the end of the 1990’s.
Y2K Y2K – Year 2000. Computer programmers believed that computers would not be able to change from 2 digit years (’99 to ’00) to four digit years. Rumors spread that computers controlling infrastructure (electricity, water, etc.) would shut down. Americans bought groceries in bulk and prepared for the worst. Nothing major happened. There were some small computer glitches, but nothing major occurred.
2000’s Facts Population – 304.1 million Average Salary - $40,523 Loaf of Bread - $2.79 Gallon of Gas - $2.05 New House - $238,880 New Car – $27,958
2000’s Facts The Presidents – George W. Bush and Barack Obama. The Events – 9/11, The Iraq War, Afghanistan War, Death of Osama bin Laden.
9-11-2001 Deadliest terrorist attack in US history Nearly 3000 are killed and over 6000 are injured in the attack. The World Trade Center in New York City is hit twice and collapses. The Pentagon in Washington DC is hit and partially collapses. A fourth plane crashes in the countryside near Shanksville, PA.
War in Afghanistan As soon as the attacks were over American leaders knew who was responsible—Osama bin Laden and his al – Qaeda terrorists. They had trained and been supported by the corrupt Taliban government in Afghanistan. American forces began to bomb al – Qaeda and Taliban strongholds on October 7, 2001. Fighting continues to this day even though the Taliban government has been crushed.
War in Iraq After Iraq stopped cooperating with United Nations nuclear weapons inspectors the US asked for a use of force. American forces invaded on March 20, 2003. No weapons of mass destruction has been found to this date. Saddam Hussein was captured and tried for crimes against his people. He was hanged for his crimes.
Death of Osama bin Laden American government made the capture or killing of bin Laden a top priority. American forces had been close on numerous occasions. – Forces believed on numerous occasions they had solid Intel only to prove that he was one step ahead of our movements. New information late in the 2000 decade brought American attention to a remote town in Northern Pakistan – Abbottabad. Bin Laden was killed in a raid by Seal Team forces on May 2, 2011 (was May 1 still in the US). Body was buried at sea within 24 hours.